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Congestive heart failure

MedGen UID:
9169
Concept ID:
C0018802
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Cardiac failure; Cardiac failures; Cardiac insufficiency; CHF; Chronic heart failure
SNOMED CT: Congestive cardiac failure (42343007); CCF - Congestive cardiac failure (42343007); CHF - Congestive heart failure (42343007); Congestive heart failure (42343007); Congestive heart disease (42343007)
 
HPO: HP:0001635
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0005009

Definition

The presence of an abnormality of cardiac function that is responsible for the failure of the heart to pump blood at a rate that is commensurate with the needs of the tissues or a state in which abnormally elevated filling pressures are required for the heart to do so. Heart failure is frequently related to a defect in myocardial contraction. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Fabry disease
MedGen UID:
8083
Concept ID:
C0002986
Disease or Syndrome
Fabry disease results from deficient activity of the enzyme alpha-galactosidase A (a-Gal A) and progressive lysosomal deposition of globotriaosylceramide (GL-3) in cells throughout the body. The classic form, occurring in males with less than 1% a-Gal A enzyme activity, usually has its onset in childhood or adolescence with periodic crises of severe pain in the extremities (acroparesthesia), the appearance of vascular cutaneous lesions (angiokeratomas), sweating abnormalities (anhidrosis, hypohidrosis, and rarely hyperhidrosis), characteristic corneal and lenticular opacities, and proteinuria. Gradual deterioration of renal function to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) usually occurs in men in the third to fifth decade. In middle age, most males successfully treated for ESRD develop cardiac and/or cerebrovascular disease, a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Heterozygous females typically have milder symptoms at a later age of onset than males. Rarely, they may be relatively asymptomatic throughout a normal life span or may have symptoms as severe as those observed in males with the classic phenotype. In contrast, males with greater than 1% a-Gal A activity may have: (1) a cardiac variant phenotype that usually presents in the sixth to eighth decade with left ventricular hypertrophy, cardiomyopathy and arrhythmia, and proteinuria, but without ESRD; or (2) a renal variant phenotype, associated with ESRD but without the skin lesions or pain; or (3) cerebrovascular disease presenting as stroke or transient ischemic attack.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy
MedGen UID:
3925
Concept ID:
C0013264
Disease or Syndrome
The dystrophinopathies cover a spectrum of X-linked muscle disease ranging from mild to severe that includes Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Becker muscular dystrophy, and DMD-associated dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The mild end of the spectrum includes the phenotypes of asymptomatic increase in serum concentration of creatine phosphokinase (CK) and muscle cramps with myoglobinuria. The severe end of the spectrum includes progressive muscle diseases that are classified as Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy when skeletal muscle is primarily affected and as DMD-associated dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) when the heart is primarily affected. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) usually presents in early childhood with delayed motor milestones including delays in walking independently and standing up from a supine position. Proximal weakness causes a waddling gait and difficulty climbing stairs, running, jumping, and standing up from a squatting position. DMD is rapidly progressive, with affected children being wheelchair dependent by age 12 years. Cardiomyopathy occurs in almost all individuals with DMD after age 18 years. Few survive beyond the third decade, with respiratory complications and progressive cardiomyopathy being common causes of death. Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is characterized by later-onset skeletal muscle weakness. With improved diagnostic techniques, it has been recognized that the mild end of the spectrum includes men with onset of symptoms after age 30 years who remain ambulatory even into their 60s. Despite the milder skeletal muscle involvement, heart failure from DCM is a common cause of morbidity and the most common cause of death in BMD. Mean age of death is in the mid-40s. DMD-associated DCM is characterized by left ventricular dilation and congestive heart failure. Females heterozygous for a DMD pathogenic variant are at increased risk for DCM.
Endocardial fibroelastosis
MedGen UID:
4041
Concept ID:
C0014117
Disease or Syndrome
Endomyocardial fibroelastosis is a cause of unexplained childhood cardiac insufficiency. It results from diffuse thickening of the endocardium leading to dilated myocardiopathy in the majority of cases and restrictive myocardiopathy in rare cases. It may occur as a primary disorder or may be secondary to another cardiac malformation, notably aortic stenosis or atresia.
Graves disease
MedGen UID:
6677
Concept ID:
C0018213
Disease or Syndrome
Graves disease is an autoimmune disorder in which antibodies to the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR; 603372) result in constitutive activation of the receptor and increased levels of thyroid hormone. Wilkin (1990) reviewed endocrine disorders of hormone excess and hormone deficiency resulting from receptor autoimmunity.
Marfan syndrome
MedGen UID:
44287
Concept ID:
C0024796
Disease or Syndrome
Marfan syndrome, a systemic disorder of connective tissue with a high degree of clinical variability, comprises a broad phenotypic continuum ranging from mild (features of Marfan syndrome in one or a few systems) to severe and rapidly progressive neonatal multiorgan disease. Cardinal manifestations involve the ocular, skeletal, and cardiovascular systems. Ocular findings include myopia (the most common ocular feature); ectopia lentis (seen in approximately 60% of affected individuals); and an increased risk for retinal detachment, glaucoma, and early cataracts. Skeletal system manifestations include bone overgrowth and joint laxity; disproportionately long extremities for the size of the trunk (dolichostenomelia); overgrowth of the ribs that can push the sternum in (pectus excavatum) or out (pectus carinatum); and scoliosis that ranges from mild to severe and progressive. The major morbidity and early mortality in the Marfan syndrome relate to the cardiovascular system and include dilatation of the aorta at the level of the sinuses of Valsalva (predisposing to aortic tear and rupture), mitral valve prolapse with or without regurgitation, tricuspid valve prolapse, and enlargement of the proximal pulmonary artery. Severe and prolonged regurgitation of the mitral and/or aortic valve can predispose to left ventricular dysfunction and occasionally heart failure. With proper management, the life expectancy of someone with Marfan syndrome approximates that of the general population.
Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-II
MedGen UID:
7734
Concept ID:
C0026705
Disease or Syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II; also known as Hunter syndrome) is an X-linked multisystem disorder characterized by glycosaminoglycan (GAG) accumulation. The vast majority of affected individuals are male; on rare occasion heterozygous females manifest findings. Age of onset, disease severity, and rate of progression vary significantly among affected males. In those with early progressive disease, CNS involvement (manifest primarily by progressive cognitive deterioration), progressive airway disease, and cardiac disease usually result in death in the first or second decade of life. In those with slowly progressive disease, the CNS is not (or is minimally) affected, although the effect of GAG accumulation on other organ systems may be early progressive to the same degree as in those who have progressive cognitive decline. Survival into the early adult years with normal intelligence is common in the slowly progressing form of the disease. Additional findings in both forms of MPS II include: short stature; macrocephaly with or without communicating hydrocephalus; macroglossia; hoarse voice; conductive and sensorineural hearing loss; hepatosplenomegaly; dysostosis multiplex; spinal stenosis; and carpal tunnel syndrome.
Pheochromocytoma
MedGen UID:
18419
Concept ID:
C0031511
Neoplastic Process
Hereditary paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma (PGL/PCC) syndromes are characterized by paragangliomas (tumors that arise from neuroendocrine tissues distributed along the paravertebral axis from the base of the skull to the pelvis) and pheochromocytomas (paragangliomas that are confined to the adrenal medulla). Sympathetic paragangliomas cause catecholamine excess; parasympathetic paragangliomas are most often nonsecretory. Extra-adrenal parasympathetic paragangliomas are located predominantly in the skull base and neck (referred to as head and neck PGL [HNPGL]) and sometimes in the upper mediastinum; approximately 95% of such tumors are nonsecretory. In contrast, sympathetic extra-adrenal paragangliomas are generally confined to the lower mediastinum, abdomen, and pelvis, and are typically secretory. Pheochromocytomas, which arise from the adrenal medulla, typically lead to catecholamine excess. Symptoms of PGL/PCC result from either mass effects or catecholamine hypersecretion (e.g., sustained or paroxysmal elevations in blood pressure, headache, episodic profuse sweating, forceful palpitations, pallor, and apprehension or anxiety). The risk for developing metastatic disease is greater for extra-adrenal sympathetic paragangliomas than for pheochromocytomas.
Hutchinson-Gilford syndrome
MedGen UID:
46123
Concept ID:
C0033300
Disease or Syndrome
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is characterized by clinical features that typically develop in childhood and resemble some features of accelerated aging. Children with HGPS usually appear normal at birth. Profound failure to thrive occurs during the first year. Characteristic facial features include head that is disproportionately large for the face, narrow nasal ridge, narrow nasal tip, thin vermilion of the upper and lower lips, small mouth, and retro- and micrognathia. Common features include loss of subcutaneous fat, delayed eruption and loss of primary teeth, abnormal skin with small outpouchings over the abdomen and upper thighs, alopecia, nail dystrophy, coxa valga, and progressive joint contractures. Later findings include low-frequency conductive hearing loss, dental crowding, and partial lack of secondary tooth eruption. Motor and mental development is normal. Death occurs as a result of complications of severe atherosclerosis, either cardiac disease (myocardial infarction or heart failure) or cerebrovascular disease (stroke), generally between ages six and 20 years. Average life span is approximately 14.5 years.
