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Obesity

MedGen UID:
18127
Concept ID:
C0028754
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: Obesity disorder
SNOMED CT: Obese (414915002); Obesity (414916001)
 
Related genes: GHRL, SDC3, CARTPT, NR0B2, UCP3, PPARG, POMC, ENPP1, AGRP, ADRB3
 
HPO: HP:0001513
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0011122
OMIM®: 601665
Orphanet: ORPHA521399

Definition

Accumulation of substantial excess body fat. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Lipomatosis dolorosa
MedGen UID:
1757
Concept ID:
C0001529
Disease or Syndrome
Adiposis dolorosa, also known as Dercum disease, is characterized by generalized obesity and pronounced, disabling, and chronic pain in the adipose tissue of the proximal extremities, trunk, pelvic area, and buttocks; the face and hands are usually spared. There are a number of associated symptoms, including multiple lipomas, generalized weakness, fatigue, sleep disturbances, constipation, and psychiatric abnormalities. It is 5 to 30 times more common in women than men, and usually presents between 35 and 50 years of age (summary by Campen et al., 2001; review by Hansson et al., 2012). Based on a review of the literature and studies of 111 patients, Hansson et al. (2012) proposed a classification of Dercum disease into 4 types: (I) generalized diffuse form without clear lipomas, (II) generalized nodular form with multiple lipomas, (III) localized nodular form, and (IV) juxtaarticular form with solitary fatty deposits near joints.
DiGeorge syndrome
MedGen UID:
4297
Concept ID:
C0012236
Disease or Syndrome
Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) can present with a wide range of features that are highly variable, even within families. The major clinical manifestations of 22q11.2DS include congenital heart disease, particularly conotruncal malformations (ventricular septal defect, tetralogy of Fallot, interrupted aortic arch, and truncus arteriosus), palatal abnormalities (velopharyngeal incompetence, submucosal cleft palate, bifid uvula, and cleft palate), immune deficiency, characteristic facial features, and learning difficulties. Hearing loss can be sensorineural and/or conductive. Laryngotracheoesophageal, gastrointestinal, ophthalmologic, central nervous system, skeletal, and genitourinary anomalies also occur. Psychiatric illness and autoimmune disorders are more common in individuals with 22q11.2DS.
Laurence-Moon syndrome
MedGen UID:
44078
Concept ID:
C0023138
Disease or Syndrome
PNPLA6 disorders span a phenotypic continuum characterized by variable combinations of cerebellar ataxia; upper motor neuron involvement manifesting as spasticity and/or brisk reflexes; chorioretinal dystrophy associated with variable degrees of reduced visual function; and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (delayed puberty and lack of secondary sex characteristics). The hypogonadotropic hypogonadism occurs either in isolation or as part of anterior hypopituitarism (growth hormone, thyroid hormone, or gonadotropin deficiencies). Common but less frequent features are peripheral neuropathy (usually of axonal type manifesting as reduced distal reflexes, diminished vibratory sensation, and/or distal muscle wasting); hair anomalies (long eyelashes, bushy eyebrows, or scalp alopecia); short stature; and impaired cognitive functioning (learning disabilities in children; deficits in attention, visuospatial abilities, and recall in adults). Some of these features can occur in distinct clusters on the phenotypic continuum: Boucher-Neuhäuser syndrome (cerebellar ataxia, chorioretinal dystrophy, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism); Gordon Holmes syndrome (cerebellar ataxia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and – to a variable degree – brisk reflexes); Oliver-McFarlane syndrome (trichomegaly, chorioretinal dystrophy, short stature, intellectual disability, and hypopituitarism); Laurence-Moon syndrome; and spastic paraplegia type 39 (SPG39) (upper motor neuron involvement, peripheral neuropathy, and sometimes reduced cognitive functioning and/or cerebellar ataxia).
Extreme obesity with alveolar hypoventilation
MedGen UID:
18472
Concept ID:
C0031880
Disease or Syndrome
Hypoventilation syndrome in very obese persons with excessive adipose tissue around the abdomen and diaphragm is characterized by diminished to absent ventilatory chemoresponsiveness; chronic hypoxia; hypercapnia; polycythemia; and long periods of sleep during day and night (hypersomnolence). It is a condition often related to obstructive sleep apnea but can occur separately.
Polycystic ovaries
MedGen UID:
10836
Concept ID:
C0032460
Disease or Syndrome
Polycystic ovary syndrome is a condition that affects women in their child-bearing years and alters the levels of multiple hormones, resulting in problems affecting many body systems.\n\nMost women with polycystic ovary syndrome produce excess male sex hormones (androgens), a condition called hyperandrogenism. Having too much of these hormones typically leads to excessive body hair growth (hirsutism), acne, and male pattern baldness.\n\nHyperandrogenism and abnormal levels of other sex hormones prevent normal release of egg cells from the ovaries (ovulation) and regular menstrual periods, leading to difficulty conceiving a child (subfertility) or a complete inability to conceive (infertility). For those who achieve pregnancy, there is an increased risk of complications and pregnancy loss. Due to irregular and infrequent menstruation and hormone abnormalities, affected women have an increased risk of cancer of the uterine lining (endometrial cancer).\n\nIn polycystic ovary syndrome, one or both ovaries can contain multiple small, immature ovarian follicles that can appear as cysts on medical imaging. Normally, ovarian follicles contain egg cells, which are released during ovulation. In polycystic ovary syndrome, abnormal hormone levels prevent follicles from growing and maturing to release egg cells. Instead, these immature follicles accumulate in the ovaries. Affected women can have 12 or more of these follicles. The number of these follicles usually decreases with age.\n\nAbout half of all women with polycystic ovary syndrome are overweight or have obesity and are at increased risk of a fatty liver. Additionally, many women with polycystic ovary syndrome have elevated levels of insulin, which is a hormone that helps control levels of blood glucose, also called blood sugar. By age 40, about 10 percent of overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome develop abnormally high blood glucose levels (type 2 diabetes), and up to 35 percent develop prediabetes (higher-than-normal blood glucose levels that do not reach the cutoff for diabetes). Obesity and increased insulin levels (hyperinsulinemia) further increase the production of androgens in polycystic ovary syndrome.\n\nWomen with polycystic ovary syndrome are also at increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome, which is a group of conditions that include high blood pressure (hypertension), increased belly fat, high levels of unhealthy fats and low levels of healthy fats in the blood, and high blood glucose levels. About 20 percent of affected adults experience pauses in breathing during sleep (sleep apnea). Women with polycystic ovary syndrome are more likely than women in the general popluation to have mood disorders such as depression.
Prader-Willi syndrome
MedGen UID:
46057
Concept ID:
C0032897
Disease or Syndrome
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterized by severe hypotonia and feeding difficulties in early infancy, followed in later infancy or early childhood by excessive eating and gradual development of morbid obesity (unless eating is externally controlled). Motor milestones and language development are delayed. All individuals have some degree of cognitive impairment. A distinctive behavioral phenotype (with temper tantrums, stubbornness, manipulative behavior, and obsessive-compulsive characteristics) is common. Hypogonadism is present in both males and females and manifests as genital hypoplasia, incomplete pubertal development, and, in most, infertility. Short stature is common (if not treated with growth hormone); characteristic facial features, strabismus, and scoliosis are often present.
Pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism
MedGen UID:
10995
Concept ID:
C0033835
Disease or Syndrome
Disorders of GNAS inactivation include the phenotypes pseudohypoparathyroidism Ia, Ib, and Ic (PHP-Ia, -Ib, -Ic), pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP), progressive osseous heteroplasia (POH), and osteoma cutis (OC). PHP-Ia and PHP-Ic are characterized by: End-organ resistance to endocrine hormones including parathyroid hormone (PTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), gonadotropins (LH and FSH), growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), and CNS neurotransmitters (leading to obesity and variable degrees of intellectual disability and developmental delay); and The Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) phenotype (short stature, round facies, and subcutaneous ossifications) and brachydactyly type E (shortening mainly of the 4th and/or 5th metacarpals and metatarsals and distal phalanx of the thumb). Although PHP-Ib is characterized principally by PTH resistance, some individuals also have partial TSH resistance and mild features of AHO (e.g., brachydactyly). PPHP, a more limited form of PHP-Ia, is characterized by various manifestations of the AHO phenotype without the hormone resistance or obesity. POH and OC are even more restricted variants of PPHP: POH consists of dermal ossification beginning in infancy, followed by increasing and extensive bone formation in deep muscle and fascia. OC consists of extra-skeletal ossification that is limited to the dermis and subcutaneous tissues.
Angelman syndrome
MedGen UID:
58144
Concept ID:
C0162635
Disease or Syndrome
Angelman syndrome (AS) is characterized by severe developmental delay or intellectual disability, severe speech impairment, gait ataxia and/or tremulousness of the limbs, and unique behavior with an apparent happy demeanor that includes frequent laughing, smiling, and excitability. Microcephaly and seizures are also common. Developmental delays are first noted at around age six months; however, the unique clinical features of AS do not become manifest until after age one year.
Williams syndrome
MedGen UID:
59799
Concept ID:
C0175702
Disease or Syndrome
Williams syndrome (WS) is characterized by cardiovascular disease (elastin arteriopathy, peripheral pulmonary stenosis, supravalvar aortic stenosis, hypertension), distinctive facies, connective tissue abnormalities, intellectual disability (usually mild), a specific cognitive profile, unique personality characteristics, growth abnormalities, and endocrine abnormalities (hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, hypothyroidism, and early puberty). Feeding difficulties often lead to poor weight gain in infancy. Hypotonia and hyperextensible joints can result in delayed attainment of motor milestones.
11p partial monosomy syndrome
MedGen UID:
64512
Concept ID:
C0206115
Disease or Syndrome
PAX6-related aniridia occurs either as an isolated ocular abnormality or as part of the Wilms tumor-aniridia-genital anomalies-retardation (WAGR) syndrome. Aniridia is a pan ocular disorder affecting the cornea, iris, intraocular pressure (resulting in glaucoma), lens (cataract and lens subluxation), fovea (foveal hypoplasia), and optic nerve (optic nerve coloboma and hypoplasia). Individuals with aniridia characteristically show nystagmus and impaired visual acuity (usually 20/100 - 20/200); however, milder forms of aniridia with subtle iris architecture changes, good vision, and normal foveal structure do occur. Other ocular involvement may include strabismus and occasionally microphthalmia. Although the severity of aniridia can vary between and within families, little variability is usually observed in the two eyes of an affected individual. WAGR syndrome. The risk for Wilms tumor is 42.5%-77%; of those who develop Wilms tumor, 90% do so by age four years and 98% by age seven years. Genital anomalies in males can include cryptorchidism and hypospadias (sometimes resulting in ambiguous genitalia), urethral strictures, ureteric abnormalities, and gonadoblastoma. While females typically have normal external genitalia, they may have uterine abnormalities and streak ovaries. Intellectual disability (defined as IQ <74) is observed in 70%; behavioral abnormalities include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder, anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Other individuals with WAGR syndrome can have normal intellect without behavioral problems.
Pituitary dependent hypercortisolism
MedGen UID:
66381
Concept ID:
C0221406
Disease or Syndrome
AIP familial isolated pituitary adenoma (AIP-FIPA) is defined as the presence of an AIP germline pathogenic variant in an individual with a pituitary adenoma (regardless of family history). The most commonly occurring pituitary adenomas in this disorder are growth hormone-secreting adenomas (somatotropinoma), followed by prolactin-secreting adenomas (prolactinoma), growth hormone and prolactin co-secreting adenomas (somatomammotropinoma), and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA). Rarely TSH-secreting adenomas (thyrotropinomas) are observed. Clinical findings result from excess hormone secretion, lack of hormone secretion, and/or mass effects (e.g., headaches, visual field loss). Within the same family, pituitary adenomas can be of the same or different type. Age of onset in AIP-FIPA is usually in the second or third decade.
Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome
MedGen UID:
78557
Concept ID:
C0265339
Disease or Syndrome
Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome (BFLS) is an uncommon X-linked intellectual developmental disorder that evolves with age. Clinical manifestations in males are quite variable, with the most consistent features being initial hypotonia, mild to moderate impaired intellectual development, large fleshy ears, underdeveloped genitalia, gynecomastia, truncal obesity, tapering fingers, and shortening of the fourth and fifth toes. Heterozygous females may have a milder similar clinical phenotype, which can include hypothyroidism; however, many carrier females appear unaffected (summary by Crawford et al., 2006).
Pallister-Killian syndrome
MedGen UID:
120540
Concept ID:
C0265449
Disease or Syndrome
Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a dysmorphic condition involving most organ systems, but is also characterized by a tissue-limited mosaicism; most fibroblasts have 47 chromosomes with an extra small metacentric chromosome, whereas the karyotype of lymphocytes is normal. The extra metacentric chromosome is an isochromosome for part of the short arm of chromosome 12: i(12)(p10) (Peltomaki et al., 1987; Warburton et al., 1987).
Alstrom syndrome
MedGen UID:
78675
Concept ID:
C0268425
Disease or Syndrome
