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Gestational diabetes

MedGen UID:
38815
Concept ID:
C0085207
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Diabetes mellitus, gestational; Maternal diabetes
SNOMED CT: Gestational diabetes (11687002); Maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (11687002); Diabetes mellitus arising in pregnancy (11687002); Gestational diabetes mellitus (11687002); GDM - gestational diabetes mellitus (11687002)
 
HPO: HP:0009800
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0005406

Definition

Gestational diabetes is a disorder characterized by abnormally high levels of blood glucose (also called blood sugar) during pregnancy. Affected women do not have diabetes before they are pregnant, and most of these women go back to being nondiabetic soon after the baby is born. The disease has a 30 to 70 percent chance of recurring in subsequent pregnancies. Additionally, about half of women with gestational diabetes develop another form of diabetes, known as type 2 diabetes, within a few years after their pregnancy.

Gestational diabetes is often discovered during the second trimester of pregnancy. Most affected women have no symptoms, and the disease is discovered through routine screening at their obstetrician's office. If untreated, gestational diabetes increases the risk of pregnancy-associated high blood pressure (called preeclampsia) and early (premature) delivery of the baby.

Babies of mothers with gestational diabetes tend to be large (macrosomia), which can cause complications during birth. Infants whose mothers have gestational diabetes are also more likely to develop dangerously low blood glucose levels soon after birth. Later in life, these individuals have an increased risk of developing obesity, heart disease, and type 2 diabetes. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • Gestational diabetes

Conditions with this feature

Femoral hypoplasia - unusual facies syndrome
MedGen UID:
120523
Concept ID:
C0265263
Disease or Syndrome
Femoral-facial syndrome (FFS), also known as femoral hypoplasia-unusual facies syndrome (FHUFS), is a rare and sporadic multiple congenital anomaly syndrome comprising bilateral femoral hypoplasia and characteristic facial features, such as long philtrum, thin upper lip, micrognathia with or without cleft palate, upward-slanting palpebral fissures, and a short nose with broad tip. Other features, such as renal anomalies, are more variable (summary by Nowaczyk et al., 2010).
PPARG-related familial partial lipodystrophy
MedGen UID:
328393
Concept ID:
C1720861
Disease or Syndrome
A rare familial partial lipodystrophy with characteristics of adult onset of distal lipoatrophy with gluteofemoral fat loss, as well as increased fat accumulation in the face and trunk and visceral adiposity. Additional manifestations include diabetes mellitus, atherogenic dyslipidemia, eyelid xanthelasma, arterial hypertension, cardiovascular disease, hepatic steatosis, acanthosis nigricans on axilla and neck, hirsutism, and muscular hypertrophy of the lower limbs. Caused by heterozygous mutation in the PPARG gene on chromosome 3p25.
Diabetes mellitus, transient neonatal, 3
MedGen UID:
351177
Concept ID:
C1864623
Disease or Syndrome
Any transient neonatal diabetes mellitus in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the KCNJ11 gene.
Ogden syndrome
MedGen UID:
477078
Concept ID:
C3275447
Disease or Syndrome
Ogden syndrome (OGDNS) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by postnatal growth failure, severely delayed psychomotor development, variable dysmorphic features, and hypotonia. Many patients also have cardiac malformations or arrhythmias (summary by Popp et al., 2015).
Maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 13
MedGen UID:
897640
Concept ID:
C4225365
Disease or Syndrome
Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a group of several conditions characterized by abnormally high levels of blood glucose, also called blood sugar. These forms of diabetes typically begin before age 30, although they can occur later in life. In MODY, elevated blood glucose arises from reduced production of insulin, which is a hormone produced in the pancreas that helps regulate blood glucose levels. Specifically, insulin controls how much glucose (a type of sugar) is passed from the blood into cells, where it is used as an energy source.\n\nThe different types of MODY are distinguished by their genetic causes. The most common types are HNF1A-MODY (also known as MODY3), accounting for 50 to 70 percent of cases, and GCK-MODY (MODY2), accounting for 30 to 50 percent of cases. Less frequent types include HNF4A-MODY (MODY1) and renal cysts and diabetes (RCAD) syndrome (also known as HNF1B-MODY or MODY5), which each account for 5 to 10 percent of cases. At least ten other types have been identified, and these are very rare.\n\nHNF1A-MODY and HNF4A-MODY have similar signs and symptoms that develop slowly over time. Early signs and symptoms in these types are caused by high blood glucose and may include frequent urination (polyuria), excessive thirst (polydipsia), fatigue, blurred vision, weight loss, and recurrent skin infections. Over time uncontrolled high blood glucose can damage small blood vessels in the eyes and kidneys. Damage to the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (the retina) causes a condition known as diabetic retinopathy that can lead to vision loss and eventual blindness. Kidney damage (diabetic nephropathy) can lead to kidney failure and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). While these two types of MODY are very similar, certain features are particular to each type. For example, babies with HNF4A-MODY tend to weigh more than average or have abnormally low blood glucose at birth, even though other signs of the condition do not occur until childhood or young adulthood. People with HNF1A-MODY have a higher-than-average risk of developing noncancerous (benign) liver tumors known as hepatocellular adenomas.\n\nGCK-MODY is a very mild type of the condition. People with this type have slightly elevated blood glucose levels, particularly in the morning before eating (fasting blood glucose). However, affected individuals often have no symptoms related to the disorder, and diabetes-related complications are extremely rare.\n\nRCAD is associated with a combination of diabetes and kidney or urinary tract abnormalities (unrelated to the elevated blood glucose), most commonly fluid-filled sacs (cysts) in the kidneys. However, the signs and symptoms are variable, even within families, and not everyone with RCAD has both features. Affected individuals may have other features unrelated to diabetes, such as abnormalities of the pancreas or liver or a form of arthritis called gout.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with motor and language delay, ocular defects, and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1841232
Concept ID:
C5830596
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with motor and language delay, ocular defects, and brain abnormalities (NEDMLOB) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of features in infancy or early childhood. Affected individuals show hypotonia, severe motor delay with ataxic gait or sometimes an inability to achieve walking, and impaired intellectual development with speech and language delay. Ocular defects can include optic atrophy, nystagmus, strabismus, and retinal dystrophy. Additional features may include seizures (in some), dysmorphic facial features, poor overall growth, and variable brain imaging abnormalities (Tepe et al., 2023).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Echouffo-Tcheugui JB, Perreault L, Ji L, Dagogo-Jack S
JAMA 2023 Apr 11;329(14):1206-1216. doi: 10.1001/jama.2023.4063. PMID: 37039787
Lende M, Rijhsinghani A
Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 Dec 21;17(24) doi: 10.3390/ijerph17249573. PMID: 33371325Free PMC Article
Obstet Gynecol 2018 Feb;131(2):e49-e64. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002501. PMID: 29370047