Pseudoxanthoma elasticum
MedGen UID:
18733
Concept ID:
C0033847
Disease or Syndrome
Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a systemic disorder that affects the elastic tissue of the skin, the eye, and vascular system. Individuals most commonly present with angioid streaks of the retina found on routine eye examination or associated with retinal hemorrhage and/or characteristic papules in the skin. The most frequent cause of morbidity and disability in PXE is reduced vision due to complications of subretinal neovascularizations and macular atrophy. Other manifestations include premature gastrointestinal angina and/or bleeding, intermittent claudication of arm and leg muscles, stroke, renovascular hypertension, and cardiovascular complications (angina/myocardial infarction). Most affected individuals live a normal life span.
Phytanic acid storage disease
MedGen UID:
11161
Concept ID:
C0034960
Disease or Syndrome
Adult Refsum disease (ARD is associated with elevated plasma phytanic acid levels, late childhood-onset (or later) retinitis pigmentosa, and variable combinations of anosmia, polyneuropathy, deafness, ataxia, and ichthyosis. Onset of symptoms ranges from age seven months to older than age 50 years. Cardiac arrhythmia and heart failure caused by cardiomyopathy are potentially severe health problems that develop later in life.
Juvenile myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis AND stroke
MedGen UID:
56485
Concept ID:
C0162671
Disease or Syndrome
MELAS (mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes) is a multisystem disorder with protean manifestations. The vast majority of affected individuals develop signs and symptoms of MELAS between ages two and 40 years. Common clinical manifestations include stroke-like episodes, encephalopathy with seizures and/or dementia, muscle weakness and exercise intolerance, normal early psychomotor development, recurrent headaches, recurrent vomiting, hearing impairment, peripheral neuropathy, learning disability, and short stature. During the stroke-like episodes neuroimaging shows increased T2-weighted signal areas that do not correspond to the classic vascular distribution (hence the term "stroke-like"). Lactic acidemia is very common and muscle biopsies typically show ragged red fibers.
Cardiac valvular dysplasia, X-linked
MedGen UID:
78083
Concept ID:
C0262436
Congenital Abnormality
FLNA deficiency is associated with a phenotypic spectrum that includes FLNA-related periventricular nodular heterotopia (Huttenlocher syndrome), congenital heart disease (patent ductus arteriosus, atrial and ventricular septal defects), valvular dystrophy, dilation and rupture of the thoracic aortic, pulmonary disease (pulmonary hypertension, alveolar hypoplasia, emphysema, asthma, chronic bronchitis), gastrointestinal dysmotility and obstruction, joint hypermobility, and macrothrombocytopenia.
Infantile GM1 gangliosidosis
MedGen UID:
75665
Concept ID:
C0268271
Disease or Syndrome
GLB1-related disorders comprise two phenotypically distinct lysosomal storage disorders: GM1 gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis type IVB (MPS IVB). The phenotype of GM1 gangliosidosis constitutes a spectrum ranging from severe (infantile) to intermediate (late-infantile and juvenile) to mild (chronic/adult). Type I (infantile) GM1 gangliosidosis begins before age 12 months. Prenatal manifestations may include nonimmune hydrops fetalis, intrauterine growth restriction, and placental vacuolization; congenital dermal melanocytosis (Mongolian spots) may be observed. Macular cherry-red spot is detected on eye exam. Progressive central nervous system dysfunction leads to spasticity and rapid regression; blindness, deafness, decerebrate rigidity, seizures, feeding difficulties, and oral secretions are observed. Life expectancy is two to three years. Type II can be subdivided into the late-infantile (onset age 1-3 years) and juvenile (onset age 3-10 years) phenotypes. Central nervous system dysfunction manifests as progressive cognitive, motor, and speech decline as measured by psychometric testing. There may be mild corneal clouding, hepatosplenomegaly, and/or cardiomyopathy; the typical course is characterized by progressive neurologic decline, progressive skeletal disease in some individuals (including kyphosis and avascular necrosis of the femoral heads), and progressive feeding difficulties leading to aspiration risk. Type III begins in late childhood to the third decade with generalized dystonia leading to unsteady gait and speech disturbance followed by extrapyramidal signs including akinetic-rigid parkinsonism. Cardiomyopathy develops in some and skeletal involvement occurs in most. Intellectual impairment is common late in the disease with prognosis directly related to the degree of neurologic impairment. MPS IVB is characterized by skeletal dysplasia with specific findings of axial and appendicular dysostosis multiplex, short stature (below 15th centile in adults), kyphoscoliosis, coxa/genu valga, joint laxity, platyspondyly, and odontoid hypoplasia. First signs and symptoms may be apparent at birth. Bony involvement is progressive, with more than 84% of adults requiring ambulation aids; life span does not appear to be limited. Corneal clouding is detected in some individuals and cardiac valvular disease may develop.
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hydroxylysine-deficient
MedGen UID:
75672
Concept ID:
C0268342
Disease or Syndrome
PLOD1-related kyphoscoliotic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (kEDS) is an autosomal recessive generalized connective tissue disorder characterized by hypotonia, early-onset kyphoscoliosis, and generalized joint hypermobility in association with skin fragility and ocular abnormality. Intelligence is normal. Life span may be normal, but affected individuals are at risk for rupture of medium-sized arteries. Adults with severe kyphoscoliosis are at risk for complications from restrictive lung disease, recurrent pneumonia, and cardiac failure.
Osteogenesis imperfecta, recessive perinatal lethal
MedGen UID:
75673
Concept ID:
C0268358
Congenital Abnormality
COL1A1/2 osteogenesis imperfecta (COL1A1/2-OI) is characterized by fractures with minimal or absent trauma, variable dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI), and, in adult years, hearing loss. The clinical features of COL1A1/2-OI represent a continuum ranging from perinatal lethality to individuals with severe skeletal deformities, mobility impairments, and very short stature to nearly asymptomatic individuals with a mild predisposition to fractures, normal dentition, normal stature, and normal life span. Fractures can occur in any bone but are most common in the extremities. DI is characterized by gray or brown teeth that may appear translucent, wear down, and break easily. COL1A1/2-OI has been classified into four types based on clinical presentation and radiographic findings. This classification system can be helpful in providing information about prognosis and management for a given individual. The four more common OI types are now referred to as follows: Classic non-deforming OI with blue sclerae (previously OI type I). Perinatally lethal OI (previously OI type II). Progressively deforming OI (previously OI type III). Common variable OI with normal sclerae (previously OI type IV).
Alstrom syndrome
MedGen UID:
78675
Concept ID:
C0268425
Disease or Syndrome
Alström syndrome is characterized by cone-rod dystrophy, obesity, progressive bilateral sensorineural hearing impairment, acute infantile-onset cardiomyopathy and/or adolescent- or adult-onset restrictive cardiomyopathy, insulin resistance / type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and chronic progressive kidney disease. Cone-rod dystrophy presents as progressive visual impairment, photophobia, and nystagmus usually starting between birth and age 15 months. Many individuals lose all perception of light by the end of the second decade, but a minority retain the ability to read large print into the third decade. Children usually have normal birth weight but develop truncal obesity during their first year. Sensorineural hearing loss presents in the first decade in as many as 70% of individuals and may progress to the severe or moderately severe range (40-70 db) by the end of the first to second decade. Insulin resistance is typically accompanied by the skin changes of acanthosis nigricans, and proceeds to T2DM in the majority by the third decade. Nearly all demonstrate hypertriglyceridemia. Other findings can include endocrine abnormalities (hypothyroidism, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in males, and hyperandrogenism in females), urologic dysfunction / detrusor instability, progressive decrease in renal function, and hepatic disease (ranging from elevated transaminases to steatohepatitis/NAFLD). Approximately 20% of affected individuals have delay in early developmental milestones, most commonly in gross and fine motor skills. About 30% have a learning disability. Cognitive impairment (IQ <70) is very rare. Wide clinical variability is observed among affected individuals, even within the same family.
Primary familial dilated cardiomyopathy
MedGen UID:
90951
Concept ID:
C0340427
Disease or Syndrome
A a genetic form of heart disease that occurs when heart (cardiac) muscle becomes thin and weakened in at least one chamber of the heart, causing the open area of the chamber to become enlarged (dilated). As a result, the heart is unable to pump blood as efficiently as usual. To compensate, the heart attempts to increase the amount of blood being pumped through the heart, leading to further thinning and weakening of the cardiac muscle. Over time, this condition results in heart failure.
Renal carnitine transport defect
MedGen UID:
90999
Concept ID:
C0342788
Disease or Syndrome
Systemic primary carnitine deficiency (CDSP) is a disorder of the carnitine cycle that results in defective fatty acid oxidation. It encompasses a broad clinical spectrum including the following: Metabolic decompensation in infancy typically presenting between age three months and two years with episodes of hypoketotic hypoglycemia, poor feeding, irritability, lethargy, hepatomegaly, elevated liver transaminases, and hyperammonemia triggered by fasting or common illnesses such as upper respiratory tract infection or gastroenteritis. Childhood myopathy involving heart and skeletal muscle with onset between age two and four years. Pregnancy-related decreased stamina or exacerbation of cardiac arrhythmia. Fatigability in adulthood. Absence of symptoms. The latter two categories often include mothers diagnosed with CDSP after newborn screening has identified low carnitine levels in their infants.