Alström syndrome is characterized by cone-rod dystrophy, obesity, progressive bilateral sensorineural hearing impairment, acute infantile-onset cardiomyopathy and/or adolescent- or adult-onset restrictive cardiomyopathy, insulin resistance / type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and chronic progressive kidney disease. Cone-rod dystrophy presents as progressive visual impairment, photophobia, and nystagmus usually starting between birth and age 15 months. Many individuals lose all perception of light by the end of the second decade, but a minority retain the ability to read large print into the third decade. Children usually have normal birth weight but develop truncal obesity during their first year. Sensorineural hearing loss presents in the first decade in as many as 70% of individuals and may progress to the severe or moderately severe range (40-70 db) by the end of the first to second decade. Insulin resistance is typically accompanied by the skin changes of acanthosis nigricans, and proceeds to T2DM in the majority by the third decade. Nearly all demonstrate hypertriglyceridemia. Other findings can include endocrine abnormalities (hypothyroidism, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in males, and hyperandrogenism in females), urologic dysfunction / detrusor instability, progressive decrease in renal function, and hepatic disease (ranging from elevated transaminases to steatohepatitis/NAFLD). Approximately 20% of affected individuals have delay in early developmental milestones, most commonly in gross and fine motor skills. About 30% have a learning disability. Cognitive impairment (IQ <70) is very rare. Wide clinical variability is observed among affected individuals, even within the same family.
Kleefstra syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
208639
Concept ID:
C0795833
Disease or Syndrome
Kleefstra syndrome is characterized by intellectual disability, autistic-like features, childhood hypotonia, and distinctive facial features. The majority of individuals function in the moderate-to-severe spectrum of intellectual disability although a few individuals have mild delay and total IQ within low-normal range. While most have severe expressive speech delay with little speech development, general language development is usually at a higher level, making nonverbal communication possible. A complex pattern of other findings can also be observed; these include heart defects, renal/urologic defects, genital defects in males, severe respiratory infections, epilepsy / febrile seizures, psychiatric disorders, and extreme apathy or catatonic-like features after puberty.
Myhre syndrome
MedGen UID:
167103
Concept ID:
C0796081
Disease or Syndrome
Myhre syndrome is a connective tissue disorder with multisystem involvement, progressive and proliferative fibrosis that may occur spontaneously or following trauma or surgery, mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, and in some instances, autistic-like behaviors. Organ systems primarily involved include: cardiovascular (congenital heart defects, long- and short-segment stenosis of the aorta and peripheral arteries, pericardial effusion, constrictive pericarditis, restrictive cardiomyopathy, and hypertension); respiratory (choanal stenosis, laryngotracheal narrowing, obstructive airway disease, or restrictive pulmonary disease), gastrointestinal (pyloric stenosis, duodenal strictures, severe constipation); and skin (thickened particularly on the hands and extensor surfaces). Additional findings include distinctive craniofacial features and skeletal involvement (intrauterine growth restriction, short stature, limited joint range of motion). To date, 55 individuals with molecularly confirmed Myhre syndrome have been reported.
X-linked intellectual disability-psychosis-macroorchidism syndrome
MedGen UID:
163232
Concept ID:
C0796222
Disease or Syndrome
The spectrum of MECP2-related phenotypes in females ranges from classic Rett syndrome to variant Rett syndrome with a broader clinical phenotype (either milder or more severe than classic Rett syndrome) to mild learning disabilities; the spectrum in males ranges from severe neonatal encephalopathy to pyramidal signs, parkinsonism, and macroorchidism (PPM-X) syndrome to severe syndromic/nonsyndromic intellectual disability. Females: Classic Rett syndrome, a progressive neurodevelopmental disorder primarily affecting girls, is characterized by apparently normal psychomotor development during the first six to 18 months of life, followed by a short period of developmental stagnation, then rapid regression in language and motor skills, followed by long-term stability. During the phase of rapid regression, repetitive, stereotypic hand movements replace purposeful hand use. Additional findings include fits of screaming and inconsolable crying, autistic features, panic-like attacks, bruxism, episodic apnea and/or hyperpnea, gait ataxia and apraxia, tremors, seizures, and acquired microcephaly. Males: Severe neonatal-onset encephalopathy, the most common phenotype in affected males, is characterized by a relentless clinical course that follows a metabolic-degenerative type of pattern, abnormal tone, involuntary movements, severe seizures, and breathing abnormalities. Death often occurs before age two years.
Congenital absence of germinal epithelium of testes
MedGen UID:
235163
Concept ID:
C1384583
Disease or Syndrome
A condition in which the seminiferous tubules are lined only by Sertoli cells.
Obesity due to prohormone convertase I deficiency
MedGen UID:
318777
Concept ID:
C1833053
Disease or Syndrome
Proprotein convertase-1/3 deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by neonatal severe generalized malabsorptive diarrhea and failure to thrive. As the disease progresses, additional endocrine abnormalities develop, including diabetes insipidus, growth hormone deficiency, primary hypogonadism, adrenal insufficiency, and hypothyroidism (summary by Wilschanski et al., 2014).
MOMO syndrome
MedGen UID:
371897
Concept ID:
C1834759
Disease or Syndrome
A very rare genetic overgrowth/obesity syndrome with characteristics of macrocephaly, obesity, mental (intellectual) disability and ocular abnormalities. Other frequent clinical signs include macrosomia, downslanting palpebral fissures, hypertelorism, broad nasal root, high and broad forehead and delay in bone maturation, in association with normal thyroid function and karyotype.
Midface hypoplasia, obesity, developmental delay, and neonatal hypotonia
MedGen UID:
325238
Concept ID:
C1837730
Disease or Syndrome
Wilson-Turner syndrome
MedGen UID:
333393
Concept ID:
C1839736
Disease or Syndrome
Wilson-Turner syndrome (WTS) is an X-linked recessive neurologic disorder characterized by intellectual disability, dysmorphic facial features, hypogonadism, short stature, and truncal obesity. Females are unaffected (Wilson et al., 1991).
Coronary artery disease, autosomal dominant, 1
MedGen UID:
330802
Concept ID:
C1842247
Disease or Syndrome
Coronary artery disease (CAD) and its most important complication, acute myocardial infarction (MI), are leading causes of death and disability in the developed world. Multiple risk factors for CAD/MI have been identified, including family history, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, smoking, and diabetes. Several genomewide scans of affected sib pairs have identified susceptibility loci for CAD, e.g., 607339 and 300464.
Chromosome 1p36 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
334629
Concept ID:
C1842870
Disease or Syndrome
The constitutional deletion of chromosome 1p36 results in a syndrome with multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation (Shapira et al., 1997). Monosomy 1p36 is the most common terminal deletion syndrome in humans, occurring in 1 in 5,000 births (Shaffer and Lupski, 2000; Heilstedt et al., 2003). See also neurodevelopmental disorder with or without anomalies of the brain, eye, or heart (NEDBEH; 616975), which shows overlapping features and is caused by heterozygous mutation in the RERE gene (605226) on proximal chromosome 1p36. See also Radio-Tartaglia syndrome (RATARS; 619312), caused by mutation in the SPEN gene (613484) on chromosome 1p36, which shows overlapping features.
Intellectual disability, X-linked 91
MedGen UID:
375592
Concept ID:
C1845142
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Any non-syndromic X-linked intellectual disability in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ZDHHC15 gene.
Immunodeficiency 61
MedGen UID:
337462
Concept ID:
C1845903
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-61 (IMD61) is an X-linked recessive primary immunodeficiency characterized by onset of recurrent infections in early childhood due to impaired antibody production. Affected individuals have normal numbers of circulating B and T cells, but B cells have an intrinsic defect in antibody production (summary by Keller et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description of X-linked agammaglobulinemia, see 300755.
Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability Shashi type
MedGen UID:
335348
Concept ID:
C1846145
Disease or Syndrome
The Shashi type of X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder (MRXSSH) is characterized by moderately impaired intellectual development and distinctive craniofacial skeletal structure and dysmorphism (Shashi et al., 2015).
Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type 2
MedGen UID:
337527
Concept ID:
C1846175
Disease or Syndrome
Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type 2 (SGBS2) is an X-linked recessive disorder in which affected males have severely impaired intellectual development, ciliary dyskinesia, and macrocephaly (summary by Budny et al., 2006). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome, see 312870.
MEHMO syndrome
MedGen UID:
375855
Concept ID:
C1846278
Disease or Syndrome
MEHMO syndrome is a rare intellectual disability disorder that exhibits phenotypic heterogeneity and is variably characterized by mental retardation, epileptic seizures, hypogonadism with hypogenitalism, microcephaly, and obesity. Life expectancy ranges from less than 1 year to adulthood, and the condition is associated with significant morbidity and mortality (summary by Gregory et al., 2019).
Intellectual disability-obesity-prognathism-eye and skin anomalies syndrome
MedGen UID:
376145
Concept ID:
C1847522
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic syndromic intellectual disability disorder with characteristics of mild to profound intellectual disability, delayed speech, obesity, ocular anomalies (blepharophimosis, blepharoptosis, hyperopic astigmatism, decreased visual acuity, strabismus, abducens nerve palsy, and/or accommodative esotropia), and dermal manifestations, such as chronic atopic dermatitis. Associated craniofacial dysmorphism includes macrocephaly, maxillary hypoplasia, mandibular prognathism and crowding of teeth.
Prolactin deficiency with obesity and enlarged testes
MedGen UID:
341515
Concept ID:
C1849698
Disease or Syndrome
Macrocephaly-autism syndrome
MedGen UID:
381416
Concept ID:
C1854416
Disease or Syndrome
Macrocephaly/autism syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by increased head circumference, abnormal facial features, and delayed psychomotor development resulting in autistic behavior or mental retardation (Herman et al., 2007). Some patients may have a primary immunodeficiency disorder with recurrent infections associated with variably abnormal T- and B-cell function (Tsujita et al., 2016).
Metaphyseal dysostosis-intellectual disability-conductive deafness syndrome
MedGen UID:
344437
Concept ID:
C1855175
Disease or Syndrome
Metaphyseal dysostosis-intellectual disability-conductive deafness syndrome is characterised by metaphyseal dysplasia, short-limb dwarfism, mild intellectual deficit and conductive hearing loss, associated with repeated episodes of otitis media in childhood. It has been described in three brothers born to consanguineous Sicilian parents. Variable manifestations included hyperopia and strabismus. The mode of inheritance is autosomal recessive.
Obesity due to pro-opiomelanocortin deficiency
MedGen UID:
341863
Concept ID:
C1857854
Disease or Syndrome
OBAIRH is an autosomal recessive endocrine disorder characterized by early-onset obesity due to severe hyperphagia, pigmentary abnormalities, mainly pale skin and red hair, and secondary hypocortisolism. In the neonatal period, affected individuals are prone to hypoglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and cholestasis that may result in death if not treated. The disorder results from mutation in the POMC gene, which encodes a preproprotein that is processed into a range of bioactive peptides, including alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) and ACTH (summary by Kuhnen et al., 2016 and Clement et al., 2008).
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 6
MedGen UID:
347610
Concept ID:
C1858054
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome-6 (BBS6) is an autosomal recessive disorder with the cardinal features of postaxial polydactyly, retinitis pigmentosa, kidney defects, obesity, and mental retardation (Slavotinek et al., 2000). Zaghloul and Katsanis (2009) estimated that mutations in the MKKS gene account for 5.8% of the total BBS mutational load. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 11
MedGen UID:
388073
Concept ID:
C1858479
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia 11 (SPG11) is characterized by progressive spasticity and weakness of the lower limbs frequently associated with the following: mild intellectual disability with learning difficulties in childhood and/or progressive cognitive decline; peripheral neuropathy; pseudobulbar involvement; and increased reflexes in the upper limbs. Less frequent findings include: cerebellar signs (ataxia, nystagmus, saccadic pursuit); retinal degeneration; pes cavus; scoliosis; and parkinsonism with characteristic brain MRI features that include thinning of the corpus callosum. Onset occurs mainly during infancy or adolescence (range: age 1-31 years) and in rare cases as late as age 60 years. Most affected individuals become wheelchair bound one or two decades after disease onset.
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
347179
Concept ID:
C1859564
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome-3 (BBS3) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by retinal dystrophy, polydactyly, renal structural abnormalities, and history of obesity. Although mental retardation has been considered part of the BBS phenotype, several patients with BBS3 and normal intelligence have been reported. Additionally, the obesity in several BBS3 patients has been reversible with caloric restriction and exercise (Young et al., 1998; Ghadami et al., 2000). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 7
MedGen UID:
347180
Concept ID:
C1859565
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome-7 (BBS7) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by retinitis pigmentosa, postaxial polydactyly, mental retardation, obesity, renal anomalies, and hypogenitalism (Harville et al., 2010). Zaghloul and Katsanis (2009) estimated the contribution of BBS7 gene mutations to the total BBS mutational load to be 1.50%. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 8
MedGen UID:
347181
Concept ID:
C1859566
Disease or Syndrome
BBS8 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by retinitis pigmentosa, obesity, postaxial polydactyly, hypogonadism, and developmental delay (Ansley et al., 2003). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 9
MedGen UID:
347182
Concept ID:
C1859567
Disease or Syndrome
BBS9 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by obesity, polydactyly, renal anomalies, retinopathy, and mental retardation (Abu-Safieh et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 10
MedGen UID:
347909
Concept ID:
C1859568
Disease or Syndrome
BBS10 is characterized by progressive retinal dystrophy, obesity, polydactyly, cognitive impairment, and renal dysplasia (Stoetzel et al., 2006). BBS10 represents a major locus for BBS, with mutations in the BBS10 gene accounting for approximately 20% of BBS patients (Stoetzel et al., 2006; Zaghloul and Katsanis, 2009). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 11
MedGen UID:
395295
Concept ID:
C1859569
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome-11 (BBS11) is a pleiotropic autosomal recessive disorder characterized by obesity, pigmentary retinopathy, polydactyly, renal abnormalities, learning disabilities, and hypogenitalism (Chiang et al., 2006). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 12
MedGen UID:
347910
Concept ID:
C1859570
Disease or Syndrome
BBS12 is a clinically pleiotropic autosomal recessive ciliopathy. The patients with BBS12 studied by Stoetzel et al. (2007) and Harville et al. (2010) met the diagnostic criteria of Beales et al. (1999), which required the presence of either 4 primary features, including rod-cone dystrophy, polydactyly, obesity, learning disabilities, hypogonadism (in males), and/or renal anomalies; or 3 primary plus 2 secondary features (e.g., developmental delay, ataxia, cataracts). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Triglyceride storage disease, type 2
MedGen UID:
349896
Concept ID:
C1860820
Disease or Syndrome
Pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1B
MedGen UID:
350343
Concept ID:
C1864100
Disease or Syndrome
Disorders of GNAS inactivation include the phenotypes pseudohypoparathyroidism Ia, Ib, and Ic (PHP-Ia, -Ib, -Ic), pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP), progressive osseous heteroplasia (POH), and osteoma cutis (OC). PHP-Ia and PHP-Ic are characterized by: End-organ resistance to endocrine hormones including parathyroid hormone (PTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), gonadotropins (LH and FSH), growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), and CNS neurotransmitters (leading to obesity and variable degrees of intellectual disability and developmental delay); and The Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) phenotype (short stature, round facies, and subcutaneous ossifications) and brachydactyly type E (shortening mainly of the 4th and/or 5th metacarpals and metatarsals and distal phalanx of the thumb). Although PHP-Ib is characterized principally by PTH resistance, some individuals also have partial TSH resistance and mild features of AHO (e.g., brachydactyly). PPHP, a more limited form of PHP-Ia, is characterized by various manifestations of the AHO phenotype without the hormone resistance or obesity. POH and OC are even more restricted variants of PPHP: POH consists of dermal ossification beginning in infancy, followed by increasing and extensive bone formation in deep muscle and fascia. OC consists of extra-skeletal ossification that is limited to the dermis and subcutaneous tissues.
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome due to 16p13.3 microdeletion
MedGen UID:
350477
Concept ID:
C1864648
Disease or Syndrome
Chromosome 16p13.3deletion syndrome is a chromosome abnormality that can affect many parts of the body. People with this condition are missing a small piece (deletion) of chromosome 16 at a location designated p13.3. Although once thought to be a severe form of Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, it is now emerging as a unique syndrome. Signs and symptoms may include failure to thrive, hypotonia (reduced muscle tone), short stature, microcephaly (unusually small head), characteristic facial features, mild to moderate intellectual disability, organ anomalies (i.e. heart and/or kidney problems), and vulnerability to infections. Chromosome testing of both parents can provide information about whether the deletion was inherited. In most cases, parents do not have any chromosome abnormalities. However, sometimes one parent has a balanced translocation where a piece of a chromosome has broken off and attached to another one with no gain or loss of genetic material. The balanced translocation normally does not cause signs or symptoms, but it increases the risk for having a child with a chromosome abnormality like a deletion. Treatment is based on the signs and symptoms present in each person.To learn more about chromosome abnormalities in general, view our GARD fact sheet on Chromosome Disorders.
Colobomatous microphthalmia - obesity - hypogenitalism - intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
400954
Concept ID:
C1866256
Disease or Syndrome
Colobomatous microphthalmia-obesity-hypogenitalism-intellectual disability syndrome is a rare, genetic, syndromic microphthalmia disorder characterized by bilateral, usually asymmetrical, microphthalmia associated typically with a unilateral coloboma, truncal obesity, borderline to mild intellectual disability, hypogenitalism and, more variably, nystagmus, cataracts and developmental delay.
Ulnar-mammary syndrome
MedGen UID:
357886
Concept ID:
C1866994
Disease or Syndrome
Ulnar-mammary syndrome (UMS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by posterior limb deficiencies or duplications, apocrine/mammary gland hypoplasia and/or dysfunction, abnormal dentition, delayed puberty in males, and genital anomalies (Bamshad et al., 1996).
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 13
MedGen UID:
393032
Concept ID:
C2673873
Disease or Syndrome
BBS13 is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy with features of obesity, polydactyly, and retinitis pigmentosa (Leitch et al., 2008; Xing et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 14
MedGen UID:
393033
Concept ID:
C2673874
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome-14 (BBS14) is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy with features of retinitis pigmentosa, obesity, mental retardation, and renal disease (Leitch et al., 2008). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Wilms tumor, aniridia, genitourinary anomalies, intellectual disability, and obesity syndrome
MedGen UID:
382718
Concept ID:
C2675904
Disease or Syndrome
For a detailed discussion of the WAGR syndrome, see 194072. In a subgroup of individuals with the WAGR syndrome, obesity develops. The phenotype in this subset is associated with haploinsufficiency for the BDNF gene.
Joubert syndrome 8
MedGen UID:
436772
Concept ID:
C2676771
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Intellectual disability, X-linked 97
MedGen UID:
440689
Concept ID:
C2749020
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Any non-syndromic X-linked intellectual disability in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ZNF711 gene.
Chromosome 3q29 microduplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
440897
Concept ID:
C2749873
Disease or Syndrome
3q29 microduplication syndrome (also known as 3q29 duplication syndrome) is a condition that results from the copying (duplication) of a small piece of chromosome 3 in each cell. The duplication occurs on the long (q) arm of the chromosome at a position designated q29.\n\nThe features associated with 3q29 microduplication syndrome vary widely. Some individuals with this chromosomal change have very mild or no related signs and symptoms, and the duplication is discovered because they undergo genetic testing only after a family member is diagnosed. Other people with a 3q29 microduplication have delayed development (particularly speech delay) and intellectual disability or learning difficulties. Although most affected individuals have no major birth defects, eye abnormalities, heart defects, and an unusually small head (microcephaly) can occur. 3q29 microduplication syndrome may increase the likelihood of being overweight or having obesity, although it is hard to determine whether these weight issues are caused by the duplication.
Clark-Baraitser syndrome
MedGen UID:
443983
Concept ID:
C2931130
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome characterized by intellectual disability, obesity, macrocephaly, behavioral abnormalities (such as aggressive tantrums and autistic-like behavior), and delayed speech development. Dysmorphic facial features include large, square forehead, prominent supraorbital ridges, broad nasal tip, large ears, prominent lower lip, and minor dental anomalies such as small upper lateral incisors and central incisor gap.
Chromosome 2q37 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
419169
Concept ID:
C2931817
Disease or Syndrome
Patients with chromosome 2q37 deletion syndrome show highly variable clinical manifestations likely resulting from different deletion sizes and deletions of different genes. Variable clinical features included brachydactyly type E (BDE), affecting the metacarpals and metatarsals (in about 50% of patients), short stature, mild to moderate intellectual disability, behavioral abnormalities, and dysmorphic facial features. However, many individuals with deletions do not show cognitive deficits (summary by Villavicencio-Lorini et al., 2013, Wheeler et al., 2014, Jean-Marcais et al., 2015).
Pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1C
MedGen UID:
420958
Concept ID:
C2932716
Disease or Syndrome
Disorders of GNAS inactivation include the phenotypes pseudohypoparathyroidism Ia, Ib, and Ic (PHP-Ia, -Ib, -Ic), pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP), progressive osseous heteroplasia (POH), and osteoma cutis (OC). PHP-Ia and PHP-Ic are characterized by: End-organ resistance to endocrine hormones including parathyroid hormone (PTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), gonadotropins (LH and FSH), growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), and CNS neurotransmitters (leading to obesity and variable degrees of intellectual disability and developmental delay); and The Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) phenotype (short stature, round facies, and subcutaneous ossifications) and brachydactyly type E (shortening mainly of the 4th and/or 5th metacarpals and metatarsals and distal phalanx of the thumb). Although PHP-Ib is characterized principally by PTH resistance, some individuals also have partial TSH resistance and mild features of AHO (e.g., brachydactyly). PPHP, a more limited form of PHP-Ia, is characterized by various manifestations of the AHO phenotype without the hormone resistance or obesity. POH and OC are even more restricted variants of PPHP: POH consists of dermal ossification beginning in infancy, followed by increasing and extensive bone formation in deep muscle and fascia. OC consists of extra-skeletal ossification that is limited to the dermis and subcutaneous tissues.
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
422452
Concept ID:
C2936862
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome is an autosomal recessive and genetically heterogeneous ciliopathy characterized by retinitis pigmentosa, obesity, kidney dysfunction, polydactyly, behavioral dysfunction, and hypogonadism (summary by Beales et al., 1999). Eight proteins implicated in the disorder assemble to form the BBSome, a stable complex involved in signaling receptor trafficking to and from cilia (summary by Scheidecker et al., 2014). Genetic Heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl Syndrome BBS2 (615981) is caused by mutation in a gene on 16q13 (606151); BBS3 (600151), by mutation in the ARL6 gene on 3q11 (608845); BBS4 (615982), by mutation in a gene on 15q22 (600374); BBS5 (615983), by mutation in a gene on 2q31 (603650); BBS6 (605231), by mutation in the MKKS gene on 20p12 (604896); BBS7 (615984), by mutation in a gene on 4q27 (607590); BBS8 (615985), by mutation in the TTC8 gene on 14q32 (608132); BBS9 (615986), by mutation in a gene on 7p14 (607968); BBS10 (615987), by mutation in a gene on 12q21 (610148); BBS11 (615988), by mutation in the TRIM32 gene on 9q33 (602290); BBS12 (615989), by mutation in a gene on 4q27 (610683); BBS13 (615990), by mutation in the MKS1 gene (609883) on 17q23; BBS14 (615991), by mutation in the CEP290 gene (610142) on 12q21, BBS15 (615992), by mutation in the WDPCP gene (613580) on 2p15; BBS16 (615993), by mutation in the SDCCAG8 gene (613524) on 1q43; BBS17 (615994), by mutation in the LZTFL1 gene (606568) on 3p21; BBS18 (615995), by mutation in the BBIP1 gene (613605) on 10q25; BBS19 (615996), by mutation in the IFT27 gene (615870) on 22q12; BBS20 (619471), by mutation in the IFT172 gene (607386) on 9p21; BBS21 (617406), by mutation in the CFAP418 gene (614477) on 8q22; and BBS22 (617119), by mutation in the IFT74 gene (608040) on 9p21. The CCDC28B gene (610162) modifies the expression of BBS phenotypes in patients who have mutations in other genes. Mutations in MKS1, MKS3 (TMEM67; 609884), and C2ORF86 also modify the expression of BBS phenotypes in patients who have mutations in other genes. Although BBS had originally been thought to be a recessive disorder, Katsanis et al. (2001) demonstrated that clinical manifestation of some forms of Bardet-Biedl syndrome requires recessive mutations in 1 of the 6 loci plus an additional mutation in a second locus. While Katsanis et al. (2001) called this 'triallelic inheritance,' Burghes et al. (2001) suggested the term 'recessive inheritance with a modifier of penetrance.' Mykytyn et al. (2002) found no evidence of involvement of the common BBS1 mutation in triallelic inheritance. However, Fan et al. (2004) found heterozygosity in a mutation of the BBS3 gene (608845.0002) as an apparent modifier of the expression of homozygosity of the met390-to-arg mutation in the BBS1 gene (209901.0001). Allelic disorders include nonsyndromic forms of retinitis pigmentosa: RP51 (613464), caused by TTC8 mutation, and RP55 (613575), caused by ARL6 mutation.
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
422453
Concept ID:
C2936863
Disease or Syndrome
BBS2 is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by retinal degeneration, polydactyly, renal disease, hypogonadism, obesity, dysmorphic features, and variable degrees of cognitive impairment (Innes et al., 2010). Mutation in the BBS2 gene is the third most frequent cause of BBS, accounting for approximately 8% of cases (Zaghloul and Katsanis, 2009). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
423627
Concept ID:
C2936864
Disease or Syndrome
BBS4 is a rare multisystemic disorder characterized primarily by retinal dystrophy, obesity, polydactyly, and renal dysfunction that accounts for less than 3% of BBS (Katsanis et al., 2002). Anosmia has been described in patients with BBS4 (Iannaccone et al., 2005), as well as polydactyly confined to the hands (Carmi et al., 1995). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 11
MedGen UID:
461968
Concept ID:
C3150618
Disease or Syndrome
Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a group of several conditions characterized by abnormally high levels of blood glucose, also called blood sugar. These forms of diabetes typically begin before age 30, although they can occur later in life. In MODY, elevated blood glucose arises from reduced production of insulin, which is a hormone produced in the pancreas that helps regulate blood glucose levels. Specifically, insulin controls how much glucose (a type of sugar) is passed from the blood into cells, where it is used as an energy source.\n\nThe different types of MODY are distinguished by their genetic causes. The most common types are HNF1A-MODY (also known as MODY3), accounting for 50 to 70 percent of cases, and GCK-MODY (MODY2), accounting for 30 to 50 percent of cases. Less frequent types include HNF4A-MODY (MODY1) and renal cysts and diabetes (RCAD) syndrome (also known as HNF1B-MODY or MODY5), which each account for 5 to 10 percent of cases. At least ten other types have been identified, and these are very rare.\n\nHNF1A-MODY and HNF4A-MODY have similar signs and symptoms that develop slowly over time. Early signs and symptoms in these types are caused by high blood glucose and may include frequent urination (polyuria), excessive thirst (polydipsia), fatigue, blurred vision, weight loss, and recurrent skin infections. Over time uncontrolled high blood glucose can damage small blood vessels in the eyes and kidneys. Damage to the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (the retina) causes a condition known as diabetic retinopathy that can lead to vision loss and eventual blindness. Kidney damage (diabetic nephropathy) can lead to kidney failure and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). While these two types of MODY are very similar, certain features are particular to each type. For example, babies with HNF4A-MODY tend to weigh more than average or have abnormally low blood glucose at birth, even though other signs of the condition do not occur until childhood or young adulthood. People with HNF1A-MODY have a higher-than-average risk of developing noncancerous (benign) liver tumors known as hepatocellular adenomas.\n\nGCK-MODY is a very mild type of the condition. People with this type have slightly elevated blood glucose levels, particularly in the morning before eating (fasting blood glucose). However, affected individuals often have no symptoms related to the disorder, and diabetes-related complications are extremely rare.\n\nRCAD is associated with a combination of diabetes and kidney or urinary tract abnormalities (unrelated to the elevated blood glucose), most commonly fluid-filled sacs (cysts) in the kidneys. However, the signs and symptoms are variable, even within families, and not everyone with RCAD has both features. Affected individuals may have other features unrelated to diabetes, such as abnormalities of the pancreas or liver or a form of arthritis called gout.
