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Neurofibromatosis, type 1(NF1)

MedGen UID:
18013
Concept ID:
C0027831
Neoplastic Process
Synonyms: NEUROFIBROMATOSIS, TYPE I; NEUROFIBROMATOSIS, TYPE I, SOMATIC; NF1; Peripheral type neurofibromatosis; Recklinghausen's disease; Von Recklinghausen disease
SNOMED CT: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (92824003); Neurofibromatosis 1 (92824003); Neurofibromatosis, peripheral type (92824003); Von Recklinghausen disease (92824003); NF1 - Neurofibromatosis type 1 (92824003); Multiple non-ossifying fibromatosis (92824003)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in heterozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, an autosomal dominant disorder is caused when a single copy of the mutant allele is present. Males and females are affected equally, and can both transmit the disorder with a risk of 50% for each child of inheriting the mutant allele.
 
Gene (location): NF1 (17q11.2)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0018975
OMIM®: 162200
Orphanet: ORPHA636

Definition

Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is a multisystem disorder characterized by multiple café au lait macules, intertriginous freckling, multiple cutaneous neurofibromas, and learning disability or behavior problems. About half of people with NF1 have plexiform neurofibromas, but most are internal and not suspected clinically. Plexiform neurofibromas can cause pain, neurologic deficits, and abnormalities of involved or adjacent structures. Less common but potentially more serious manifestations include optic nerve and other central nervous system gliomas, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, scoliosis, tibial dysplasia, vasculopathy, and gastrointestinal, endocrine, or pulmonary disease. [from GeneReviews]

Additional descriptions

From OMIM
Neurofibromatosis type I is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by cafe-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules in the eye, and fibromatous tumors of the skin. Individuals with the disorder have increased susceptibility to the development of benign and malignant tumors. NF1 is sometimes referred to as 'peripheral neurofibromatosis.' The worldwide incidence of NF1 is 1 in 2,500 to 1 in 3,000 individuals (reviews by Shen et al., 1996 and Williams et al., 2009). Type II neurofibromatosis (NF2; 101000) is a genetically distinct disorder caused by mutation in the gene encoding merlin (NF2; 607379) on chromosome 22q12. NF2, sometimes known as 'central neurofibromatosis,' is characterized by bilateral acoustic neuroma and meningioma, but few skin lesions or neurofibromas (Rouleau et al., 1993). Some patients with homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in mismatch repair genes (see, e.g., MLH1; 120436 and MSH2; 609309) have a phenotype characterized by early onset malignancies and mild features of NF1, especially cafe-au-lait spots; this is known as the mismatch repair cancer syndrome (see MMRCS1, 276300), sometimes referred to as brain tumor-polyposis syndrome-1 or Turcot syndrome. These patients typically do not have germline mutations in the NF1 gene, although a study by Wang et al. (2003) suggested that biallelic mutations in mismatch repair genes may cause somatic mutations in the NF1 gene, perhaps resulting in isolated features resembling NF1. See also Legius syndrome (611431), a genetically distinct disorder with a similar phenotype to NF1.  http://www.omim.org/entry/162200
From MedlinePlus Genetics
Neurofibromatosis type 1 is a condition characterized by changes in skin coloring (pigmentation) and the growth of tumors along nerves in the skin, brain, and other parts of the body. The signs and symptoms of this condition vary widely among affected people.\n\nBeginning in early childhood, almost all people with neurofibromatosis type 1 have multiple café-au-lait spots, which are flat patches on the skin that are darker than the surrounding area. These spots increase in size and number as the individual grows older. Freckles in the underarms and groin typically develop later in childhood.\n\nMost adults with neurofibromatosis type 1 develop neurofibromas, which are noncancerous (benign) tumors that are usually located on or just under the skin. These tumors may also occur in nerves near the spinal cord or along nerves elsewhere in the body. Some people with neurofibromatosis type 1 develop cancerous tumors that grow along nerves. These tumors, which usually develop in adolescence or adulthood, are called malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. People with neurofibromatosis type 1 also have an increased risk of developing other cancers, including brain tumors and cancer of blood-forming tissue (leukemia).\n\nDuring childhood, benign growths called Lisch nodules often appear in the colored part of the eye (the iris). Lisch nodules do not interfere with vision. Some affected individuals also develop tumors that grow along the nerve leading from the eye to the brain (the optic nerve). These tumors, which are called optic gliomas, may lead to reduced vision or total vision loss. In some cases, optic gliomas have no effect on vision.\n\nAdditional signs and symptoms of neurofibromatosis type 1 vary, but they can include high blood pressure (hypertension), short stature, an unusually large head (macrocephaly), and skeletal abnormalities such as an abnormal curvature of the spine (scoliosis). Although most people with neurofibromatosis type 1 have normal intelligence, learning disabilities and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) occur frequently in affected individuals.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/neurofibromatosis-type-1

