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Sensorineural hearing loss

MedGen UID:
9164
Concept ID:
C0018784
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Sensorineural deafness; Sensorineural hearing impairment; sensorineural hearing loss disorder
SNOMED CT: Sensorineural hearing loss (60700002); Sensorineural deafness (60700002); Neurosensory deafness (60700002); Perceptive hearing loss (60700002); Perceptive deafness (60700002); SND - Sensorineural deafness (60700002); Sensory-neural deafness (60700002); Sensory-neural hearing loss (60700002); SNHL - Sensorineural hearing loss (60700002); PD - Perceptive deafness (60700002)
 
HPO: HP:0000407
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0020678

Definition

A type of hearing impairment in one or both ears related to an abnormal functionality of the cochlear nerve. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Progressive myositis ossificans
MedGen UID:
4698
Concept ID:
C0016037
Disease or Syndrome
Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is characterized by congenital bilateral hallux valgus malformations and early-onset heterotopic ossification, which may be spontaneous or precipitated by trauma including intramuscular vaccinations. Painful, recurrent soft-tissue swellings (flare-ups) may precede localized heterotopic ossification. Heterotopic ossification can occur at any location, but typically affects regions in close proximity to the axial skeleton in the early/mild stages, before progressing to the appendicular skeleton. This can lead to restriction of movement due to ossification impacting joint mobility. Problems with swallowing and speaking can occur with ossification affecting the jaw, head, and neck, and restriction of the airway and breathing may lead to thoracic insufficiency syndrome.
Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome
MedGen UID:
42458
Concept ID:
C0019562
Disease or Syndrome
Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome is characterized by hemangioblastomas of the brain, spinal cord, and retina; renal cysts and clear cell renal cell carcinoma; pheochromocytoma, pancreatic cysts, and neuroendocrine tumors; endolymphatic sac tumors; and epididymal and broad ligament cysts. Cerebellar hemangioblastomas may be associated with headache, vomiting, gait disturbances, or ataxia. Spinal hemangioblastomas and related syrinx usually present with pain. Sensory and motor loss may develop with cord compression. Retinal hemangioblastomas may be the initial manifestation of VHL syndrome and can cause vision loss. Renal cell carcinoma occurs in about 70% of individuals with VHL and is the leading cause of mortality. Pheochromocytomas can be asymptomatic but may cause sustained or episodic hypertension. Pancreatic lesions often remain asymptomatic and rarely cause endocrine or exocrine insufficiency. Endolymphatic sac tumors can cause hearing loss of varying severity, which can be a presenting symptom. Cystadenomas of the epididymis are relatively common. They rarely cause problems, unless bilateral, in which case they may result in infertility.
Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 1
MedGen UID:
5645
Concept ID:
C0020071
Disease or Syndrome
SPTLC1-related hereditary sensory neuropathy (HSN) is an axonal form of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy distinguished by prominent early sensory loss and later positive sensory phenomena including dysesthesia and characteristic "lightning" or "shooting" pains. Loss of sensation can lead to painless injuries, which, if unrecognized, result in slow wound healing and subsequent osteomyelitis requiring distal amputations. Motor involvement is present in all advanced cases and can be severe. After age 20 years, the distal wasting and weakness may involve proximal muscles, possibly leading to wheelchair dependency by the seventh or eighth decade. Sensorineural hearing loss is variable.
Kearns Sayre syndrome
MedGen UID:
9618
Concept ID:
C0022541
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion syndromes predominantly comprise three overlapping phenotypes that are usually simplex (i.e., a single occurrence in a family), but rarely may be observed in different members of the same family or may evolve from one clinical syndrome to another in a given individual over time. The three classic phenotypes caused by mtDNA deletions are Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS), Pearson syndrome, and progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO). KSS is a progressive multisystem disorder defined by onset before age 20 years, pigmentary retinopathy, and PEO; additional features include cerebellar ataxia, impaired intellect (intellectual disability, dementia, or both), sensorineural hearing loss, ptosis, oropharyngeal and esophageal dysfunction, exercise intolerance, muscle weakness, cardiac conduction block, and endocrinopathy. Pearson syndrome is characterized by sideroblastic anemia and exocrine pancreas dysfunction and may be fatal in infancy without appropriate hematologic management. PEO is characterized by ptosis, impaired eye movements due to paralysis of the extraocular muscles (ophthalmoplegia), oropharyngeal weakness, and variably severe proximal limb weakness with exercise intolerance. Rarely, a mtDNA deletion can manifest as Leigh syndrome.
Leigh syndrome
MedGen UID:
44095
Concept ID:
C0023264
Disease or Syndrome