Retinitis pigmentosa 51
MedGen UID:
462065
Concept ID:
C3150715
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the TTC8 gene.
Obesity, hyperphagia, and developmental delay
MedGen UID:
462653
Concept ID:
C3151303
Disease or Syndrome
OBHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay and hyperphagia resulting in obesity. Some patients may develop seizures (summary by Hamdan et al., 2017).
Hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia and body hemihypertrophy
MedGen UID:
480014
Concept ID:
C3278384
Disease or Syndrome
Hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia and body hemihypertrophy is a rare, genetic, endocrine disease characterized by neonatal macrosomia, asymmetrical overgrowth (typically manifesting as left-sided hemihypertrophy) and recurrent, severe hypoinsulinemic (or hypoketotic hypo-fatty-acidemic) hypoglycemia in infancy, which results in episodes of reduced consciousness and seizures.
Rafiq syndrome
MedGen UID:
481757
Concept ID:
C3280127
Disease or Syndrome
Rafiq syndrome (RAFQS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by variably impaired intellectual and motor development, a characteristic facial dysmorphism, truncal obesity, and hypotonia. The facial dysmorphism comprises prominent eyebrows with lateral thinning, downward-slanting palpebral fissures, bulbous tip of the nose, large ears, and a thin upper lip. Behavioral problems, including overeating, verbal and physical aggression, have been reported in some cases. Serum transferrin isoelectric focusing shows a type 2 pattern (summary by Balasubramanian et al., 2019).
Microcephaly, epilepsy, and diabetes syndrome
MedGen UID:
481870
Concept ID:
C3280240
Disease or Syndrome
Primary microcephaly-epilepsy-permanent neonatal diabetes syndrome is a rare, genetic, neurologic disease characterized by congenital microcephaly, severe, early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (manifesting as intractable, myoclonic and/or tonic-clonic seizures), permanent, neonatal, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and severe global developmental delay. Muscular hypotonia, skeletal abnormalities, feeding difficulties, and dysmorphic facial features (including narrow forehead, anteverted nares, small mouth with deep philtrum, tented upper lip vermilion) are frequently associated. Brain MRI reveals cerebral atrophy with cortical gyral simplification and aplasia/hypoplasia of the corpus callosum.
Narcolepsy 7
MedGen UID:
481896
Concept ID:
C3280266
Disease or Syndrome
Narcolepsy also affects nighttime sleep. Most affected individuals have trouble sleeping for more than a few hours at night. They often experience vivid hallucinations while falling asleep (hypnogogic hallucinations) or while waking up (hypnopompic hallucinations). Affected individuals often have realistic and distressing dreams, and they may act out their dreams by moving excessively or talking in their sleep. Many people with narcolepsy also experience sleep paralysis, which is an inability to move or speak for a short period while falling asleep or awakening. The combination of hallucinations, vivid dreams, and sleep paralysis is often frightening and unpleasant for affected individuals.\n\nSome people with narcolepsy have all of the major features of the disorder, while others have only one or two. Most of the signs and symptoms persist throughout life, although episodes of cataplexy may become less frequent with age and treatment.\n\nAnother common feature of narcolepsy is cataplexy, which is a sudden loss of muscle tone in response to strong emotion (such as laughing, surprise, or anger). These episodes of muscle weakness can cause an affected person to slump over or fall, which occasionally leads to injury. Episodes of cataplexy usually last just a few seconds, and they may occur from several times a day to a few times a year. Most people diagnosed with narcolepsy also have cataplexy. However, some do not, which has led researchers to distinguish two major forms of the condition: narcolepsy with cataplexy and narcolepsy without cataplexy.\n\nNarcolepsy is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness. Affected individuals feel tired during the day, and several times a day they may experience an overwhelming urge to sleep. "Sleep attacks" can occur at unusual times, such as during a meal or in the middle of a conversation. They last from a few seconds to a few minutes and often lead to a longer nap, after which affected individuals wake up feeling refreshed.\n\nNarcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder that disrupts the normal sleep-wake cycle. Although this condition can appear at any age, it most often begins in adolescence.
Pseudohypoparathyroidism type I A
MedGen UID:
488447
Concept ID:
C3494506
Disease or Syndrome
Disorders of GNAS inactivation include the phenotypes pseudohypoparathyroidism Ia, Ib, and Ic (PHP-Ia, -Ib, -Ic), pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP), progressive osseous heteroplasia (POH), and osteoma cutis (OC). PHP-Ia and PHP-Ic are characterized by: End-organ resistance to endocrine hormones including parathyroid hormone (PTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), gonadotropins (LH and FSH), growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), and CNS neurotransmitters (leading to obesity and variable degrees of intellectual disability and developmental delay); and The Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) phenotype (short stature, round facies, and subcutaneous ossifications) and brachydactyly type E (shortening mainly of the 4th and/or 5th metacarpals and metatarsals and distal phalanx of the thumb). Although PHP-Ib is characterized principally by PTH resistance, some individuals also have partial TSH resistance and mild features of AHO (e.g., brachydactyly). PPHP, a more limited form of PHP-Ia, is characterized by various manifestations of the AHO phenotype without the hormone resistance or obesity. POH and OC are even more restricted variants of PPHP: POH consists of dermal ossification beginning in infancy, followed by increasing and extensive bone formation in deep muscle and fascia. OC consists of extra-skeletal ossification that is limited to the dermis and subcutaneous tissues.
Nephronophthisis 15
MedGen UID:
762112
Concept ID:
C3541853
Disease or Syndrome
The nephronophthisis (NPH) phenotype is characterized by reduced renal concentrating ability, chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis, cystic renal disease, and progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) before age 30 years. Three age-based clinical subtypes are recognized: infantile, juvenile, and adolescent/adult. Infantile NPH can present in utero with oligohydramnios sequence (limb contractures, pulmonary hypoplasia, and facial dysmorphisms) or postnatally with renal manifestations that progress to ESRD before age 3 years. Juvenile NPH, the most prevalent subtype, typically presents with polydipsia and polyuria, growth retardation, chronic iron-resistant anemia, or other findings related to chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hypertension is typically absent due to salt wasting. ESRD develops at a median age of 13 years. Ultrasound findings are increased echogenicity, reduced corticomedullary differentiation, and renal cysts (in 50% of affected individuals). Histologic findings include tubulointerstitial fibrosis, thickened and disrupted tubular basement membrane, sporadic corticomedullary cysts, and normal or reduced kidney size. Adolescent/adult NPH is clinically similar to juvenile NPH, but ESRD develops at a median age of 19 years. Within a subtype, inter- and intrafamilial variability in rate of progression to ESRD is considerable. Approximately 80%-90% of individuals with the NPH phenotype have no extrarenal features (i.e., they have isolated NPH); ~10%-20% have extrarenal manifestations that constitute a recognizable syndrome (e.g., Joubert syndrome, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, Jeune syndrome and related skeletal disorders, Meckel-Gruber syndrome, Senior-Løken syndrome, Leber congenital amaurosis, COACH syndrome, and oculomotor apraxia, Cogan type).
Epsilon-trimethyllysine hydroxylase deficiency
MedGen UID:
763789
Concept ID:
C3550875
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked autism-6 is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects only males. Some patients may respond favorably to carnitine supplementation (summary by Ziats et al., 2015). Autism, the prototypic pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), is usually apparent by 3 years of age. It is characterized by a triad of limited or absent verbal communication, a lack of reciprocal social interaction or responsiveness, and restricted, stereotypic, and ritualized patterns of interests and behavior (Bailey et al., 1996; Risch et al., 1999). 'Autism spectrum disorder,' sometimes referred to as ASD, is a broader phenotype encompassing the less severe disorders Asperger syndrome (see ASPG1; 608638) and pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). 'Broad autism phenotype' includes individuals with some symptoms of autism, but who do not meet the full criteria for autism or other disorders. Mental retardation coexists in approximately two-thirds of individuals with ASD, except for Asperger syndrome, in which mental retardation is conspicuously absent (Jones et al., 2008). Genetic studies in autism often include family members with these less stringent diagnoses (Schellenberg et al., 2006). For a discussion of heterogeneity of autism, see 209850.
Choroideremia-deafness-obesity syndrome
MedGen UID:
763933
Concept ID:
C3551019
Disease or Syndrome
An X-linked retinal dystrophy characterized by choroideremia, causing in affected males progressive nyctalopia and eventual central blindness. Obesity, moderate intellectual disability and congenital mixed (sensorineural and conductive) deafness are also observed. Female carriers show typical retinal changes indicative of the choroideremia carrier state.
Cortisone reductase deficiency 1
MedGen UID:
764630
Concept ID:
C3551716
Disease or Syndrome
Cortisone reductase deficiency (CRD) results from a failure to regenerate the active glucocorticoid cortisol from cortisone via the enzyme 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD11B1; 600713). The oxoreductase activity of 11-beta-HSD requires the NADPH-regenerating enzyme hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PD; 138090) within the endoplasmic reticulum. Lack of cortisol regeneration stimulates ACTH-mediated adrenal hyperandrogenism, with males manifesting in early life with precocious pseudopuberty and females presenting in midlife with hirsutism, oligomenorrhea, and infertility. Biochemically, CRD is diagnosed through the assessment of urinary cortisol and cortisone metabolites and consists of measuring the tetrahydrocortisol (THF) plus 5-alpha-THF/tetrahydrocortisone (THE) ratio, which in CRD patients is typically less than 0.1 (reference range, 0.7 to 1.2) (summary by Lavery et al., 2008). Genetic Heterogeneity of Cortisone Reductase Deficiency CORTRD2 (614662) is caused by mutation in the HSD11B1 gene (600713) on chromosome 1q32.
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 4 with or without anosmia
MedGen UID:
765257
Concept ID:
C3552343
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt.
Acrodysostosis 2 with or without hormone resistance
MedGen UID:
766164
Concept ID:
C3553250
Disease or Syndrome
Acrodysostosis-2 (ACRDYS2) is a rare skeletal dysplasia characterized by brachydactyly, facial dysostosis, and spinal stenosis. Many patients have intellectual disability and some have hormone resistance (summary by Michot et al., 2012 and Lee et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of acrodysostosis, see ACRDYS1 (101800).
Deafness-encephaloneuropathy-obesity-valvulopathy syndrome
MedGen UID:
766268
Concept ID:
C3553354
Disease or Syndrome
Primary coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency is usually associated with multisystem involvement, including neurologic manifestations such as fatal neonatal encephalopathy with hypotonia; a late-onset slowly progressive multiple-system atrophy-like phenotype (neurodegeneration with autonomic failure and various combinations of parkinsonism and cerebellar ataxia, and pyramidal dysfunction); and dystonia, spasticity, seizures, and intellectual disability. Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), the hallmark renal manifestation, is often the initial manifestation either as isolated renal involvement that progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or associated with encephalopathy (seizures, stroke-like episodes, severe neurologic impairment) resulting in early death. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), retinopathy or optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss can also be seen.
Cortisone reductase deficiency 2
MedGen UID:
766296
Concept ID:
C3553382
Disease or Syndrome
Cortisone reductase deficiency is a disorder in which there is a failure to regenerate the active glucocorticoid cortisol from cortisone via the enzyme 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, encoded by the HSD11B1 gene. Purified 11-beta-HSD acts readily as a dehydrogenase, inactivating cortisol to cortisone; however, in the presence of a high NADPH/NADP+ ratio, generated in vivo through the activity of microsomal hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PD; 138090), 11-beta-HSD switches to ketoreductase activity and generates active glucocorticoid. Lack of cortisol regeneration stimulates ACTH-mediated adrenal hyperandrogenism, with males manifesting in early life with precocious pseudopuberty and females presenting later with hirsutism, oligomenorrhea, and infertility. Biochemically, CORTRD is diagnosed through the assessment of urinary cortisol and cortisone metabolites and consists of measuring the ratio of tetrahydrocortisol (THF) plus 5-alpha-THF to tetrahydrocortisone (THE), which in CORTRD patients is typically less than 0.1 (reference range, 0.7 to 1.2) (summary by Lawson et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of cortisone reductase deficiency, see CORTRD1 (604931).
Obesity due to congenital leptin deficiency
MedGen UID:
767138
Concept ID:
C3554224
Disease or Syndrome
Leptin deficiency or dysfunction (LEPD) is characterized by severe early-onset obesity, hyperphagia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and neuroendocrine/metabolic dysfunction (Ozata et al., 1999).
Obesity due to leptin receptor gene deficiency
MedGen UID:
767139
Concept ID:
C3554225
Disease or Syndrome
Leptin receptor deficiency is characterized by severe early-onset obesity, major hyperphagia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and neuroendocrine/metabolic dysfunction (summary by Dehghani et al., 2018).