Clinical features

From HPO
Pheochromocytoma
MedGen UID:
18419
Concept ID:
C0031511
Neoplastic Process
Hereditary paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma (PGL/PCC) syndromes are characterized by paragangliomas (tumors that arise from neuroendocrine tissues distributed along the paravertebral axis from the base of the skull to the pelvis) and pheochromocytomas (paragangliomas that are confined to the adrenal medulla). Sympathetic paragangliomas cause catecholamine excess; parasympathetic paragangliomas are most often nonsecretory. Extra-adrenal parasympathetic paragangliomas are located predominantly in the skull base and neck (referred to as head and neck PGL [HNPGL]) and sometimes in the upper mediastinum; approximately 95% of such tumors are nonsecretory. In contrast, sympathetic extra-adrenal paragangliomas are generally confined to the lower mediastinum, abdomen, and pelvis, and are typically secretory. Pheochromocytomas, which arise from the adrenal medulla, typically lead to catecholamine excess. Symptoms of PGL/PCC result from either mass effects or catecholamine hypersecretion (e.g., sustained or paroxysmal elevations in blood pressure, headache, episodic profuse sweating, forceful palpitations, pallor, and apprehension or anxiety). The risk for developing metastatic disease is greater for extra-adrenal sympathetic paragangliomas than for pheochromocytomas.
Rhabdomyosarcoma
MedGen UID:
20561
Concept ID:
C0035412
Neoplastic Process
A malignant soft tissue tumor which develops from cells of striated muscle. It is the most common form of tumor found in children and adolescents.
Neurofibrosarcoma
MedGen UID:
104927
Concept ID:
C0206729
Neoplastic Process
A form of malignant cancer of the connective tissue surrounding nerves. Given its origin and behavior, it is classified as a sarcoma.
Parathyroid gland adenoma
MedGen UID:
75502
Concept ID:
C0262587
Neoplastic Process
A benign tumor of the parathyroid gland that can cause hyperparathyroidism.
Hypertensive disorder
MedGen UID:
6969
Concept ID:
C0020538
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of chronic increased pressure in the systemic arterial system.
Renal artery stenosis
MedGen UID:
19727
Concept ID:
C0035067
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of stenosis of the renal artery.
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Overgrowth
MedGen UID:
376550
Concept ID:
C1849265
Finding
Excessive postnatal growth which may comprise increased weight, increased length, and/or increased head circumference.
Astrocytoma
MedGen UID:
438
Concept ID:
C0004114
Neoplastic Process
Astrocytoma is a neoplasm of the central nervous system derived from astrocytes. Astrocytes are a type of glial cell, and thus astrocytoma is a subtype of glioma.
Hydrocephalus
MedGen UID:
9335
Concept ID:
C0020255
Disease or Syndrome
Hydrocephalus is an active distension of the ventricular system of the brain resulting from inadequate passage of CSF from its point of production within the cerebral ventricles to its point of absorption into the systemic circulation.
Meningioma
MedGen UID:
7532
Concept ID:
C0025286
Neoplastic Process
The presence of a meningioma, i.e., a benign tumor originating from the dura mater or arachnoid mater.
Intellectual disability, mild
MedGen UID:
10044
Concept ID:
C0026106
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Mild intellectual disability is defined as an intelligence quotient (IQ) in the range of 50-69.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterised by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Spina bifida
MedGen UID:
38283
Concept ID:
C0080178
Congenital Abnormality
Incomplete closure of the embryonic neural tube, whereby some vertebral arches remain unfused and open. The mildest form is spina bifida occulta, followed by meningocele and meningomyelocele.
Neurofibromas
MedGen UID:
58149
Concept ID:
C0162678
Neoplastic Process
The presence of multiple cutaneous neurofibromas.
Plexiform neurofibroma
MedGen UID:
64640
Concept ID:
C0206728
Neoplastic Process
A neurofibroma in which Schwann cells proliferate inside the nerve sheath, producing an irregularly thickened, distorted, tortuous structure.