Familial cutaneous collagenoma
MedGen UID:
96073
Concept ID:
C0406817
Neoplastic Process
Deletion of long arm of chromosome 18
MedGen UID:
96605
Concept ID:
C0432443
Disease or Syndrome
Monosomy 18q is a partial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 18 characterized by highly variable phenotype, most commonly including hypotonia, developmental delay, short stature, growth hormone deficiency, hearing loss and external ear anomalies, intellectual disability, palatal defects, dysmorphic facial features, skeletal anomalies (foot deformities, tapering fingers, scoliosis) and mood disorders.
Non-immune hydrops fetalis
MedGen UID:
105327
Concept ID:
C0455988
Disease or Syndrome
Hydrops fetalis is a descriptive term for generalized edema of the fetus, with fluid accumulation in extravascular components and body cavities. It is not a diagnosis in itself, but a symptom and end-stage result of a wide variety of disorders. In the case of immune hydrops fetalis, a frequent cause is maternofetal incompatibility as in that related to a number of genetic anemias and metabolic disorders expressed in the fetus; in other instances, it remains idiopathic and likely multifactorial (summary by Bellini et al., 2009). Nonimmune hydrops fetalis accounts for 76 to 87% of all described cases of hydrops fetalis (Bellini et al., 2009). Genetic Heterogeneity of Hydrops Fetalis In southeast Asia, alpha-thalassemia is the most common cause of hydrops fetalis, accounting for 60 to 90% of cases. Almost all of these cases result from homozygous deletion of the HBA1 (141800) and HBA2 (141850) genes. A few cases have been reported that had 1 apparently normal alpha-globin gene, termed the hemoglobin H (613978) hydrops fetalis syndrome (summary by Chui and Waye, 1998). Other genetic disorders predisposing to NIHF include other congenital anemias, such as erythropoietic porphyria (e.g., 606938.0013), and many metabolic disorders, such as one form of Gaucher disease (e.g., 606463.0009), infantile sialic acid storage disease (269920), mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (253220), glycogen storage disease IV (232500), congenital disorder of glycosylation type Ia (212065), and disorders of lymphatic malformation (see, e.g., LMPHM1, 153100).
Atransferrinemia
MedGen UID:
105489
Concept ID:
C0521802
Disease or Syndrome
Absence of transferrin, a protein that transports iron, in the blood.
Mulibrey nanism syndrome
MedGen UID:
99347
Concept ID:
C0524582
Disease or Syndrome
Mulibrey nanism (MUL) is a rare autosomal recessive growth disorder with prenatal onset, including occasional progressive cardiomyopathy, characteristic facial features, failure of sexual maturation, insulin resistance with type 2 diabetes, and an increased risk for Wilms tumor (summary by Hamalainen et al., 2006).
3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type 2
MedGen UID:
107893
Concept ID:
C0574083
Disease or Syndrome
Barth syndrome is characterized in affected males by cardiomyopathy, neutropenia, skeletal myopathy, prepubertal growth delay, and distinctive facial gestalt (most evident in infancy); not all features may be present in a given affected male. Cardiomyopathy, which is almost always present before age five years, is typically dilated cardiomyopathy with or without endocardial fibroelastosis or left ventricular noncompaction; hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can also occur. Heart failure is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality; risk of arrhythmia and sudden death is increased. Neutropenia is most often associated with mouth ulcers, pneumonia, and sepsis. The nonprogressive myopathy predominantly affects the proximal muscles, and results in early motor delays. Prepubertal growth delay is followed by a postpubertal growth spurt with remarkable "catch-up" growth. Heterozygous females who have a normal karyotype are asymptomatic and have normal biochemical studies.
Cataract-intellectual disability-hypogonadism syndrome
MedGen UID:
208658
Concept ID:
C0796037
Disease or Syndrome
RAB18 deficiency is the molecular deficit underlying both Warburg micro syndrome (characterized by eye, nervous system, and endocrine abnormalities) and Martsolf syndrome (characterized by similar – but milder – findings). To date Warburg micro syndrome comprises >96% of reported individuals with genetically defined RAB18 deficiency. The hallmark ophthalmologic findings are bilateral congenital cataracts, usually accompanied by microphthalmia, microcornea (diameter <10), and small atonic pupils. Poor vision despite early cataract surgery likely results from progressive optic atrophy and cortical visual impairment. Individuals with Warburg micro syndrome have severe to profound intellectual disability (ID); those with Martsolf syndrome have mild to moderate ID. Some individuals with RAB18 deficiency also have epilepsy. In Warburg micro syndrome, a progressive ascending spastic paraplegia typically begins with spastic diplegia and contractures during the first year, followed by upper-limb involvement leading to spastic quadriplegia after about age five years, often eventually causing breathing difficulties. In Martsolf syndrome infantile hypotonia is followed primarily by slowly progressive lower-limb spasticity. Hypogonadism – when present – manifests in both syndromes, in males as micropenis and/or cryptorchidism and in females as hypoplastic labia minora, clitoral hypoplasia, and small introitus.
Primary familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
MedGen UID:
183649
Concept ID:
C0949658
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary ventricular hypertrophy (CMH, HCM, ASH, or IHSS) in early stages produces a presystolic gallop due to an atrial heart sound, and EKG changes of ventricular hypertrophy. Progressive ventricular outflow obstruction may cause palpitation associated with arrhythmia, congestive heart failure, and sudden death. Seidman (2000) reviewed studies of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in man and mouse. Genetic Heterogeneity of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Additional forms of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy include CMH2 (115195), caused by mutation in the TNNT2 gene (191045) on chromosome 1q32; CMH3 (115196), caused by mutation in the TPM1 gene (191010) on chromosome 15q22; CMH4 (115197), caused by mutation in the MYBPC3 gene (600958) on chromosome 11p11; CMH6 (600858), caused by mutation in the PRKAG2 gene (602743) on chromosome 7q36; CMH7 (613690), caused by mutation in the TNNI3 gene (191044) on chromosome 19q13; CMH8 (608751), caused by mutation in the MYL3 gene (160790) on chromosome 3p21; CMH9 (613765), caused by mutation in the TTN gene (188840) on chromosome 2q31; CMH10 (608758), caused by mutation in the MYL2 gene (160781) on chromosome 12q24; CMH11 (612098), caused by mutation in the ACTC1 gene (102540) on chromosome 15q14; CMH12 (612124), caused by mutation in the CSRP3 gene (600824) on chromosome 11p15; CMH13 (613243), caused by mutation in the TNNC1 gene (191040) on chromosome 3p21; CMH14 (613251), caused by mutation in the MYH6 gene (160710) on chromosome 14q12; CMH15 (613255), caused by mutation in the VCL gene (193065) on chromosome 10q22; CMH16 (613838), caused by mutation in the MYOZ2 gene (605602) on chromosome 4q26; CMH17 (613873), caused by mutation in the JPH2 gene (605267) on chromosome 20q12; CMH18 (613874), caused by mutation in the PLN gene (172405) on chromosome 6q22; CMH20 (613876), caused by mutation in the NEXN gene (613121) on chromosome 1p31; CMH21 (614676), mapped to chromosome 7p12.1-q21; CMH22 (see 615248), caused by mutation in the MYPN gene (608517) on chromosome 10q21; CMH23 (see 612158), caused by mutation in the ACTN2 gene (102573) on chromosome 1q43; CMH24 (see 601493), caused by mutation in the LDB3 gene (605906) on chromosome 10q23; CMH25 (607487), caused by mutation in the TCAP gene (604488) on chromosome 17q12; CMH26 (617047), caused by mutation in the FLNC gene (102565) on chromosome 7q32; CMH27 (618052), caused by mutation in the ALPK3 gene (617608) on chromosome 15q25; and CMH28 (619402), caused by mutation in the FHOD3 gene (609691) on chromosome 18q12. The CMH5 designation was initially assigned to a CMH family showing genetic heterogeneity. Subsequently, affected individuals were found to carry mutations in the MYH7 (CMH1) and/or MYBPC3 (CMH4) genes. Mutations in the CALR3 gene (611414), previously suggested to cause a form of CMH (Chiu et al., 2007) designated CMH19, were convincingly shown not to be a monogenic cause of cardiomyopathy by Verhagen et al. (2018); see 611414.0001. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has also been associated with mutation in the gene encoding cardiac myosin light-peptide kinase (MYLK2; see 606566.0001), which resides on chromosome 20q13.3; the gene encoding caveolin-3 (CAV3; see 601253.0013), which maps to chromosome 3p25; and with mutations in genes encoding mitochondrial tRNAs: see mitochondrial tRNA-glycine (MTTG; 590035) and mitochondrial tRNA-isoleucine (MTTI; 590045).
Sialic acid storage disease, severe infantile type
MedGen UID:
203367
Concept ID:
C1096902
Disease or Syndrome
Free sialic acid storage disorders (FSASDs) are a spectrum of neurodegenerative disorders resulting from increased lysosomal storage of free sialic acid. Historically, FSASD was divided into separate allelic disorders: Salla disease, intermediate severe Salla disease, and infantile free sialic acid storage disease (ISSD). The mildest type was Salla disease, characterized by normal appearance and absence of neurologic findings at birth, followed by slowly progressive neurologic deterioration resulting in mild-to-moderate psychomotor delays, spasticity, athetosis, and epileptic seizures. Salla disease was named for a municipality in Finnish Lapland where a specific founder variant is relatively prevalent. However, the term Salla has been used in the literature to refer to less severe FSASD. More severe FSASD is historically referred to as ISSD, and is characterized by severe developmental delay, coarse facial features, hepatosplenomegaly, and cardiomegaly; death usually occurs in early childhood.
Diamond-Blackfan anemia
MedGen UID:
266045
Concept ID:
C1260899
Disease or Syndrome
Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is characterized by a profound normochromic and usually macrocytic anemia with normal leukocytes and platelets, congenital malformations in up to 50%, and growth deficiency in 30% of affected individuals. The hematologic complications occur in 90% of affected individuals during the first year of life. The phenotypic spectrum ranges from a mild form (e.g., mild anemia or no anemia with only subtle erythroid abnormalities, physical malformations without anemia) to a severe form of fetal anemia resulting in nonimmune hydrops fetalis. DBA is associated with an increased risk for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and solid tumors including osteogenic sarcoma.
Dilated cardiomyopathy 1A
MedGen UID:
258500
Concept ID:
C1449563
Disease or Syndrome
LMNA-related dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is caused by pathogenic variants in LMNA and is characterized by left ventricular enlargement and/or reduced systolic function preceded or accompanied by significant conduction system disease and/or arrhythmias. LMNA-related DCM usually presents in early to mid-adulthood with symptomatic conduction system disease or arrhythmias, or with symptomatic DCM including heart failure or embolus from a left ventricular mural thrombus. Sudden cardiac death can occur, and in some instances is the presenting manifestation; sudden cardiac death may occur with minimal or no systolic dysfunction.
Left ventricular noncompaction 6
MedGen UID:
316943
Concept ID:
C1832243
Disease or Syndrome
Left ventricular noncompaction is a heart (cardiac) muscle disorder that occurs when the lower left chamber of the heart (left ventricle), which helps the heart pump blood, does not develop correctly. Instead of the muscle being smooth and firm, the cardiac muscle in the left ventricle is thick and appears spongy. The abnormal cardiac muscle is weak and has an impaired ability to pump blood because it either cannot completely contract or it cannot completely relax. For the heart to pump blood normally, cardiac muscle must contract and relax fully.\n\nSome individuals with left ventricular noncompaction experience no symptoms at all; others have heart problems that can include sudden cardiac death. Additional signs and symptoms include abnormal blood clots, irregular heart rhythm (arrhythmia), a sensation of fluttering or pounding in the chest (palpitations), extreme fatigue during exercise (exercise intolerance), shortness of breath (dyspnea), fainting (syncope), swelling of the legs (lymphedema), and trouble laying down flat. Some affected individuals have features of other heart defects. Left ventricular noncompaction can be diagnosed at any age, from birth to late adulthood. Approximately two-thirds of individuals with left ventricular noncompaction develop heart failure.
Dilated cardiomyopathy 1C
MedGen UID:
316944
Concept ID:
C1832244
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal dominant sub-type of dilated cardiomyopathy caused by mutation(s) in the LDB3 gene, encoding LIM domain-binding protein 3.
Naxos disease
MedGen UID:
321991
Concept ID:
C1832600
Disease or Syndrome
In Naxos disease, abnormalities of the skin, hair, and nails are associated with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. The ectodermal features are evident from birth or early childhood, whereas the cardiac symptoms develop in young adulthood or later. Clinical variability of ectodermal features has been observed, with hair anomalies ranging from woolly hair to alopecia, and skin abnormalities ranging from mild focal palmoplantar keratoderma to generalized skin fragility or even lethal neonatal epidermolysis bullosa (Protonotarios et al., 1986; Cabral et al., 2010; Pigors et al., 2011; Erken et al., 2011; Sen-Chowdhry and McKenna, 2014). Another syndrome involving cardiomyopathy, woolly hair, and keratoderma (Carvajal syndrome; 605676) is caused by mutation in the desmoplakin gene (DSP; 125647). Also see 610476 for a similar disorder caused by homozygous mutation in the DSC2 gene (125645).
Dilated cardiomyopathy 1S
MedGen UID:
371831
Concept ID:
C1834481
Disease or Syndrome
Any familial isolated dilated cardiomyopathy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the MYH7 gene.
Dilated cardiomyopathy 1P
MedGen UID:
322782
Concept ID:
C1835928
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal dominant sub-type of dilated cardiomyopathy caused by mutation(s) in the PLN gene, encoding cardiac phospholamban.
Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 8
MedGen UID:
324806
Concept ID:
C1837471
Disease or Syndrome
Any hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the MYL3 gene.
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia 8
MedGen UID:
336069
Concept ID:
C1843896
Disease or Syndrome
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) – previously referred to as arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) – is characterized by progressive fibrofatty replacement of the myocardium that predisposes to ventricular tachycardia and sudden death in young individuals and athletes. It primarily affects the right ventricle, and it may also involve the left ventricle. The presentation of disease is highly variable even within families, and some affected individuals may not meet established clinical criteria. The mean age at diagnosis is 31 years (±13; range: 4-64 years).
Charcot-Marie-Tooth peroneal muscular atrophy and Friedreich ataxia, combined
MedGen UID:
337104
Concept ID:
C1844863
Disease or Syndrome
Dyskinesia, familial, with facial myokymia
MedGen UID:
338280
Concept ID:
C1847627
Disease or Syndrome
ADCY5 dyskinesia is a hyperkinetic movement disorder (more prominent in the face and arms than the legs) characterized by infantile to late-adolescent onset of chorea, athetosis, dystonia, myoclonus, or a combination of these. To date, affected individuals have had overlapping (but not identical) manifestations with wide-ranging severity. The facial movements are typically periorbital and perioral. The dyskinesia is prone to episodic or paroxysmal exacerbation lasting minutes to hours, and may occur during sleep. Precipitating factors in some persons have included emotional stress, intercurrent illness, sneezing, or caffeine; in others, no precipitating factors have been identified. In some children, severe infantile axial hypotonia results in gross motor delays accompanied by chorea, sometimes with language delays. The overall tendency is for the abnormal movements to stabilize in early middle age, at which point they may improve in some individuals; less commonly, the abnormal movements are slowly progressive, increasing in severity and frequency.
Dilated cardiomyopathy 1L
MedGen UID:
335735
Concept ID:
C1847667
Disease or Syndrome
Dilated cardiomyopathy, a disorder characterized by cardiac dilation and reduced systolic function, represents an outcome of a heterogeneous group of inherited and acquired disorders. For background and phenotypic information on dilated cardiomyopathy, see CMD1A (115200).
Glycogen storage disease of heart, lethal congenital
MedGen UID:
337919
Concept ID:
C1849813
Disease or Syndrome
Any glycogen storage disease in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the PRKAG2 gene.
Pancreatic insufficiency, combined exocrine
MedGen UID:
340462
Concept ID:
C1850081
Disease or Syndrome
Myopathy, myosin storage, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
340603
Concept ID:
C1850709
Disease or Syndrome
Dilated cardiomyopathy with woolly hair and keratoderma
MedGen UID:
340124
Concept ID:
C1854063
Disease or Syndrome
This syndrome has characteristics of woolly hair, palmoplantar keratoderma and dilated cardiomyopathy principally affecting the left ventricle. Only a few cases have been reported, all involving patients from Ecuador, India or Turkey. The woolly hair is present at birth and the palmoplantar keratoderma appears during the first year of life. The cardiac anomaly presents during childhood and is marked by dilation of the left ventricle accompanied by alterations in muscle contractility. The syndrome is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait and is caused by mutations in the DSP gene (6p24) encoding desmoplakin, a protein involved in cell adhesion. The syndrome is similar to Naxos disease.
Dilated cardiomyopathy 1J
MedGen UID:
343105
Concept ID:
C1854368
Disease or Syndrome
Sensorineural deafness with dilated cardiomyopathy is an extremely rare autosomal dominant syndrome described in two families to date and characterized by moderate to severe sensorineural hearing loss manifesting during childhood, and associated with late-onset dilated cardiomyopathy that generally progresses to heart failure.
Vici syndrome
MedGen UID:
340962
Concept ID:
C1855772
Disease or Syndrome
Vici syndrome is a rare congenital multisystem disorder characterized by agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC), cataracts, pigmentary defects, progressive cardiomyopathy, and variable immunodeficiency. Affected individuals also have profound psychomotor retardation and hypotonia due to a myopathy (summary by Finocchi et al., 2012).
Friedreich ataxia and congenital glaucoma
MedGen UID:
344787
Concept ID:
C1856688
Disease or Syndrome
Friedreich ataxia 1
MedGen UID:
383962
Concept ID:
C1856689
Disease or Syndrome
Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is characterized by slowly progressive ataxia with onset usually before age 25 years (mean age at onset: 10-15 yrs). FRDA is typically associated with dysarthria, muscle weakness, spasticity particularly in the lower limbs, scoliosis, bladder dysfunction, absent lower-limb reflexes, and loss of position and vibration sense. Approximately two thirds of individuals with FRDA have cardiomyopathy, up to 30% have diabetes mellitus, and approximately 25% have an "atypical" presentation with later onset or retained tendon reflexes.
3-methylglutaconic aciduria type V
MedGen UID:
347542
Concept ID:
C1857776
Disease or Syndrome
3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type V is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the onset of dilated or noncompaction cardiomyopathy in infancy or early childhood. Many patients die of cardiac failure. Other features include microcytic anemia, growth retardation, mild ataxia, mild muscle weakness, genital anomalies in males, and increased urinary excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid. Some patients may have optic atrophy or delayed psychomotor development (summary by Davey et al., 2006 and Ojala et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, see MGCA type I (250950).
Dilated cardiomyopathy 1I
MedGen UID:
387998
Concept ID:
C1858154
Disease or Syndrome
Any familial isolated dilated cardiomyopathy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the DES gene.
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, type 5
MedGen UID:
346805
Concept ID:
C1858379
Disease or Syndrome