MEGF8-related Carpenter syndrome
MedGen UID:
767161
Concept ID:
C3554247
Disease or Syndrome
Carpenter syndrome-2 (CRPT2) is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital malformation disorder characterized by multisuture craniosynostosis and polysyndactyly of the hands and feet, in association with abnormal left-right patterning and other features, most commonly obesity, umbilical hernia, cryptorchidism, and congenital heart disease (summary by Twigg et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Carpenter syndrome, see 201000.
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 17
MedGen UID:
811538
Concept ID:
C3714980
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome-17 (BBS17) is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by retinitis pigmentosa, cognitive impairment, obesity, renal dysfunction, and hypogenitalism. Polydactyly, most often postaxial, is also a primary feature of BBS; in BBS17, mesoaxial polydactyly, with fused or Y-shaped metacarpals, is a distinct manifestation (Deffert et al., 2007; Schaefer et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 18
MedGen UID:
812504
Concept ID:
C3806174
Disease or Syndrome
BBS18 is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy described in a single patient and characterized by retinitis pigmentosa, obesity, kidney failure, and cognitive disability (Scheidecker et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Perrault syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
815435
Concept ID:
C3809105
Disease or Syndrome
Perrault syndrome is characterized by sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in males and females and ovarian dysfunction in females. SNHL is bilateral and ranges from profound with prelingual (congenital) onset to moderate with early-childhood onset. When onset is in early childhood, hearing loss can be progressive. Ovarian dysfunction ranges from gonadal dysgenesis (absent or streak gonads) manifesting as primary amenorrhea to primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) defined as cessation of menses before age 40 years. Fertility in affected males is reported as normal (although the number of reported males is limited). Neurologic features described in some individuals with Perrault syndrome include learning difficulties and developmental delay, cerebellar ataxia, and motor and sensory peripheral neuropathy.
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 12B (cardiomyopathic type), autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
815773
Concept ID:
C3809443
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome-12B is an autosomal recessive mitochondrial disorder characterized by childhood onset of slowly progressive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and generalized skeletal myopathy resulting in exercise intolerance, and, in some patients, muscle weakness and atrophy. Skeletal muscle biopsy shows ragged-red fibers, mtDNA depletion, and accumulation of abnormal mitochondria (summary by Echaniz-Laguna et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mtDNA depletion syndromes, see MTDPS1 (603041).
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia 10 with or without polydactyly
MedGen UID:
816505
Concept ID:
C3810175
Disease or Syndrome
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (Sensenbrenner syndrome; see CED1, 218330). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short-rib thoracic dysplasia, see SRTD1 (208500).
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia 11 with or without polydactyly
MedGen UID:
816530
Concept ID:
C3810200
Disease or Syndrome
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (see CED1, 218330). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short-rib thoracic dysplasia, see SRTD1 (208500).
Obesity due to CEP19 deficiency
MedGen UID:
816654
Concept ID:
C3810324
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, genetic form of obesity characterized by morbid obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia leading to early coronary disease, myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure. Intellectual disability and decreased sperm counts or azoospermia have also been reported.
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 16
MedGen UID:
855172
Concept ID:
C3889474
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome-16 (BBS16) is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by retinal degeneration, obesity, renal disease, and cognitive impairment. Although polydactyly is considered a primary feature of BBS overall, it has not been reported in any BBS16 patient (Billingsley et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 19
MedGen UID:
855173
Concept ID:
C3889475
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome-19 (BBS19) is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by obesity, impaired intellectual development, polydactyly, renal failure, retinitis pigmentosa, and hypogonadism (Aldahmesh et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
856141
Concept ID:
C3892039
Disease or Syndrome
BBS5 is a ciliopathy associated with severe and early-onset retinal dystrophy, postaxial polydactyly, obesity, renal dysfunction, hypogonadism, and learning difficulties (summary by Scheidecker et al., 2015). Patients described by Young et al. (1999) and Moore et al. (2005) with mutations in the BBS5 gene did not have polydactyly. The contribution of BBS5 mutations to all cases of BBS has been estimated at 2% (Li et al., 2004) and 0.40% (Zaghloul and Katsanis, 2009). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Desbuquois dysplasia 1
MedGen UID:
860583
Concept ID:
C4012146
Disease or Syndrome
Desbuquois dysplasia (DBQD) is an autosomal recessive chondrodysplasia belonging to the multiple dislocation group and characterized by severe prenatal and postnatal growth retardation (stature less than -5 SD), joint laxity, short extremities, and progressive scoliosis. The main radiologic features are short long bones with metaphyseal splay, a 'Swedish key' appearance of the proximal femur (exaggerated trochanter), and advanced carpal and tarsal bone age with a delta phalanx (summary by Huber et al., 2009). Desbuquois dysplasia is clinically and radiographically heterogeneous, and had been classified into 2 types based on the presence (type 1) or absence (type 2) of characteristic hand anomalies, including an extra ossification center distal to the second metacarpal, delta phalanx, bifid distal thumb phalanx, and dislocation of the interphalangeal joints (Faivre et al., 2004). However, patients with and without these additional hand anomalies have been reported to have mutations in the same gene (see, e.g., CANT1); thus, these features are not distinctive criteria to predict the molecular basis of DBQD (Furuichi et al., 2011). In addition, Kim et al. (2010) described another milder variant of DBQD with almost normal outwardly appearing hands, but significant radiographic changes, including short metacarpals, elongated phalanges, and remarkably advanced carpal bone age. However, there is no accessory ossification center distal to the second metacarpal, and patients do not have thumb anomalies. Similar changes occur in the feet. These patients also tend to develop precocious osteoarthritis of the hand and spine with age. This phenotype is sometimes referred to as the 'Kim variant' of DBQD (Furuichi et al., 2011). Genetic Heterogeneity of Desbuquois Dysplasia DBQD2 (615777) is caused by mutation in the XYLT1 gene (608124) on chromosome 16p12. Two unrelated patients with immunodeficiency-23 (IMD23; 615816), due to mutation in the PGM3 gene (172100), were reported to have skeletal features reminiscent of DBQD.
Intellectual disability-severe speech delay-mild dysmorphism syndrome
MedGen UID:
862201
Concept ID:
C4013764
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual developmental disorder with language impairment and with or without autistic features is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with moderate to severe speech delay that particularly affects expressive speech. Most patients have articulation defects, but frank verbal dyspraxia is not observed. Common dysmorphic features include broad forehead, downslanting palpebral fissures, short nose with broad tip, relative macrocephaly, frontal hair upsweep, and prominent digit pads. Gross motor skills are also delayed. Some patients have autistic features and/or behavioral problems. All reported cases have occurred de novo (review by Le Fevre et al., 2013).
ADNP-related multiple congenital anomalies - intellectual disability - autism spectrum disorder
MedGen UID:
862975
Concept ID:
C4014538
Disease or Syndrome
ADNP-related disorder is characterized by hypotonia, severe speech and motor delay, mild-to-severe intellectual disability, and characteristic facial features (prominent forehead, high anterior hairline, wide and depressed nasal bridge, and short nose with full, upturned nasal tip) based on a cohort of 78 individuals. Features of autism spectrum disorder are common (stereotypic behavior, impaired social interaction). Other common findings include additional behavioral problems, sleep disturbance, brain abnormalities, seizures, feeding issues, gastrointestinal problems, visual dysfunction (hypermetropia, strabismus, cortical visual impairment), musculoskeletal anomalies, endocrine issues including short stature and hormonal deficiencies, cardiac and urinary tract anomalies, and hearing loss.
Webb-Dattani syndrome
MedGen UID:
863145
Concept ID:
C4014708
Disease or Syndrome
Webb-Dattani syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by frontotemporal hypoplasia, globally delayed development, and pituitary and hypothalamic insufficiency due to hypoplastic development of these brain regions. Patients present soon after birth with multiple pituitary hormonal deficiencies and subsequently develop microcephaly, seizures, and spasticity. Other features include postretinal blindness and renal abnormalities (summary by Webb et al., 2013).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 29
MedGen UID:
863578
Concept ID:
C4015141
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
SETBP1 haploinsufficiency disorder (SETBP1-HD) is characterized by hypotonia and mild motor developmental delay; intellectual abilities ranging from normal to severe disability; speech and language disorder; behavioral problems (most commonly attention/concentration deficits and hyperactivity, impulsivity), and refractive errors and strabismus. Typically children with SETBP1-HD whose intellect is in the normal or borderline range (IQ 80-90) were diagnosed following genetic testing for behavioral problems and/or severe speech and language disorders (respectively: the inability to produce sounds in words correctly, and deficits in the understanding and/or expression of words and sentences). To date, 47 individuals with SETBP1-HD have been reported.
Retinal dystrophy and obesity
MedGen UID:
863861
Concept ID:
C4015424
Disease or Syndrome
Motor developmental delay due to 14q32.2 paternally expressed gene defect
MedGen UID:
863995
Concept ID:
C4015558
Disease or Syndrome
Temple syndrome is a short stature disorder of imprinting. The cardinal features are low birth weight, hypotonia and motor delay, feeding problems early in life, early puberty, and significantly reduced final height. Facial features include a broad forehead and short nose with a wide nasal tip, and the majority of patients have small hands and feet. However, many of the clinical features are nonspecific, making diagnosis difficult. In addition, isodisomy may uncover recessive disorders, which may influence the phenotype in maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14 (UPD14mat) cases (summary by Ioannides et al., 2014).
Inherited obesity
MedGen UID:
885912
Concept ID:
C4054476
Sign or Symptom
Obesity associated with an identifiable mutation in a single gene.
Cognitive impairment - coarse facies - heart defects - obesity - pulmonary involvement - short stature - skeletal dysplasia syndrome
MedGen UID:
894554
Concept ID:
C4085597
Disease or Syndrome
CHOPS syndrome is a disorder involving multiple abnormalities that are present from birth (congenital). The name "CHOPS" is an abbreviation for a list of features of the disorder including cognitive impairment, coarse facial features, heart defects, obesity, lung (pulmonary) involvement, short stature, and skeletal abnormalities.\n\nChildren with CHOPS syndrome have intellectual disability and delayed development of skills such as sitting and walking. Characteristic facial features include a round face; thick hair; thick eyebrows that grow together in the middle (synophrys); wide-set, bulging eyes with long eyelashes; a short nose; and down-turned corners of the mouth.\n\nMost affected individuals are born with a heart defect called patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). The ductus arteriosus is a connection between two major arteries, the aorta and the pulmonary artery. This connection is open during fetal development and normally closes shortly after birth. However, the ductus arteriosus remains open, or patent, in babies with PDA. If untreated, this heart defect causes infants to breathe rapidly, feed poorly, and gain weight slowly; in severe cases, it can lead to heart failure. Multiple heart abnormalities have sometimes been found in children with CHOPS syndrome. In addition to PDA, affected individuals may have ventricular septal defect, which is a defect in the muscular wall (septum) that separates the right and left sides of the heart's lower chamber.\n\nPeople with CHOPS syndrome have abnormalities of the throat and airways that cause momentary cessation of breathing while asleep (obstructive sleep apnea). These abnormalities can also cause affected individuals to breathe food or fluids into the lungs accidentally, which can lead to a potentially life-threatening bacterial lung infection (aspiration pneumonia) and chronic lung disease. Affected individuals are shorter than more than 97 percent of their peers and are overweight for their height. They also have skeletal differences including unusually short fingers and toes (brachydactyly) and abnormally-shaped spinal bones (vertebrae).\n\nOther features that can occur in CHOPS syndrome include a small head size (microcephaly); hearing loss; clouding of the lens of the eye (cataract); a single, horseshoe-shaped kidney; and, in affected males, undescended testes (cryptorchidism).
Luscan-Lumish syndrome
MedGen UID:
898669
Concept ID:
C4085873
Disease or Syndrome
Luscan-Lumish syndrome (LLS) is characterized by macrocephaly, intellectual disability, speech delay, low sociability, and behavioral problems. More variable features include postnatal overgrowth, obesity, advanced carpal ossification, developmental delay, and seizures (Luscan et al., 2014; Lumish et al., 2015)
Spastic paraplegia-severe developmental delay-epilepsy syndrome
MedGen UID:
897828
Concept ID:
C4225215
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia and psychomotor retardation with or without seizures is an autosomal recessive complex neurodevelopmental disorder with onset in infancy. Affected children show hypotonia followed by severely impaired global development and significant motor disability. Most develop seizures in childhood and have speech delay. Other features, such as ocular abnormalities, foot deformities, hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, and decreased white matter, are more variable (summary by Hollstein et al., 2015).
Senior-Loken syndrome 9
MedGen UID:
899086
Concept ID:
C4225263
Disease or Syndrome
Senior-Loken syndrome-9 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early-onset nephronophthisis and pigmentary retinopathy. Additional more variable features can include liver defects, skeletal anomalies, and obesity (summary by Bizet et al., 2015). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Senior-Loken syndrome, see 266900.