Curated

UK NICE Guideline NG3, Diabetes in pregnancy: management from preconception to the postnatal period

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Champion ML, Battarbee AN, Biggio JR, Casey BM, Harper LM
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM 2022 May;4(3):100609. Epub 2022 Mar 7 doi: 10.1016/j.ajogmf.2022.100609. PMID: 35272093Free PMC Article
Chatzakis C, Cavoretto P, Sotiriadis A
Curr Pharm Des 2021;27(36):3833-3840. doi: 10.2174/1381612827666210125155428. PMID: 33550962
Lende M, Rijhsinghani A
Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 Dec 21;17(24) doi: 10.3390/ijerph17249573. PMID: 33371325Free PMC Article
Barakat R, Refoyo I, Coteron J, Franco E
Braz J Phys Ther 2019 Mar-Apr;23(2):148-155. Epub 2018 Nov 17 doi: 10.1016/j.bjpt.2018.11.005. PMID: 30470666Free PMC Article
Hernandez TL, Mande A, Barbour LA
Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2018 Nov;145:39-50. Epub 2018 Apr 19 doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2018.04.004. PMID: 29679625Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Moholdt T
Nutrients 2023 May 10;15(10) doi: 10.3390/nu15102251. PMID: 37242134Free PMC Article
Lende M, Rijhsinghani A
Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 Dec 21;17(24) doi: 10.3390/ijerph17249573. PMID: 33371325Free PMC Article
Obstet Gynecol 2018 Feb;131(2):e49-e64. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002501. PMID: 29370047
Mack LR, Tomich PG
Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 2017 Jun;44(2):207-217. doi: 10.1016/j.ogc.2017.02.002. PMID: 28499531
Coustan DR
Clin Chem 2013 Sep;59(9):1310-21. Epub 2013 Mar 27 doi: 10.1373/clinchem.2013.203331. PMID: 23536513