Optic nerve glioma
MedGen UID:
138056
Concept ID:
C0346326
Neoplastic Process
A glioma originating in the optic nerve or optic chiasm.
Hypsarrhythmia
MedGen UID:
195766
Concept ID:
C0684276
Finding
Hypsarrhythmia is abnormal interictal high amplitude waves and a background of irregular spikes. There is continuous (during wakefulness), high-amplitude (>200 Hz), generalized polymorphic slowing with no organized background and multifocal spikes demonstrated by electroencephalography (EEG).
Aqueductal stenosis
MedGen UID:
424818
Concept ID:
C2936786
Disease or Syndrome
Stenosis of the cerebral aqueduct (also known as the mesencephalic duct, aqueductus mesencephali, or aqueduct of Sylvius), which connects the third cerebral ventricle in the diencephalon to the fourth ventricle, which is between the pons and cerebellum.
Spinal neurofibromas
MedGen UID:
869787
Concept ID:
C4024217
Neoplastic Process
Neurofibromas originating in the spine.
Specific learning disability
MedGen UID:
871302
Concept ID:
C4025790
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Impairment of certain skills such as reading or writing, coordination, self-control, or attention that interfere with the ability to learn. The impairment is not related to a global deficiency of intelligence.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
11348
Concept ID:
C0036439
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Genu valgum
MedGen UID:
154364
Concept ID:
C0576093
Anatomical Abnormality
The legs angle inward, such that the knees are close together and the ankles far apart.
Pectus excavatum
MedGen UID:
781174
Concept ID:
C2051831
Finding
A defect of the chest wall characterized by a depression of the sternum, giving the chest ("pectus") a caved-in ("excavatum") appearance.
Macrocephaly
MedGen UID:
745757
Concept ID:
C2243051
Finding
Occipitofrontal (head) circumference greater than 97th centile compared to appropriate, age matched, sex-matched normal standards. Alternatively, a apparently increased size of the cranium.
Tibial pseudarthrosis
MedGen UID:
869786
Concept ID:
C4024216
Pathologic Function
Pseudarthrosis, or "false joint" of the tibia is the result of a developmental failure in the tibia progressing to spontaneous fracture and subsequent fibrous nonunion. The fracture is rarely present at birth but commonly develops during the first 18 months of life.
Inguinal freckling
MedGen UID:
320315
Concept ID:
C1834297
Finding
The presence in the inguinal region (groin) of an increased number of freckles, small circular spots on the skin that are darker than the surrounding skin because of deposits of melanin.
Axillary freckling
MedGen UID:
348082
Concept ID:
C1860335
Finding
The presence in the axillary region (armpit) of an increased number of freckles, small circular spots on the skin that are darker than the surrounding skin because of deposits of melanin.
Cafe au lait spots, multiple
MedGen UID:
396266
Concept ID:
C1861975
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of six or more cafe-au-lait spots.
Hypopigmented macule
MedGen UID:
760487
Concept ID:
C2047793
Finding
A white or lighter patch of skin that may appear anywhere on the body and are caused by decreased skin pigmentation.
Glaucoma
MedGen UID:
42224
Concept ID:
C0017601
Disease or Syndrome
Glaucoma refers loss of retinal ganglion cells in a characteristic pattern of optic neuropathy usually associated with increased intraocular pressure.
Hypertelorism
MedGen UID:
9373
Concept ID:
C0020534
Finding
Although hypertelorism means an excessive distance between any paired organs (e.g., the nipples), the use of the word has come to be confined to ocular hypertelorism. Hypertelorism occurs as an isolated feature and is also a feature of many syndromes, e.g., Opitz G syndrome (145410), Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (175700), and Noonan syndrome (163950) (summary by Cohen et al., 1995).
Lisch nodules
MedGen UID:
395461
Concept ID:
C1860334
Finding
The presence of pigmented, oval and dome-shaped raised hamartomatous nevi of the iris..