Retinitis pigmentosa 74
MedGen UID:
906896
Concept ID:
C4225281
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the BBS2 gene.
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 39
MedGen UID:
909304
Concept ID:
C4225296
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal dominant condition caused by mutation(s) in the MYT1L gene, encoding myelin transcription factor 1-like protein. It is characterized by intellectual disability and mild dysmorphic facial features.
Intellectual disability-microcephaly-strabismus-behavioral abnormalities syndrome
MedGen UID:
897984
Concept ID:
C4225351
Disease or Syndrome
White-Sutton syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a wide spectrum of cognitive dysfunction, developmental delays (particularly in speech and language acquisition), hypotonia, autism spectrum disorder, and other behavioral problems. Additional features commonly reported include seizures, refractive errors and strabismus, hearing loss, sleep disturbance (particularly sleep apnea), feeding and gastrointestinal problems, mild genital abnormalities in males, and urinary tract involvement in both males and females.
Ataxia - oculomotor apraxia type 4
MedGen UID:
902323
Concept ID:
C4225397
Disease or Syndrome
Ataxia-oculomotor apraxia-4 (AOA4) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of dystonia and ataxia in the first decade. Additional features include oculomotor apraxia and peripheral neuropathy. Some patients may show cognitive impairment. The disorder is progressive, and most patients become wheelchair-bound in the second or third decade (summary by Bras et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of ataxia-oculomotor apraxia, see AOA1 (208920).
Spastic paraplegia, intellectual disability, nystagmus, and obesity
MedGen UID:
924883
Concept ID:
C4284592
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia, intellectual disability, nystagmus, and obesity (SINO) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by rapid growth in infancy, global developmental delay, spastic paraplegia, variable ophthalmologic defects, and dysmorphic facial features (summary by Josifova et al., 2016).
Short stature-brachydactyly-obesity-global developmental delay syndrome
MedGen UID:
934656
Concept ID:
C4310689
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic, multiple congenital anomalies syndrome characterized by short stature, hand brachydactyly with hypoplastic distal phalanges, global development delay, intellectual disability, and more variably seizures, obesity, and craniofacial dysmorphism that includes microcephaly, high forehead, flat face, hypertelorism, deep set eyes, flat nasal bridge, averted nostrils, long philtrum, thin lip vermilion, and short neck.
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 20
MedGen UID:
934674
Concept ID:
C4310707
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome-20 (BBS20), a rare autosomal recessive disorder associated with ciliary dysfunction, is characterized by rod-cone dystrophy, postaxial polydactyly, truncal obesity, renal anomalies, and learning disability, as well as hypogonadism in males and genital abnormalities in females (Saida et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
SIN3A-related intellectual disability syndrome due to a point mutation
MedGen UID:
934771
Concept ID:
C4310804
Disease or Syndrome
Witteveen-Kolk syndrome (WITKOS) is an autosomal dominant disorder with characteristic distinctive facial features, microcephaly, short stature, and mildly impaired intellectual development with delayed cognitive and motor development and subtle anomalies on MRI-brain imaging (summary by Balasubramanian et al., 2021).
Bardet-biedl syndrome 21
MedGen UID:
1374358
Concept ID:
C4319932
Disease or Syndrome
BBS21 is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by obesity, postaxial polydactyly, retinal degeneration, and mild cognitive impairment (Heon et al., 2016; Khan et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
RAB23-related Carpenter syndrome
MedGen UID:
1644017
Concept ID:
C4551510
Disease or Syndrome
Carpenter syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with the cardinal features of acrocephaly with variable synostosis of the sagittal, lambdoid, and coronal sutures; peculiar facies; brachydactyly of the hands with syndactyly; preaxial polydactyly and syndactyly of the feet; congenital heart defects; growth retardation; mental retardation; hypogenitalism; and obesity. In addition, cerebral malformations, oral and dental abnormalities, coxa valga, genu valgum, hydronephrosis, precocious puberty, and hearing loss may be observed (summary by Altunhan et al., 2011). Genetic Heterogeneity of Carpenter Syndrome Carpenter syndrome-2 (CRPT2; 614976), in which the features of Carpenter syndrome are sometimes associated with defective lateralization, is caused by mutation in the MEGF8 gene (604267).
Intellectual disability, X-linked 107
MedGen UID:
1639885
Concept ID:
C4692652
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
BODY MASS INDEX QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCUS 19
MedGen UID:
1638030
Concept ID:
C4693522
Finding
Patients with biallelic mutations in the ADCY3 gene show hyperphagia within the first 2 years of life and develop severe obesity. Other features include hyposmia or anosmia, and some patients exhibit mild to moderate intellectual disability (Saeed et al., 2018).
PHIP-related behavioral problems-intellectual disability-obesity-dysmorphic features syndrome
MedGen UID:
1641154
Concept ID:
C4693860
Disease or Syndrome
Chung-Jansen syndrome (CHUJANS) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy, impaired intellectual development or learning difficulties, behavioral abnormalities, dysmorphic features, and obesity. The severity of the phenotype and additional features are variable (summary by Jansen et al., 2018).
Combined oxidative phosphorylation defect type 15
MedGen UID:
1646555
Concept ID:
C4706313
Disease or Syndrome
A rare mitochondrial disease due to a defect in mitochondrial protein synthesis with onset in infancy or early childhood of muscular hypotonia, gait ataxia, mild bilateral pyramidal tract signs, developmental delay (affecting mostly speech and coordination) and subsequent intellectual disability. Short stature, obesity, microcephaly, strabismus, nystagmus, reduced visual acuity, lactic acidosis, and a brain neuropathology consistent with Leigh syndrome are also reported. Caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutation in the MTFMT gene on chromosome 15q22.
Intellectual developmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1648498
Concept ID:
C4748135
Disease or Syndrome
Peripheral neuropathy, autosomal recessive, with or without impaired intellectual development
MedGen UID:
1648480
Concept ID:
C4748283
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive peripheral neuropathy with or without impaired intellectual development is an early childhood-onset neurologic disorder characterized by slowly progressive distal motor impairment resulting in gait difficulties, often with loss of ambulation, and difficulties using the hands in most patients. Most affected individuals also have impaired intellectual development, although some have normal cognition. Electrophysiologic testing and sural nerve biopsy are most compatible with an axonal motor neuropathy; some patients may show signs of demyelination. Additional features may include eye movement abnormalities, claw hands, foot deformities, and scoliosis (summary by Ylikallio et al., 2017).
Intellectual disability-hypotonic facies syndrome, X-linked, 1
MedGen UID:
1676827
Concept ID:
C4759781
Disease or Syndrome
Alpha-thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability (ATR-X) syndrome is characterized by distinctive craniofacial features, genital anomalies, hypotonia, and mild-to-profound developmental delay / intellectual disability (DD/ID). Craniofacial abnormalities include small head circumference, telecanthus or widely spaced eyes, short triangular nose, tented upper lip, and thick or everted lower lip with coarsening of the facial features over time. While all affected individuals have a normal 46,XY karyotype, genital anomalies comprise a range from hypospadias and undescended testicles, to severe hypospadias and ambiguous genitalia, to normal-appearing female external genitalia. Alpha-thalassemia, observed in about 75% of affected individuals, is mild and typically does not require treatment. Osteosarcoma has been reported in a few males with germline pathogenic variants.
BODY MASS INDEX QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCUS 20
MedGen UID:
1674972
Concept ID:
C4759928
Finding
Obesity due to mutation in the MC4R gene is the most common cause of monogenic obesity. Patients have early-onset severe obesity and hyperphagia (Farooqi et al., 2003).
Short stature, amelogenesis imperfecta, and skeletal dysplasia with scoliosis
MedGen UID:
1676818
Concept ID:
C5193055
Disease or Syndrome
Short stature, amelogenesis imperfecta, and skeletal dysplasia with scoliosis (SSASKS)is characterized by disproportionate short stature, defective tooth enamel formation, and skeletal dysplasia with severe scoliosis in some patients. Variable features include facial dysmorphism, moderate hearing impairment, and mildly impaired intellectual development (Ashikov et al., 2018).
Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity, type 3
MedGen UID:
1677378
Concept ID:
C5193073
Disease or Syndrome
Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity-3 (SEMDJL3) is characterized by multiple joint dislocations at birth, severe joint laxity, scoliosis, gracile metacarpals and metatarsals, delayed bone age, and poorly ossified carpal and tarsal bones (Girisha et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of SEMD with joint laxity, see SEMDJL1 (271640).
Developmental delay with variable intellectual impairment and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1676192
Concept ID:
C5193092
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay with variable intellectual impairment and behavioral abnormalities (DDVIBA) is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder. Most patients have impaired intellectual development with speech difficulties, and many have behavioral abnormalities, most commonly autism spectrum disorder (ASD), defects in attention, and/or hyperactivity. Many patients have dysmorphic features, although there is not a consistent gestalt. Additional more variable features may include hypotonia, somatic overgrowth with macrocephaly, mild distal skeletal anomalies, sleep disturbances, movement disorders, and gastrointestinal issues, such as constipation. The phenotype is highly variable (summary by Vetrini et al., 2019 and Torti et al., 2019).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with or without variable brain abnormalities; NEDBA
MedGen UID:
1675664
Concept ID:
C5193102
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with or without variable brain abnormalities (NEDBA) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy or early childhood, resulting in mildly delayed walking, variably impaired intellectual development, and poor or absent speech. Additional features may include hypotonia, spasticity, or ataxia. About half of patients have abnormal findings on brain imaging, including cerebral or cerebellar atrophy, loss of white matter volume, thin corpus callosum, and perisylvian polymicrogyria. Seizures are not a prominent finding, and although some patients may have nonspecific dysmorphic facial features, there is no common or consistent gestalt (summary by Platzer et al., 2019).
Hypotonia, hypoventilation, impaired intellectual development, dysautonomia, epilepsy, and eye abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1672905
Concept ID:
C5193124
Disease or Syndrome
Hypotonia, hypoventilation, impaired intellectual development, dysautonomia, epilepsy, and eye abnormalities (HIDEA) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental syndrome characterized by global developmental delay, poor or absent speech, hypotonia, variable ocular movement and visual abnormalities, and respiratory difficulties, including hypoventilation, and sleep apnea. Patients may have significant breathing problems during respiratory infections that may lead to early death (summary by Rahikkala et al., 2019).
Abdominal obesity-metabolic syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
1704861
Concept ID:
C5231430
Disease or Syndrome
Abdominal obesity-metabolic syndrome-4 (AOMS4) is characterized by obesity, hypertension, and early-onset coronary artery disease. Most affected individuals meet the criteria for metabolic syndrome, including elevated triglyceride and low high-density lipoprotein levels, and type 2 diabetes (Esteghamat et al., 2019). For a discussion of the genetic heterogeneity of abdominal obesity-metabolic syndrome, see AOMS1 (605552).
Intellectual developmental disorder with impaired language and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1684804
Concept ID:
C5231444
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual developmental disorder with impaired language and dysmorphic facies (IDDILF) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy, impaired language development, and dysmorphic facial features, including hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, and abnormal palpebral fissures. Some patients may have additional findings, including feeding difficulties, mild cardiac or genitourinary defects, and distal skeletal anomalies (summary by Balak et al., 2019).
Intellectual developmental disorder with behavioral abnormalities and craniofacial dysmorphism with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1684850
Concept ID:
C5231476
Disease or Syndrome
Patients with intellectual developmental disorder with behavioral abnormalities and craniofacial dysmorphism with or without seizures (IDDBCS) have impaired intellectual development or developmental delay of varying severity with impaired motor skills and language delay. Macrocephaly, obesity, and overgrowth are frequently seen. Approximately half of patients experience seizures, and neurobehavioral disorders including autism are usually present (Hamanaka et al., 2019; Kim et al., 2019).
Rhizomelic limb shortening with dysmorphic features
MedGen UID:
1720321
Concept ID:
C5394173
Disease or Syndrome
Rhizomelic limb shortening with dysmorphic features (RLSDF) is characterized by rhizomelic shortening of the extremities, predominantly of the upper limbs, and variable dysmorphic features, including macrocephaly, prominent forehead, hypertelorism, depressed or broad nasal bridge, and micrognathia. Hearing loss has also been observed (Sajan et al., 2019; Pagnamenta et al., 2023).
Myopathy, congenital, with respiratory insufficiency and bone fractures
MedGen UID:
1718097
Concept ID:
C5394189
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-9A (CMYP9A) is an autosomal recessive early-onset severe muscular disorder resulting in early death. Affected individuals present at birth with neonatal hypotonia, poor feeding, fractures of the long bones, and respiratory insufficiency. Laboratory investigations are consistent with a defect in early muscle development (summary by Estan et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with speech impairment and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1758434
Concept ID:
C5436699
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with speech impairment and dysmorphic facies (NEDSID) is characterized by developmental delay associated with mild to moderately impaired intellectual development or learning difficulties, behavioral or psychiatric abnormalities, and delayed speech and language acquisition. Additional features include dysmorphic facies, distal limb anomalies, gastrointestinal problems or feeding difficulties, and hypotonia. The phenotypic features and severity of the disorder are variable (summary by Kummeling et al., 2021).