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) – previously referred to as arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) – is characterized by progressive fibrofatty replacement of the myocardium that predisposes to ventricular tachycardia and sudden death in young individuals and athletes. It primarily affects the right ventricle, and it may also involve the left ventricle. The presentation of disease is highly variable even within families, and some affected individuals may not meet established clinical criteria. The mean age at diagnosis is 31 years (±13; range: 4-64 years).
Left ventricular noncompaction 1
MedGen UID:
349005
Concept ID:
C1858725
Disease or Syndrome
Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is characterized by numerous prominent trabeculations and deep intertrabecular recesses in hypertrophied and hypokinetic segments of the left ventricle (Sasse-Klaassen et al., 2004). The mechanistic basis is thought to be an intrauterine arrest of myocardial development with lack of compaction of the loose myocardial meshwork. LVNC may occur in isolation or in association with congenital heart disease. Distinctive morphologic features can be recognized on 2-dimensional echocardiography (Kurosaki et al., 1999). Noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium is sometimes referred to as spongy myocardium. Stollberger et al. (2002) commented that the term 'isolated LVNC,' meaning LVNC without coexisting cardiac abnormalities, is misleading, because additional cardiac abnormalities are found in nearly all patients with LVNC. Genetic Heterogeneity of Left Ventricular Noncompaction A locus for autosomal dominant left ventricular noncompaction has been identified on chromosome 11p15 (LVNC2; 609470). LVNC3 (see 605906) is caused by mutation in the LDB3 gene (605906) on chromosome 10q23. LVNC4 (see 613424) is caused by mutation in the ACTC1 gene (102540) on chromosome 15q14. LVNC5 (see 613426) is caused by mutation in the MYH7 gene (160760) on chromosome 14q12. LVNC6 (see 601494) is caused by mutation in the TNNT2 gene (191045) on chromosome 1q32. LVNC7 (615092) is caused by mutation in the MIB1 gene (608677) on chromosome 18q11. LVNC8 (615373) is caused by mutation in the PRDM16 gene (605557) on chromosome 1p36. LVNC9 (see 611878) is caused by mutation in the TPM1 gene (191010) on chromosome 15q22. LVNC10 (615396) is caused by mutation in the MYBPC3 gene (600958) on chromosome 11p11. LVNC can also occur as part of an X-linked disorder, Barth syndrome (302060), caused by mutation in the TAZ gene (300394) on chromosome Xq28.
Dilated cardiomyopathy 1G
MedGen UID:
347714
Concept ID:
C1858763
Disease or Syndrome
Any familial isolated dilated cardiomyopathy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the TTN gene.
Cardiac lipidosis, familial
MedGen UID:
395234
Concept ID:
C1859332
Disease or Syndrome
Triosephosphate isomerase deficiency
MedGen UID:
349893
Concept ID:
C1860808
Disease or Syndrome
Triosephosphate isomerase deficiency (TPID) is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by congenital hemolytic anemia, and progressive neuromuscular dysfunction beginning in early childhood. Many patients die from respiratory failure in childhood. The neurologic syndrome is variable, but usually includes lower motor neuron dysfunction with hypotonia, muscle weakness and atrophy, and hyporeflexia. Some patients may show additional signs such as dystonic posturing and/or spasticity. Laboratory studies show intracellular accumulation of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), particularly in red blood cells (summary by Fermo et al., 2010).
Hemochromatosis type 2A
MedGen UID:
356321
Concept ID:
C1865614
Disease or Syndrome
Juvenile hemochromatosis is characterized by onset of severe iron overload occurring typically in the first to third decades of life. Males and females are equally affected. Prominent clinical features include hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, cardiomyopathy, glucose intolerance and diabetes, arthropathy, and liver fibrosis or cirrhosis. Hepatocellular cancer has been reported occasionally. The main cause of death is cardiac disease. If juvenile hemochromatosis is detected early enough and if blood is removed regularly through the process of phlebotomy to achieve iron depletion, morbidity and mortality are greatly reduced.
Hemochromatosis type 2B
MedGen UID:
356040
Concept ID:
C1865616
Disease or Syndrome
Juvenile hemochromatosis is characterized by onset of severe iron overload occurring typically in the first to third decades of life. Males and females are equally affected. Prominent clinical features include hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, cardiomyopathy, glucose intolerance and diabetes, arthropathy, and liver fibrosis or cirrhosis. Hepatocellular cancer has been reported occasionally. The main cause of death is cardiac disease. If juvenile hemochromatosis is detected early enough and if blood is removed regularly through the process of phlebotomy to achieve iron depletion, morbidity and mortality are greatly reduced.
Friedreich ataxia 2
MedGen UID:
356134
Concept ID:
C1865981
Disease or Syndrome
Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive gait and limb ataxia with associated limb muscle weakness, absent lower limb reflexes, extensor plantar responses, dysarthria, and decreased vibratory sense and proprioception. Onset is usually in the first or second decade, before the end of puberty (summary by Delatycki et al., 2000). For a general phenotypic description of Friedreich ataxia (FRDA), see FRDA1 (229300), which is caused by mutation in the FXN gene (606829) on chromosome 9q13.
Pheochromocytoma-islet cell tumor syndrome
MedGen UID:
401431
Concept ID:
C1868392
Neoplastic Process
Mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency
MedGen UID:
370665
Concept ID:
C1969443
Disease or Syndrome
The mitochondrial trifunctional protein, composed of 4 alpha and 4 beta subunits, catalyzes 3 steps in mitochondrial beta-oxidation of fatty acids: long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD), long-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase, and long-chain thiolase activities. Trifunctional protein deficiency is characterized by decreased activity of all 3 enzymes. Clinically, classic trifunctional protein deficiency can be classified into 3 main clinical phenotypes: neonatal onset of a severe, lethal condition resulting in sudden unexplained infant death (SIDS; 272120), infantile onset of a hepatic Reye-like syndrome, and late-adolescent onset of primarily a skeletal myopathy (Spiekerkoetter et al., 2003). Some patients with MTP deficiency show a protracted progressive course associated with myopathy, recurrent rhabdomyolysis, and sensorimotor axonal neuropathy. These patients tend to survive into adolescence and adulthood (den Boer et al., 2003). See also isolated LCHAD deficiency (609016), which is caused by mutation in the HADHA gene.
Carney complex, type 1
MedGen UID:
388559
Concept ID:
C2607929
Disease or Syndrome
Carney complex (CNC) is characterized by skin pigmentary abnormalities, myxomas, endocrine tumors or overactivity, and schwannomas. Pale brown to black lentigines are the most common presenting feature of CNC and typically increase in number at puberty. Cardiac myxomas occur at a young age, may occur in any or all cardiac chambers, and can manifest as intracardiac obstruction of blood flow, embolic phenomenon, and/or heart failure. Other sites for myxomas include the skin, breast, oropharynx, and female genital tract. Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD), which causes Cushing syndrome, is the most frequently observed endocrine tumor in CNC, occurring in approximately 25% of affected individuals. Large-cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumors (LCCSCTs) are observed in one third of affected males within the first decade and in most adult males. Up to 75% of individuals with CNC have multiple thyroid nodules, most of which are nonfunctioning thyroid follicular adenomas. Clinically evident acromegaly from a growth hormone (GH)-producing adenoma is evident in approximately 10% of adults. Psammomatous melanotic schwannoma (PMS), a rare tumor of the nerve sheath, occurs in an estimated 10% of affected individuals. The median age of diagnosis is 20 years.
Mucolipidosis type II
MedGen UID:
435914
Concept ID:
C2673377
Disease or Syndrome
GNPTAB-related disorders comprise the phenotypes mucolipidosis II (ML II) and mucolipidosis IIIa/ß (ML IIIa/ß), and phenotypes intermediate between ML II and ML IIIa/ß. ML II is evident at birth and slowly progressive; death most often occurs in early childhood. Orthopedic abnormalities present at birth may include thoracic deformity, kyphosis, clubfeet, deformed long bones, and/or dislocation of the hip(s). Growth often ceases in the second year of life; contractures develop in all large joints. The skin is thickened, facial features are coarse, and gingiva are hypertrophic. All children have cardiac involvement, most commonly thickening and insufficiency of the mitral valve and, less frequently, the aortic valve. Progressive mucosal thickening narrows the airways, and gradual stiffening of the thoracic cage contributes to respiratory insufficiency, the most common cause of death. ML IIIa/ß becomes evident at about age three years with slow growth rate and short stature; joint stiffness and pain initially in the shoulders, hips, and fingers; gradual mild coarsening of facial features; and normal to mildly impaired cognitive development. Pain from osteoporosis becomes more severe during adolescence. Cardiorespiratory complications (restrictive lung disease, thickening and insufficiency of the mitral and aortic valves, left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy) are common causes of death, typically in early to middle adulthood. Phenotypes intermediate between ML II and ML IIIa/ß are characterized by physical growth in infancy that resembles that of ML II and neuromotor and speech development that resemble that of ML IIIa/ß.
Severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans
MedGen UID:
393098
Concept ID:
C2674173
Congenital Abnormality
SADDAN (severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans) is a rare disorder of bone growth characterized by skeletal, brain, and skin abnormalities.\n\nAll people with this condition have extremely short stature with particularly short arms and legs. Other features include unusual bowing of the leg bones; a small chest with short ribs and curved collar bones; short, broad fingers; and folds of extra skin on the arms and legs. Structural abnormalities of the brain cause seizures, profound developmental delay, and intellectual disability. Several affected individuals also have had episodes in which their breathing slows or stops for short periods (apnea). Acanthosis nigricans, a progressive skin disorder characterized by thick, dark, velvety skin, is another characteristic feature of SADDAN that develops in infancy or early childhood.