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Fishbein L, Del Rivero J, Else T, Howe JR, Asa SL, Cohen DL, Dahia PLM, Fraker DL, Goodman KA, Hope TA, Kunz PL, Perez K, Perrier ND, Pryma DA, Ryder M, Sasson AR, Soulen MC, Jimenez C
Pancreas 2021 Apr 1;50(4):469-493. doi: 10.1097/MPA.0000000000001792. PMID: 33939658
Radtke HB, Bergner AL, Goetsch AL, McGowan C, Panzer K, Cannon A
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Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Chen AM, Neustadt JB, Kucera JN
J Radiol Case Rep 2017 Aug;11(8):8-15. Epub 2017 Aug 31 doi: 10.3941/jrcr.v11i8.3113. PMID: 29299101Free PMC Article
Ogle SK, Rose MM, Wildes CT
J Pediatr Oncol Nurs 2002 Jul-Aug;19(4):122-6. doi: 10.1177/104345420201900403. PMID: 12203191

Diagnosis

Pendergrass C, Peraza J
Clin Neuropsychol 2020 Jul;34(5):1049-1064. Epub 2019 Jun 3 doi: 10.1080/13854046.2019.1621381. PMID: 31154935
Kantaputra PN, van den Ouweland A, Sangruchi T, Limwongse C
Am J Med Genet A 2012 Jul;158A(7):1750-3. Epub 2012 Jun 7 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.35422. PMID: 22678692
Goldgar C
JAAPA 2011 Mar;24(3):75-6, 78. doi: 10.1097/01720610-201103000-00009. PMID: 21434506
Moore BD
Dev Disabil Res Rev 2009;15(1):45-51. doi: 10.1002/ddrr.53. PMID: 19213018
Ogle SK, Rose MM, Wildes CT
J Pediatr Oncol Nurs 2002 Jul-Aug;19(4):122-6. doi: 10.1177/104345420201900403. PMID: 12203191

Therapy

Ogle SK, Rose MM, Wildes CT
J Pediatr Oncol Nurs 2002 Jul-Aug;19(4):122-6. doi: 10.1177/104345420201900403. PMID: 12203191

Prognosis

Kantaputra PN, van den Ouweland A, Sangruchi T, Limwongse C
Am J Med Genet A 2012 Jul;158A(7):1750-3. Epub 2012 Jun 7 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.35422. PMID: 22678692
Ogle SK, Rose MM, Wildes CT
J Pediatr Oncol Nurs 2002 Jul-Aug;19(4):122-6. doi: 10.1177/104345420201900403. PMID: 12203191

Clinical prediction guides

Pendergrass C, Peraza J
Clin Neuropsychol 2020 Jul;34(5):1049-1064. Epub 2019 Jun 3 doi: 10.1080/13854046.2019.1621381. PMID: 31154935
Kantaputra PN, van den Ouweland A, Sangruchi T, Limwongse C
Am J Med Genet A 2012 Jul;158A(7):1750-3. Epub 2012 Jun 7 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.35422. PMID: 22678692
Shannon KM, Watterson J, Johnson P, O'Connell P, Lange B, Shah N, Steinherz P, Kan YW, Priest JR
Blood 1992 Mar 1;79(5):1311-8. PMID: 1536955

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