Mitochondrial complex 4 deficiency, nuclear type 14
MedGen UID:
1763505
Concept ID:
C5436710
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 14 (MC4DN14) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by global developmental delay, exercise intolerance, walking difficulties, impaired intellectual development, short stature, mild dysmorphic features, and sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy. Patient skeletal muscle tissue shows decreased levels and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV (Ostergaard et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110.
Joubert syndrome 37
MedGen UID:
1786742
Concept ID:
C5543064
Disease or Syndrome
Joubert syndrome-37 (JBTS37) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental ciliopathy characterized classically by a distinctive hindbrain malformation affecting the midbrain and cerebellum, recognizable as the 'molar tooth sign' on brain imaging. Affected individuals have hypotonia, ataxia, and variably impaired intellectual development. Additional variable features, such as postaxial polydactyly, liver or kidney anomalies, retinal dystrophy, and coloboma, may also occur. In severe cases, affected fetuses with these malformations may be terminated (summary by Latour et al., 2020). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Joubert syndrome, see JBTS1 (213300).
Kohlschutter-Tonz syndrome-like
MedGen UID:
1781649
Concept ID:
C5543202
Disease or Syndrome
Den Hoed-de Boer-Voisin syndrome (DHDBV) is characterized by global developmental delay with moderately to severely impaired intellectual development, poor or absent speech, and delayed motor skills. Although the severity of the disorder varies, many patients are nonverbal and have hypotonia with inability to sit or walk. Early-onset epilepsy is common and may be refractory to treatment, leading to epileptic encephalopathy and further interruption of developmental progress. Most patients have feeding difficulties with poor overall growth and dysmorphic facial features, as well as significant dental anomalies resembling amelogenesis imperfecta. The phenotype is reminiscent of Kohlschutter-Tonz syndrome (KTZS; 226750). More variable features of DHDBV include visual defects, behavioral abnormalities, and nonspecific involvement of other organ systems (summary by den Hoed et al., 2021).
Baralle-Macken syndrome
MedGen UID:
1778777
Concept ID:
C5543241
Disease or Syndrome
Baralle-Macken syndrome (BARMACS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy, difficulty walking or inability to walk, and impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech. Affected individuals develop early-onset cataracts; some may have microcephaly. Additional more variable features may include dysmorphic facial features, metabolic abnormalities, spasticity, and lymphopenia (summary by Macken et al., 2021).
Odontochondrodysplasia 2 with hearing loss and diabetes
MedGen UID:
1782909
Concept ID:
C5543275
Disease or Syndrome
Odontochondrodysplasia-2 with hearing loss and diabetes (ODCD2) is characterized by growth retardation with proportionate short stature, dentinogenesis imperfecta, sensorineural hearing loss, insulin-dependent diabetes, and mild intellectual disability (Cauwels et al., 2005; Lekszas et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of ODCD, see ODCD1 (184260).
Radio-Tartaglia syndrome
MedGen UID:
1778557
Concept ID:
C5543339
Disease or Syndrome
Radio-Tartaglia syndrome (RATARS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development, speech delay, and variable behavioral abnormalities. Affected individuals show hypotonia, mild motor difficulties, and craniofacial dysmorphism. Brain imaging may show nonspecific defects; rare patients have seizures or pyramidal signs. A subset of individuals may have congenital heart defects, precocious puberty, and obesity in females. Some of the features are similar to those observed in patients with chromosome 1p36 deletion syndrome (607872) (summary by Radio et al., 2021).
BDV syndrome
MedGen UID:
1785671
Concept ID:
C5543403
Disease or Syndrome
BDV syndrome (BDVS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early-onset profound obesity, hyperphagia, and moderately impaired intellectual development accompanied by infantile hypotonia and other endocrine disorders including hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, hypothyroidism, and insulin resistance (summary by Bosch et al., 2021).
White-Kernohan syndrome
MedGen UID:
1785087
Concept ID:
C5543635
Disease or Syndrome
White-Kernohan syndrome (WHIKERS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development, hypotonia, and characteristic facial features. Some patients may have abnormalities of other systems, including genitourinary and skeletal (summary by White et al., 2021).
Intellectual developmental disorder, X-linked, syndromic, with pigmentary mosaicism and coarse facies
MedGen UID:
1794140
Concept ID:
C5561930
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder with pigmentary mosaicism and coarse facies (MRXSPF) is characterized by a phenotypic triad of severe developmental delay, coarse facial dysmorphisms, and Blaschkoid pigmentary mosaicism. Additional clinical features may include epilepsy, orthopedic abnormalities, hypotonia, and growth abnormalities. The disorder affects both males and females (Villegas et al., 2019; Diaz et al., 2020).
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 22
MedGen UID:
1794146
Concept ID:
C5561936
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome-22 (BBS22) is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy described in a single patient and characterized by retinitis pigmentosa, obesity, polydactyly, hypogonadism, and intellectual disability (Lindstrand et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1794167
Concept ID:
C5561957
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities (DDISBA) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from early childhood. Intellectual disability can range from mild to severe. Additional variable features may include dysmorphic facial features, seizures, hypotonia, motor abnormalities such as Tourette syndrome or dystonia, and hearing loss (summary by Cousin et al., 2021).
Marbach-Schaaf neurodevelopmental syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794260
Concept ID:
C5562050
Disease or Syndrome
Marbach-Schaaf neurodevelopmental syndrom (MASNS) is characterized by global developmental delay with speech delay and behavioral abnormalities, including autism spectrum disorder and ADHD. Affected individuals also show movement disorders, such as dyspraxia and apraxia. More variable features include high pain tolerance, sleep disturbances, and variable nonspecific dysmorphic features (summary by Marbach et al., 2021).
Schaaf-Yang syndrome
MedGen UID:
1807366
Concept ID:
C5575066
Disease or Syndrome
Schaaf-Yang syndrome (SYS) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder that shares multiple clinical features with the genetically related Prader-Willi syndrome. It usually manifests at birth with muscular hypotonia in all and distal joint contractures in a majority of affected individuals. Gastrointestinal/feeding problems are particularly pronounced in infancy and childhood, but can transition to hyperphagia and obesity in adulthood. Respiratory distress is present in many individuals at birth, with approximately half requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation, and approximately 20% requiring tracheostomy. Skeletal manifestations such as joint contractures, scoliosis, and decreased bone mineral density are frequently observed. All affected individuals show developmental delay, resulting in intellectual disability of variable degree, from low-normal intelligence to severe intellectual disability. Other findings may include short stature, seizures, eye anomalies, and hypogonadism.
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 54
MedGen UID:
1812715
Concept ID:
C5676912
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-54 (COXPD54) is an autosomal recessive disorder with pleiotropic multisystem presentations resulting from a disruption in mitochondrial transcription and translation. The phenotype is highly variable. Many patients have early-onset sensorineural hearing loss, sometimes in isolation, and sometimes associated with global developmental delay or primary ovarian failure. Other features may include peripheral hypertonia, seizures, muscle weakness, behavioral abnormalities, and leukoencephalopathy on brain imaging. Serum lactate may or may not be elevated (summary by Hochberg et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 27 without anosmia
MedGen UID:
1810165
Concept ID:
C5676921
Disease or Syndrome
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism-27 without anosmia (HH27) is characterized by lack of pubertal development associated with onset of obesity in early adolescence (Topaloglu et al., 2022). Congenital idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) is a disorder characterized by absent or incomplete sexual maturation by the age of 18 years, in conjunction with low levels of circulating gonadotropins and testosterone and no other abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism can be caused by an isolated defect in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH; 152760) release, action, or both. Other associated nonreproductive phenotypes, such as anosmia, cleft palate, and sensorineural hearing loss, occur with variable frequency. In the presence of anosmia, idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism has been called 'Kallmann syndrome (KS),' whereas in the presence of a normal sense of smell, it has been termed 'normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (nIHH)' (summary by Raivio et al., 2007). Because families have been found to segregate both KS and nIHH, the disorder is here referred to as 'hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with or without anosmia (HH).'
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1812577
Concept ID:
C5676975
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities (NEDHISB) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent since infancy or early childhood, hypotonia with delayed motor development, impaired intellectual development with significant speech delay or absent speech, and variable behavioral abnormalities, such as autism, repetitive actions, or aggression. About two-thirds of patients have early-onset seizures that range from intractable to self-limiting. More variable features include nonspecific dysmorphic facial features, distal skeletal anomalies, and brain imaging abnormalities. The phenotypic manifestations and severity are highly variable (Muir et al., 2021).
Diamond-Blackfan anemia 21
MedGen UID:
1824003
Concept ID:
C5774230
Disease or Syndrome
Diamond-Blackfan anemia-21 (DBA21) is an autosomal recessive bone marrow failure syndrome that includes selective erythroid hypoplasia, anemia with transient thrombocytopenia, short stature, facial dysmorphism, limb abnormalities, cardiac defects, and intellectual disability (O'Donohue et al., 2022). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Diamond-Blackfan anemia, see DBA1 (105650).
Rabin-Pappas syndrome
MedGen UID:
1824042
Concept ID:
C5774269
Disease or Syndrome
Rabin-Pappas syndrome (RAPAS) is a multisystemic disorder characterized by severely impaired global development apparent from infancy, feeding difficulties with failure to thrive, small head circumference, and dysmorphic facial features. Affected individuals have impaired intellectual development and hypotonia; they do not achieve walking or meaningful speech. Other neurologic findings may include seizures, hearing loss, ophthalmologic defects, and brain imaging abnormalities. There is variable involvement of other organ systems, including skeletal, genitourinary, cardiac, and possibly endocrine (Rabin et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, dysmorphic facies, and skin abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1824058
Concept ID:
C5774285
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, dysmorphic facies, and skin abnormalities (NEDHFS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and poor or absent speech. Affected individuals have dysmorphic facies, including large abnormally shaped ears and strabismus, hypotonia, and dry skin with keratosis pilaris. Some patients develop seizures. Metabolic studies are unremarkable (Morava et al., 2021).
Obesity and hypopigmentation
MedGen UID:
1824062
Concept ID:
C5774289
Disease or Syndrome
Obesity and hypopigmentation (OBHP) is characterized by early-onset severe obesity and hypopigmentation of the skin. Some affected individuals have red hair, and some experience increased appetite and exhibit reduced energy expenditure (Kempf et al., 2022).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures, spasticity, and complete or partial agenesis of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
1840932
Concept ID:
C5830296
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures, spasticity, and partial or complete agenesis of the corpus callosum (NEDSSCC) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by axial hypotonia and global developmental delay apparent from the first days or months of life. Affected individuals often have feeding difficulties and develop early-onset seizures that tend to be well-controlled. Other features include peripheral spasticity with hyperreflexia, variable dysmorphic features, impaired intellectual development, behavioral abnormalities, and hypoplasia or absence of the corpus callosum on brain imaging (Faqeih et al., 2023).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with absent speech and movement and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1840955
Concept ID:
C5830319
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Neurodevelopmental disorder with absent speech and movement and behavioral abnormalities (NEDSMB) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay and severely impaired intellectual development with aggressive behavior. Mild dysmorphic features and hypodontia are also present (Faqeih et al., 2023).
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal dominant 72
MedGen UID:
1841248
Concept ID:
C5830612
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Autosomal dominant intellectual developmental disorder-72 (MRD72) is characterized by developmental delay, predominant speech delay, autistic or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder features, overfriendliness, generalized hypotonia, overweight/obesity, and dysmorphic features (Cuinat et al., 2022).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Teede HJ, Tay CT, Laven JJE, Dokras A, Moran LJ, Piltonen TT, Costello MF, Boivin J, Redman LM, Boyle JA, Norman RJ, Mousa A, Joham AE
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2023 Sep 18;108(10):2447-2469. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgad463. PMID: 37580314Free PMC Article
Samson SL, Vellanki P, Blonde L, Christofides EA, Galindo RJ, Hirsch IB, Isaacs SD, Izuora KE, Low Wang CC, Twining CL, Umpierrez GE, Valencia WM
Endocr Pract 2023 May;29(5):305-340. doi: 10.1016/j.eprac.2023.02.001. PMID: 37150579
Eslam M, Newsome PN, Sarin SK, Anstee QM, Targher G, Romero-Gomez M, Zelber-Sagi S, Wai-Sun Wong V, Dufour JF, Schattenberg JM, Kawaguchi T, Arrese M, Valenti L, Shiha G, Tiribelli C, Yki-Järvinen H, Fan JG, Grønbæk H, Yilmaz Y, Cortez-Pinto H, Oliveira CP, Bedossa P, Adams LA, Zheng MH, Fouad Y, Chan WK, Mendez-Sanchez N, Ahn SH, Castera L, Bugianesi E, Ratziu V, George J
J Hepatol 2020 Jul;73(1):202-209. Epub 2020 Apr 8 doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2020.03.039. PMID: 32278004