Therapy

Picón-César MJ, Molina-Vega M, Suárez-Arana M, González-Mesa E, Sola-Moyano AP, Roldan-López R, Romero-Narbona F, Olveira G, Tinahones FJ, González-Romero S
Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Nov;225(5):517.e1-517.e17. Epub 2021 Apr 19 doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2021.04.229. PMID: 33887240
Pérez-López FR, Pilz S, Chedraui P
Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2020 Oct;32(5):316-321. doi: 10.1097/GCO.0000000000000641. PMID: 32487800
Davenport MH, Ruchat SM, Poitras VJ, Jaramillo Garcia A, Gray CE, Barrowman N, Skow RJ, Meah VL, Riske L, Sobierajski F, James M, Kathol AJ, Nuspl M, Marchand AA, Nagpal TS, Slater LG, Weeks A, Adamo KB, Davies GA, Barakat R, Mottola MF
Br J Sports Med 2018 Nov;52(21):1367-1375. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2018-099355. PMID: 30337463
Yamamoto JM, Kellett JE, Balsells M, García-Patterson A, Hadar E, Solà I, Gich I, van der Beek EM, Castañeda-Gutiérrez E, Heinonen S, Hod M, Laitinen K, Olsen SF, Poston L, Rueda R, Rust P, van Lieshout L, Schelkle B, Murphy HR, Corcoy R
Diabetes Care 2018 Jul;41(7):1346-1361. doi: 10.2337/dc18-0102. PMID: 29934478
Hartling L, Dryden DM, Guthrie A, Muise M, Vandermeer B, Aktary WM, Pasichnyk D, Seida JC, Donovan L
Evid Rep Technol Assess (Full Rep) 2012 Oct;(210):1-327. PMID: 24423035Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Lende M, Rijhsinghani A
Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 Dec 21;17(24) doi: 10.3390/ijerph17249573. PMID: 33371325Free PMC Article
Vounzoulaki E, Khunti K, Abner SC, Tan BK, Davies MJ, Gillies CL
BMJ 2020 May 13;369:m1361. doi: 10.1136/bmj.m1361. PMID: 32404325Free PMC Article
Genco RJ, Graziani F, Hasturk H
Periodontol 2000 2020 Jun;83(1):59-65. doi: 10.1111/prd.12271. PMID: 32385875
Lovic D, Piperidou A, Zografou I, Grassos H, Pittaras A, Manolis A
Curr Vasc Pharmacol 2020;18(2):104-109. doi: 10.2174/1570161117666190405165911. PMID: 30961501
Spaight C, Gross J, Horsch A, Puder JJ
Endocr Dev 2016;31:163-78. Epub 2016 Jan 19 doi: 10.1159/000439413. PMID: 26824237

Clinical prediction guides

Feghali M, Atlass J, Abebe KZ, Comer D, Catov J, Caritis S, Arslanian S, Scifres C
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Mar 25;106(4):e1849-e1858. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgaa742. PMID: 33057663Free PMC Article
Battarbee AN, Grant JH, Vladutiu CJ, Menard MK, Clark M, Manuck TA, Venkatesh KK, Boggess KA
J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2020 Dec;29(12):1559-1563. Epub 2020 Jul 15 doi: 10.1089/jwh.2019.8203. PMID: 32678995
Lorenzo-Almorós A, Hang T, Peiró C, Soriano-Guillén L, Egido J, Tuñón J, Lorenzo Ó
Cardiovasc Diabetol 2019 Oct 30;18(1):140. doi: 10.1186/s12933-019-0935-9. PMID: 31666083Free PMC Article
Voormolen DN, Abell SK, James R, Hague WM, Mol BW
Semin Reprod Med 2016 Mar;34(2):102-9. Epub 2016 Feb 11 doi: 10.1055/s-0036-1572440. PMID: 26866601
Appelman Y, van Rijn BB, Ten Haaf ME, Boersma E, Peters SA
Atherosclerosis 2015 Jul;241(1):211-8. Epub 2015 Jan 28 doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2015.01.027. PMID: 25670232

Recent systematic reviews

Malaza N, Masete M, Adam S, Dias S, Nyawo T, Pheiffer C
Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 Aug 31;19(17) doi: 10.3390/ijerph191710846. PMID: 36078559Free PMC Article
Karavasileiadou S, Almegwely W, Alanazi A, Alyami H, Chatzimichailidou S
Glob Health Action 2022 Dec 31;15(1):2087298. doi: 10.1080/16549716.2022.2087298. PMID: 35867537Free PMC Article
Ye W, Luo C, Huang J, Li C, Liu Z, Liu F
BMJ 2022 May 25;377:e067946. doi: 10.1136/bmj-2021-067946. PMID: 35613728Free PMC Article
You H, Hu J, Liu Y, Luo B, Lei A
Indian J Med Res 2021 Jul;154(1):62-77. doi: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_852_18. PMID: 34782531Free PMC Article
Mijatovic-Vukas J, Capling L, Cheng S, Stamatakis E, Louie J, Cheung NW, Markovic T, Ross G, Senior A, Brand-Miller JC, Flood VM
Nutrients 2018 May 30;10(6) doi: 10.3390/nu10060698. PMID: 29849003Free PMC Article

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    Practice guidelines

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      See practice and clinical guidelines in PubMed. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.
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      See practice and clinical guidelines in NCBI Bookshelf. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.

    Curated

    • NICE, 2020
      UK NICE Guideline NG3, Diabetes in pregnancy: management from preconception to the postnatal period

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