Diamond-Blackfan anemia 1
MedGen UID:
390966
Concept ID:
C2676137
Disease or Syndrome
Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is characterized by a profound normochromic and usually macrocytic anemia with normal leukocytes and platelets, congenital malformations in up to 50%, and growth deficiency in 30% of affected individuals. The hematologic complications occur in 90% of affected individuals during the first year of life. The phenotypic spectrum ranges from a mild form (e.g., mild anemia or no anemia with only subtle erythroid abnormalities, physical malformations without anemia) to a severe form of fetal anemia resulting in nonimmune hydrops fetalis. DBA is associated with an increased risk for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and solid tumors including osteogenic sarcoma.
Dilated cardiomyopathy 2A
MedGen UID:
437214
Concept ID:
C2678474
Disease or Syndrome
A dilated cardiomyopathy that has material basis in mutation in the TNNI3 gene on chromosome 19q13.
Dilated cardiomyopathy 1Y
MedGen UID:
437215
Concept ID:
C2678476
Disease or Syndrome
Dilated cardiomyopathy-1Y (CMD1Y) is characterized by severe progressive cardiac failure, resulting in death in the third to sixth decades of life in some patients. Electron microscopy shows an abnormal sarcomere structure (Olson et al., 2001). In left ventricular noncompaction-9 (LVNC9), patients may present with cardiac failure or may be asymptomatic. Echocardiography shows noncompaction of the apex and midventricular wall of the left ventricle (Probst et al., 2011). Some patients also exhibit Ebstein anomaly of the tricuspid valve (Kelle et al., 2016) and some have mitral valve insufficiency (Nijak et al., 2018).
Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 15
MedGen UID:
413312
Concept ID:
C2750459
Disease or Syndrome
Any hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the VCL gene.
Dilated cardiomyopathy 1DD
MedGen UID:
416441
Concept ID:
C2750995
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal dominant sub-type of dilated cardiomyopathy caused by mutation(s) in the RBM20 gene, encoding RNA-binding protein 20.
COG7 congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
419311
Concept ID:
C2931010
Disease or Syndrome
CDG IIe is caused by a mutation that impairs the integrity of the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex and alters Golgi trafficking, resulting in the disruption of multiple glycosylation pathways. For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065).
Dilated cardiomyopathy 1R
MedGen UID:
462031
Concept ID:
C3150681
Disease or Syndrome
Any familial isolated dilated cardiomyopathy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ACTC1 gene.
Long QT syndrome 13
MedGen UID:
462083
Concept ID:
C3150733
Disease or Syndrome
Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a cardiac electrophysiologic disorder, characterized by QT prolongation and T-wave abnormalities on the ECG that are associated with tachyarrhythmias, typically the ventricular tachycardia torsade de pointes (TdP). TdP is usually self-terminating, thus causing a syncopal event, the most common symptom in individuals with LQTS. Such cardiac events typically occur during exercise and emotional stress, less frequently during sleep, and usually without warning. In some instances, TdP degenerates to ventricular fibrillation and causes aborted cardiac arrest (if the individual is defibrillated) or sudden death. Approximately 50% of untreated individuals with a pathogenic variant in one of the genes associated with LQTS have symptoms, usually one to a few syncopal events. While cardiac events may occur from infancy through middle age, they are most common from the preteen years through the 20s. Some types of LQTS are associated with a phenotype extending beyond cardiac arrhythmia. In addition to the prolonged QT interval, associations include muscle weakness and facial dysmorphism in Andersen-Tawil syndrome (LQTS type 7); hand/foot, facial, and neurodevelopmental features in Timothy syndrome (LQTS type 8); and profound sensorineural hearing loss in Jervell and Lange-Nielson syndrome.
Dilated cardiomyopathy 1V
MedGen UID:
462308
Concept ID:
C3150958
Disease or Syndrome
Any familial isolated dilated cardiomyopathy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the PSEN2 gene.
Dilated cardiomyopathy 1HH
MedGen UID:
462643
Concept ID:
C3151293
Disease or Syndrome
Any familial isolated dilated cardiomyopathy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the BAG3 gene.
Cardiomyopathy, dilated, 1u
MedGen UID:
463620
Concept ID:
C3160720
Disease or Syndrome
Any familial isolated dilated cardiomyopathy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the PSEN1 gene.
Atrioventricular septal defect 3
MedGen UID:
477381
Concept ID:
C3275750
Disease or Syndrome
Generalized arterial calcification of infancy 2
MedGen UID:
477791
Concept ID:
C3276161
Disease or Syndrome
Generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI) is characterized by infantile onset of widespread arterial calcification and/or narrowing of large and medium-sized vessels resulting in cardiovascular findings (which can include heart failure, respiratory distress, edema, cyanosis, hypertension, and/or cardiomegaly). Additional findings can include typical skin and retinal manifestations of pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), periarticular calcifications, development of rickets after infancy, cervical spine fusion, and hearing loss. While mortality in infancy is high, survival into the third and fourth decades has occurred.
Geleophysic dysplasia 1
MedGen UID:
479777
Concept ID:
C3278147
Disease or Syndrome
Geleophysic dysplasia, a progressive condition resembling a lysosomal storage disorder, is characterized by short stature, short hands and feet, progressive joint limitation and contractures, distinctive facial features, progressive cardiac valvular disease, and thickened skin. Intellect is normal. Major findings are likely to be present in the first year of life. Cardiac, respiratory, and lung involvement result in death before age five years in approximately 33% of individuals with ADAMTSL2-related geleophysic dysplasia.
Hemochromatosis type 1
MedGen UID:
854011
Concept ID:
C3469186
Disease or Syndrome
HFE hemochromatosis is characterized by inappropriately high absorption of iron by the small intestinal mucosa. The phenotypic spectrum of HFE hemochromatosis includes: Persons with clinical HFE hemochromatosis, in whom manifestations of end-organ damage secondary to iron overload are present; Individuals with biochemical HFE hemochromatosis, in whom transferrin-iron saturation is increased and the only evidence of iron overload is increased serum ferritin concentration; and Non-expressing p.Cys282Tyr homozygotes, in whom neither clinical manifestations of HFE hemochromatosis nor iron overload are present. Clinical HFE hemochromatosis is characterized by excessive storage of iron in the liver, skin, pancreas, heart, joints, and anterior pituitary gland. In untreated individuals, early symptoms include: abdominal pain, weakness, lethargy, weight loss, arthralgias, diabetes mellitus; and increased risk of cirrhosis when the serum ferritin is higher than 1,000 ng/mL. Other findings may include progressive increase in skin pigmentation, congestive heart failure, and/or arrhythmias, arthritis, and hypogonadism. Clinical HFE hemochromatosis is more common in men than women.
Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 1
MedGen UID:
501195
Concept ID:
C3495498
Disease or Syndrome
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is typically defined by the presence of unexplained left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Such LVH occurs in a non-dilated ventricle in the absence of other cardiac or systemic disease capable of producing the observed magnitude of increased LV wall thickness, such as pressure overload (e.g., long-standing hypertension, aortic stenosis) or storage/infiltrative disorders (e.g., Fabry disease, amyloidosis). The clinical manifestations of HCM range from asymptomatic LVH to progressive heart failure to sudden cardiac death (SCD), and vary from individual to individual even within the same family. Common symptoms include shortness of breath (particularly with exertion), chest pain, palpitations, orthostasis, presyncope, and syncope. Most often the LVH of HCM becomes apparent during adolescence or young adulthood, although it may also develop late in life, in infancy, or in childhood.
Mental retardation, X-linked, syndromic 32
MedGen UID:
763827
Concept ID:
C3550913
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked intellectual disability-cardiomegaly-congestive heart failure syndrome is a rare X-linked syndromic intellectual disability disorder characterized by profound intellectual disability, global developmental delay with absent speech, seizures, large joint contractures, abnormal position of thumbs and middle-age onset of cardiomegaly and atrioventricular valve abnormalities, resulting in subsequent congestive heart failure. Additional features include variable facial dysmorphism (notably large ears with overfolded helix) and large testes.
Cardiomyopathy, dilated, 2b
MedGen UID:
766323
Concept ID:
C3553409
Disease or Syndrome
Any familial isolated dilated cardiomyopathy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the GATAD1 gene.
Dilated cardiomyopathy 1KK
MedGen UID:
811544
Concept ID:
C3714995
Disease or Syndrome
Any dilated cardiomyopathy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the MYPN gene.
Left ventricular noncompaction 8
MedGen UID:
815618
Concept ID:
C3809288
Disease or Syndrome
Some individuals with left ventricular noncompaction experience no symptoms at all; others have heart problems that can include sudden cardiac death. Additional signs and symptoms include abnormal blood clots, irregular heart rhythm (arrhythmia), a sensation of fluttering or pounding in the chest (palpitations), extreme fatigue during exercise (exercise intolerance), shortness of breath (dyspnea), fainting (syncope), swelling of the legs (lymphedema), and trouble laying down flat. Some affected individuals have features of other heart defects. Left ventricular noncompaction can be diagnosed at any age, from birth to late adulthood. Approximately two-thirds of individuals with left ventricular noncompaction develop heart failure.\n\nLeft ventricular noncompaction is a heart (cardiac) muscle disorder that occurs when the lower left chamber of the heart (left ventricle), which helps the heart pump blood, does not develop correctly. Instead of the muscle being smooth and firm, the cardiac muscle in the left ventricle is thick and appears spongy. The abnormal cardiac muscle is weak and has an impaired ability to pump blood because it either cannot completely contract or it cannot completely relax. For the heart to pump blood normally, cardiac muscle must contract and relax fully.