Curated

UK NICE Clinical guideline (CG189), Obesity: identification, assessment and management, 2023

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Masood B, Moorthy M
Clin Med (Lond) 2023 Jul;23(4):284-291. doi: 10.7861/clinmed.2023-0168. PMID: 37524429Free PMC Article
Opoku AA, Abushama M, Konje JC
Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2023 Jun;88:102348. Epub 2023 May 6 doi: 10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2023.102348. PMID: 37244787
Safaei M, Sundararajan EA, Driss M, Boulila W, Shapi'i A
Comput Biol Med 2021 Sep;136:104754. Epub 2021 Aug 16 doi: 10.1016/j.compbiomed.2021.104754. PMID: 34426171
Knight MG, Anekwe C, Washington K, Akam EY, Wang E, Stanford FC
Menopause 2021 May 24;28(8):960-965. doi: 10.1097/GME.0000000000001792. PMID: 34033603Free PMC Article
Bosello O, Vanzo A
Eat Weight Disord 2021 Feb;26(1):27-35. Epub 2019 Dec 21 doi: 10.1007/s40519-019-00815-4. PMID: 31865598

Diagnosis

Bray GA
Nutrients 2023 May 10;15(10) doi: 10.3390/nu15102254. PMID: 37242136Free PMC Article
Safaei M, Sundararajan EA, Driss M, Boulila W, Shapi'i A
Comput Biol Med 2021 Sep;136:104754. Epub 2021 Aug 16 doi: 10.1016/j.compbiomed.2021.104754. PMID: 34426171
Powell-Wiley TM, Poirier P, Burke LE, Després JP, Gordon-Larsen P, Lavie CJ, Lear SA, Ndumele CE, Neeland IJ, Sanders P, St-Onge MP; American Heart Association Council on Lifestyle and Cardiometabolic Health; Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing; Council on Clinical Cardiology; Council on Epidemiology and Prevention; and Stroke Council
Circulation 2021 May 25;143(21):e984-e1010. Epub 2021 Apr 22 doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000973. PMID: 33882682Free PMC Article
Nimptsch K, Konigorski S, Pischon T
Metabolism 2019 Mar;92:61-70. Epub 2018 Dec 23 doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2018.12.006. PMID: 30586573
Avgerinos KI, Spyrou N, Mantzoros CS, Dalamaga M
Metabolism 2019 Mar;92:121-135. Epub 2018 Nov 13 doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2018.11.001. PMID: 30445141

Therapy

Panknin TM, Howe CL, Hauer M, Bucchireddigari B, Rossi AM, Funk JL
Int J Mol Sci 2023 Feb 24;24(5) doi: 10.3390/ijms24054476. PMID: 36901908Free PMC Article
Louzada MLDC, Costa CDS, Souza TN, Cruz GLD, Levy RB, Monteiro CA
Cad Saude Publica 2022;37(suppl 1):e00323020. Epub 2022 Apr 20 doi: 10.1590/0102-311X00323020. PMID: 35475880
Clifton KK, Ma CX, Fontana L, Peterson LL
CA Cancer J Clin 2021 Nov;71(6):527-546. Epub 2021 Aug 12 doi: 10.3322/caac.21694. PMID: 34383300
Zhang C, Yang M
Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 15;22(14) doi: 10.3390/ijms22147571. PMID: 34299189Free PMC Article
Acosta A, Camilleri M, Abu Dayyeh B, Calderon G, Gonzalez D, McRae A, Rossini W, Singh S, Burton D, Clark MM
Obesity (Silver Spring) 2021 Apr;29(4):662-671. doi: 10.1002/oby.23120. PMID: 33759389Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Petrelli F, Cortellini A, Indini A, Tomasello G, Ghidini M, Nigro O, Salati M, Dottorini L, Iaculli A, Varricchio A, Rampulla V, Barni S, Cabiddu M, Bossi A, Ghidini A, Zaniboni A
JAMA Netw Open 2021 Mar 1;4(3):e213520. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.3520. PMID: 33779745Free PMC Article
Miller KD, Fidler-Benaoudia M, Keegan TH, Hipp HS, Jemal A, Siegel RL
CA Cancer J Clin 2020 Nov;70(6):443-459. Epub 2020 Sep 17 doi: 10.3322/caac.21637. PMID: 32940362
Raglan O, Kalliala I, Markozannes G, Cividini S, Gunter MJ, Nautiyal J, Gabra H, Paraskevaidis E, Martin-Hirsch P, Tsilidis KK, Kyrgiou M
Int J Cancer 2019 Oct 1;145(7):1719-1730. Epub 2019 Feb 20 doi: 10.1002/ijc.31961. PMID: 30387875
Bhaskaran K, Dos-Santos-Silva I, Leon DA, Douglas IJ, Smeeth L
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2018 Dec;6(12):944-953. Epub 2018 Oct 30 doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(18)30288-2. PMID: 30389323Free PMC Article
Lee DH, Keum N, Hu FB, Orav EJ, Rimm EB, Willett WC, Giovannucci EL
BMJ 2018 Jul 3;362:k2575. doi: 10.1136/bmj.k2575. PMID: 29970408Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Tur JA, Bibiloni MDM
Nutrients 2019 Aug 14;11(8) doi: 10.3390/nu11081891. PMID: 31416130Free PMC Article
Chung S
Eur J Clin Nutr 2019 Feb;73(2):236-242. Epub 2018 Sep 26 doi: 10.1038/s41430-018-0322-8. PMID: 30258101
Butler ÉM, Derraik JGB, Taylor RW, Cutfield WS
Horm Res Paediatr 2018;90(6):358-367. Epub 2019 Feb 8 doi: 10.1159/000496563. PMID: 30739117
Butler ÉM, Derraik JGB, Taylor RW, Cutfield WS
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2018 Apr 25;31(5):497-501. doi: 10.1515/jpem-2018-0110. PMID: 29668465
Ivanescu AE, Li P, George B, Brown AW, Keith SW, Raju D, Allison DB
Int J Obes (Lond) 2016 Jun;40(6):887-94. Epub 2015 Oct 9 doi: 10.1038/ijo.2015.214. PMID: 26449421Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Ling J, Chen S, Zahry NR, Kao TA
Obes Rev 2023 Feb;24(2):e13535. Epub 2022 Nov 27 doi: 10.1111/obr.13535. PMID: 36437105Free PMC Article
Safaei M, Sundararajan EA, Driss M, Boulila W, Shapi'i A
Comput Biol Med 2021 Sep;136:104754. Epub 2021 Aug 16 doi: 10.1016/j.compbiomed.2021.104754. PMID: 34426171
Endalifer ML, Diress G
J Obes 2020;2020:6134362. Epub 2020 May 31 doi: 10.1155/2020/6134362. PMID: 32566274Free PMC Article
Simmonds M, Llewellyn A, Owen CG, Woolacott N
Obes Rev 2016 Feb;17(2):95-107. Epub 2015 Dec 23 doi: 10.1111/obr.12334. PMID: 26696565
Fonseca-Junior SJ, Sá CG, Rodrigues PA, Oliveira AJ, Fernandes-Filho J
Arq Bras Cir Dig 2013;26 Suppl 1:67-73. doi: 10.1590/s0102-67202013000600015. PMID: 24463903

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    Curated

    • NICE, 2023
      UK NICE Clinical guideline (CG189), Obesity: identification, assessment and management, 2023

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