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 17
MedGen UID:
815856
Concept ID:
C3809526
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-17 is an autosomal recessive disorder of mitochondrial dysfunction characterized by onset of severe hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the first year of life. Other features include hypotonia, poor growth, lactic acidosis, and failure to thrive. The disorder may be fatal in early childhood (summary by Haack et al., 2013).
Morbid obesity and spermatogenic failure
MedGen UID:
816654
Concept ID:
C3810324
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, genetic form of obesity characterized by morbid obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia leading to early coronary disease, myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure. Intellectual disability and decreased sperm counts or azoospermia have also been reported.
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 22
MedGen UID:
863499
Concept ID:
C4015062
Disease or Syndrome
Cardiac conduction disease with or without dilated cardiomyopathy
MedGen UID:
863722
Concept ID:
C4015285
Disease or Syndrome
Atrial conduction disorder is a form of heart disease in which the conduction of the cardiac atrium is disrupted
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 23
MedGen UID:
863884
Concept ID:
C4015447
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-23 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early childhood onset of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and/or neurologic symptoms, including hypotonia and delayed psychomotor development. Laboratory investigations are consistent with a defect in mitochondrial function resulting in lactic acidosis, impaired activities of respiratory complexes I and IV, and defective translation of mitochondrial proteins. Brain imaging shows abnormal lesions in the basal ganglia, thalamus, and brainstem. The severity of the disorder is variable, ranging from death in early infancy to survival into the second decade (summary by Kopajtich et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Spinal muscular atrophy with congenital bone fractures 1
MedGen UID:
896011
Concept ID:
C4225177
Disease or Syndrome
Spinal muscular atrophy with congenital bone fractures is an autosomal recessive severe neuromuscular disorder characterized by onset of severe hypotonia with fetal hypokinesia in utero. This results in congenital contractures, consistent with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita, and increased incidence of prenatal fracture of the long bones. Affected infants have difficulty breathing and feeding and often die in the first days or months of life (summary by Knierim et al., 2016). Genetic Heterogeneity of Spinal Muscular Atrophy With Congenital Bone Fractures See also SMABF2 (616867), caused by mutation in the ASCC1 gene (614215) on chromosome 10q22.
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 28
MedGen UID:
907499
Concept ID:
C4225206
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-28 (COXPD28) is a complex autosomal recessive multisystem disorder associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. The phenotype is variable, but includes episodic metabolic decompensation beginning in infancy that can result in mild muscle weakness, cardiorespiratory insufficiency, developmental delay, or even death. Biochemical studies of patient tissues show variable mitochondrial defects, including decreased activities of respiratory chain enzymes (summary by Kishita et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Singleton-Merten syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
899946
Concept ID:
C4225427
Disease or Syndrome
Singleton-Merten syndrome (SGMRT) is an uncommon autosomal dominant disorder characterized by abnormalities of blood vessels, teeth, and bone. Calcifications of the aorta and aortic and mitral valves occur in childhood or puberty and can lead to early death. Dental findings include delayed primary tooth exfoliation and permanent tooth eruption, truncated tooth root formation, early-onset periodontal disease, and severe root and alveolar bone resorption associated with dysregulated mineralization, leading to tooth loss. Osseous features consist of osteoporosis, either generalized or limited to distal extremities, distal limb osteolysis, widened medullary cavities, and easy tearing of tendons from bone. Less common features are mild facial dysmorphism (high anterior hair line, broad forehead, smooth philtrum, thin upper vermilion border), generalized muscle weakness, psoriasis, early-onset glaucoma, and recurrent infections. The disorder manifests with variable inter- and intrafamilial phenotypes (summary by Rutsch et al., 2015). Genetic Heterogeneity of Singleton-Merten Syndrome An atypical form of Singleton-Merten syndrome (SGMRT2; 616298) is caused by mutation in the DDX58 gene (609631) on chromosome 9p21.
Mucopolysaccharidosis-plus syndrome
MedGen UID:
934594
Concept ID:
C4310627
Disease or Syndrome
MPSPS is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism resulting in a multisystem disorder with features of the mucopolysaccharidosis lysosomal storage diseases (see, e.g., 607016). Patients present in infancy or early childhood with respiratory difficulties, cardiac problems, anemia, dysostosis multiplex, renal involvement, coarse facies, and delayed psychomotor development. Most patients die of cardiorespiratory failure in the first years of life (summary by Kondo et al., 2017).
Seckel syndrome 10
MedGen UID:
934614
Concept ID:
C4310647
Disease or Syndrome
Sudden cardiac failure, infantile
MedGen UID:
934631
Concept ID:
C4310664
Disease or Syndrome
Cardiomyopathy, familial hypertrophic, 26
MedGen UID:
934716
Concept ID:
C4310749
Disease or Syndrome
Any hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the FLNC gene.
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 2D
MedGen UID:
1376619
Concept ID:
C4479409
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type IID (ARCL2D) is characterized by generalized skin wrinkling with sparse subcutaneous fat and dysmorphic progeroid facial features. Most patients also exhibit severe hypotonia as well as cardiovascular and neurologic involvement (summary by Van Damme et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive cutis laxa, see ARCL1A (219100).
Arterial calcification, generalized, of infancy, 1
MedGen UID:
1631685
Concept ID:
C4551985
Disease or Syndrome
Generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI) is characterized by infantile onset of widespread arterial calcification and/or narrowing of large and medium-sized vessels resulting in cardiovascular findings (which can include heart failure, respiratory distress, edema, cyanosis, hypertension, and/or cardiomegaly). Additional findings can include typical skin and retinal manifestations of pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), periarticular calcifications, development of rickets after infancy, cervical spine fusion, and hearing loss. While mortality in infancy is high, survival into the third and fourth decades has occurred.
Proteasome-associated autoinflammatory syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1648310
Concept ID:
C4746851
Disease or Syndrome
This autosomal recessive systemic autoinflammatory disorder is characterized by early childhood onset of annular erythematous plaques on the face and extremities with subsequent development of partial lipodystrophy and laboratory evidence of immune dysregulation. More variable features include recurrent fever, severe joint contractures, muscle weakness and atrophy, hepatosplenomegaly, basal ganglia calcifications, and microcytic anemia (summary by Agarwal et al., 2010; Kitamura et al., 2011; Arima et al., 2011). This disorder encompasses Nakajo-Nishimura syndrome (NKJO); joint contractures, muscular atrophy, microcytic anemia, and panniculitis-induced lipodystrophy (JMP syndrome); and chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature syndrome (CANDLE). Among Japanese patients, this disorder is best described as Nakajo-Nishimura syndrome, since both Nakajo (1939) and Nishimura et al. (1950) contributed to the original phenotypic descriptions. Genetic Heterogeneity of Proteasome-Associated Autoinflammatory Syndrome See also PRAAS2 (618048), caused by mutation in the POMP gene (613386) on chromosome 13q12; PRAAS3 (617591), caused by mutation in the PSMB4 gene (602177) on chromosome 1q21; PRAAS4 (619183), caused by mutation in the PSMG2 gene (609702) on chromosome 18p11; and PRAAS5 (619175), caused by mutation in the PSMB10 gene (176847) on chromosome 16q22.
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 30
MedGen UID:
1648313
Concept ID:
C4746985
Disease or Syndrome
Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family, member 9, deficiency of
MedGen UID:
1648400
Concept ID:
C4747517
Disease or Syndrome
MC1DN20 is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by infantile onset of acute metabolic acidosis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and muscle weakness associated with a deficiency of mitochondrial complex I activity in muscle, liver, and fibroblasts (summary by Haack et al., 2010). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex I deficiency, see 252010.
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 11
MedGen UID:
1648356
Concept ID:
C4748769
Disease or Syndrome
Myopathy, congenital, with structured cores and z-line abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1684705
Concept ID:
C5231445
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex 4 deficiency, nuclear type 4
MedGen UID:
1748100
Concept ID:
C5436683
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 4 (MC4DN4) is an autosomal recessive multisystem metabolic disorder characterized by the onset of symptoms in infancy. Affected individuals show hypotonia, failure to thrive, and neurologic distress. Additional features include hepatomegaly, hepatic steatosis, increased serum lactate, and metabolic acidosis. Some patients may develop hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Patient tissues show decreased levels and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV. Death usually occurs in infancy (summary by Valnot et al., 2000 and Stiburek et al., 2009). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110.
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 14 (cardioencephalomyopathic type)
MedGen UID:
903789
Concept ID:
C4225163
Disease or Syndrome

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Lee YK, Choi DO, Kim GY
Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Jul 25;57(8) doi: 10.3390/medicina57080751. PMID: 34440957Free PMC Article
Levy-Lambert D, Ramly EP, Kantar RS, Alfonso AR, Levine JP
Plast Reconstr Surg 2020 Dec;146(6):790e-795e. doi: 10.1097/PRS.0000000000007363. PMID: 33234977
Alabed S, Sabouni A, Al Dakhoul S, Bdaiwi Y
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2020 Jul 23;7:CD007037. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007037.pub4. PMID: 32700759Free PMC Article
Attaran RR, Cavanaugh A, Tsay C, Ahmad T, Ochoa Chaar CI, Persing S, Hsia H
Phlebology 2020 Sep;35(8):556-560. Epub 2020 Feb 6 doi: 10.1177/0268355520905178. PMID: 32028849
McKay C, Park C, Chang J, Brackbill M, Choi JY, Lee JH, Kim SH
Clin Drug Investig 2019 Aug;39(8):703-712. doi: 10.1007/s40261-019-00797-2. PMID: 31102109

Diagnosis

Lee YK, Choi DO, Kim GY
Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Jul 25;57(8) doi: 10.3390/medicina57080751. PMID: 34440957Free PMC Article
Wu Z, Tian T, Ma W, Gao W, Song N
BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2020 Nov 25;20(1):498. doi: 10.1186/s12872-020-01790-w. PMID: 33238887Free PMC Article
Alabed S, Sabouni A, Al Dakhoul S, Bdaiwi Y
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2020 Jul 23;7:CD007037. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007037.pub4. PMID: 32700759Free PMC Article
Attaran RR, Cavanaugh A, Tsay C, Ahmad T, Ochoa Chaar CI, Persing S, Hsia H
Phlebology 2020 Sep;35(8):556-560. Epub 2020 Feb 6 doi: 10.1177/0268355520905178. PMID: 32028849
McKay C, Park C, Chang J, Brackbill M, Choi JY, Lee JH, Kim SH
Clin Drug Investig 2019 Aug;39(8):703-712. doi: 10.1007/s40261-019-00797-2. PMID: 31102109

Therapy

Levy-Lambert D, Ramly EP, Kantar RS, Alfonso AR, Levine JP
Plast Reconstr Surg 2020 Dec;146(6):790e-795e. doi: 10.1097/PRS.0000000000007363. PMID: 33234977
Alabed S, Sabouni A, Al Dakhoul S, Bdaiwi Y
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2020 Jul 23;7:CD007037. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007037.pub4. PMID: 32700759Free PMC Article
Rosen D, McCall JD, Primack BA
Am J Med 2017 Nov;130(11):1326-1330. Epub 2017 Jul 26 doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2017.07.007. PMID: 28756266
Alabed S, Sabouni A, Al Dakhoul S, Bdaiwi Y, Frobel-Mercier AK
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016 Jan 28;(1):CD007037. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007037.pub3. PMID: 26820557
Shrum KJ, Gill SE, Thompson LK, Blackhurst DW, Puls LE
Am J Clin Oncol 2014 Aug;37(4):364-8. doi: 10.1097/COC.0b013e31827b459a. PMID: 23357971

Prognosis

Smith P, Gilbert-Ouimet M, Brisson C, Glazier RH, Mustard CA
Can J Public Health 2021 Apr;112(2):280-288. Epub 2020 Aug 6 doi: 10.17269/s41997-020-00378-3. PMID: 32761547Free PMC Article
Wu Z, Tian T, Ma W, Gao W, Song N
BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2020 Nov 25;20(1):498. doi: 10.1186/s12872-020-01790-w. PMID: 33238887Free PMC Article
Levy-Lambert D, Ramly EP, Kantar RS, Alfonso AR, Levine JP
Plast Reconstr Surg 2020 Dec;146(6):790e-795e. doi: 10.1097/PRS.0000000000007363. PMID: 33234977
Fukushima S, Tadokoro N, Koga A, Shimahara Y, Yajima S, Kakuta T, Kuroda K, Nakajima S, Watanabe T, Yanase M, Fukushima N, Kobayashi J, Fujita T
J Artif Organs 2020 Sep;23(3):214-224. Epub 2020 Feb 19 doi: 10.1007/s10047-020-01157-0. PMID: 32076901
Baert A, De Smedt D, De Sutter J, De Bacquer D, Puddu PE, Clays E, Pardaens S
Eur J Prev Cardiol 2018 Mar;25(5):472-481. Epub 2018 Jan 31 doi: 10.1177/2047487318755795. PMID: 29384392

Clinical prediction guides

Smith P, Gilbert-Ouimet M, Brisson C, Glazier RH, Mustard CA
Can J Public Health 2021 Apr;112(2):280-288. Epub 2020 Aug 6 doi: 10.17269/s41997-020-00378-3. PMID: 32761547Free PMC Article
Wu Z, Tian T, Ma W, Gao W, Song N
BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2020 Nov 25;20(1):498. doi: 10.1186/s12872-020-01790-w. PMID: 33238887Free PMC Article
Levy-Lambert D, Ramly EP, Kantar RS, Alfonso AR, Levine JP
Plast Reconstr Surg 2020 Dec;146(6):790e-795e. doi: 10.1097/PRS.0000000000007363. PMID: 33234977
Baert A, De Smedt D, De Sutter J, De Bacquer D, Puddu PE, Clays E, Pardaens S
Eur J Prev Cardiol 2018 Mar;25(5):472-481. Epub 2018 Jan 31 doi: 10.1177/2047487318755795. PMID: 29384392
Shrum KJ, Gill SE, Thompson LK, Blackhurst DW, Puls LE
Am J Clin Oncol 2014 Aug;37(4):364-8. doi: 10.1097/COC.0b013e31827b459a. PMID: 23357971

Recent systematic reviews

Alabed S, Sabouni A, Al Dakhoul S, Bdaiwi Y
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2020 Jul 23;7:CD007037. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007037.pub4. PMID: 32700759Free PMC Article
Javed F, Khan J, Youssef M, Divakar DD, Michelogiannakis D
Scand Cardiovasc J 2020 Aug;54(4):206-211. Epub 2020 Mar 18 doi: 10.1080/14017431.2020.1742368. PMID: 32188268
McKay C, Park C, Chang J, Brackbill M, Choi JY, Lee JH, Kim SH
Clin Drug Investig 2019 Aug;39(8):703-712. doi: 10.1007/s40261-019-00797-2. PMID: 31102109
Baert A, De Smedt D, De Sutter J, De Bacquer D, Puddu PE, Clays E, Pardaens S
Eur J Prev Cardiol 2018 Mar;25(5):472-481. Epub 2018 Jan 31 doi: 10.1177/2047487318755795. PMID: 29384392
Alabed S, Sabouni A, Al Dakhoul S, Bdaiwi Y, Frobel-Mercier AK
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016 Jan 28;(1):CD007037. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007037.pub3. PMID: 26820557

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