Leigh syndrome is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder resulting from defective mitochondrial energy generation. It most commonly presents as a progressive and severe neurodegenerative disorder with onset within the first months or years of life, and may result in early death. Affected individuals usually show global developmental delay or developmental regression, hypotonia, ataxia, dystonia, and ophthalmologic abnormalities, such as nystagmus or optic atrophy. The neurologic features are associated with the classic findings of T2-weighted hyperintensities in the basal ganglia and/or brainstem on brain imaging. Leigh syndrome can also have detrimental multisystemic affects on the cardiac, hepatic, gastrointestinal, and renal organs. Biochemical studies in patients with Leigh syndrome tend to show increased lactate and abnormalities of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (summary by Lake et al., 2015). Genetic Heterogeneity of Leigh Syndrome Leigh syndrome may be a clinical presentation of a primary deficiency caused by genes in any of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes: complex I deficiency (see 252010), complex II deficiency (see 252011), complex III deficiency (see 124000), complex IV deficiency (cytochrome c oxidase; see 220110), and complex V deficiency (see 604273) (summary by Lake et al., 2015). Mutations in genes encoding mitochondrial tRNA proteins have also been identified in patients with Leigh syndrome: see MTTV (590105), MTTK (590060), MTTW (590095), and MTTL1 (590050). Leigh syndrome may also be caused by mutations in components of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (e.g., DLD, 238331 and PDHA1, 300502). Deficiency of coenzyme Q10 (607426) can present as Leigh syndrome. Some forms of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency can present as Leigh syndrome (see, e.g., 617664).
Deficiency of alpha-mannosidase
MedGen UID:
7467
Concept ID:
C0024748
Disease or Syndrome
Alpha-mannosidosis encompasses a continuum of clinical findings from mild to severe. Three major clinical subtypes have been suggested: A mild form recognized after age ten years with absence of skeletal abnormalities, myopathy, and slow progression (type 1). A moderate form recognized before age ten years with presence of skeletal abnormalities, myopathy, and slow progression (type 2). A severe form manifested as prenatal loss or early death from progressive central nervous system involvement or infection (type 3). Individuals with a milder phenotype have mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, impaired hearing, characteristic coarse features, clinical or radiographic skeletal abnormalities, immunodeficiency, and primary central nervous system disease – mainly cerebellar involvement causing ataxia. Periods of psychiatric symptoms are common. Associated medical problems can include corneal opacities, hepatosplenomegaly, aseptic destructive arthritis, and metabolic myopathy. Alpha-mannosidosis is insidiously progressive; some individuals may live into the sixth decade.
Nail-patella syndrome
MedGen UID:
10257
Concept ID:
C0027341
Disease or Syndrome
Nail-patella syndrome (NPS) (previously referred to as Fong's disease), encompasses the classic clinical tetrad of changes in the nails, knees, and elbows, and the presence of iliac horns. Nail changes are the most constant feature of NPS. Nails may be absent, hypoplastic, or dystrophic; ridged longitudinally or horizontally; pitted; discolored; separated into two halves by a longitudinal cleft or ridge of skin; and thin or (less often) thickened. The patellae may be small, irregularly shaped, or absent. Elbow abnormalities may include limitation of extension, pronation, and supination; cubitus valgus; and antecubital pterygia. Iliac horns are bilateral, conical, bony processes that project posteriorly and laterally from the central part of the iliac bones of the pelvis. Renal involvement, first manifest as proteinuria with or without hematuria, occurs in 30%-50% of affected individuals; end-stage renal disease occurs up to 15% of affected individuals. Primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension occur at increased frequency and at a younger age than in the general population.
Phytanic acid storage disease
MedGen UID:
11161
Concept ID:
C0034960
Disease or Syndrome
Adult Refsum disease (ARD is associated with elevated plasma phytanic acid levels, late childhood-onset (or later) retinitis pigmentosa, and variable combinations of anosmia, polyneuropathy, deafness, ataxia, and ichthyosis. Onset of symptoms ranges from age seven months to older than age 50 years. Cardiac arrhythmia and heart failure caused by cardiomyopathy are potentially severe health problems that develop later in life.
Waardenburg syndrome type 3
MedGen UID:
86948
Concept ID:
C0079661
Disease or Syndrome
Waardenburg syndrome type 3 is an auditory-pigmentary syndrome characterized by pigmentary abnormalities of the hair, skin, and eyes; congenital sensorineural hearing loss; presence of 'dystopia canthorum,' the lateral displacement of the ocular inner canthi; and upper limb abnormalities (reviews by Read and Newton, 1997 and Pingault et al., 2010). WS type 3 is also referred to as 'Klein-Waardenburg syndrome' (Gorlin et al., 1976). Clinical Variability of Waardenburg Syndrome Types 1-4 Waardenburg syndrome has been classified into 4 main phenotypes. Type I Waardenburg syndrome (WS1; 193500) is characterized by pigmentary abnormalities of the hair, including a white forelock and premature graying; pigmentary changes of the iris, such as heterochromia iridis and brilliant blue eyes; congenital sensorineural hearing loss; and 'dystopia canthorum.' WS type II (WS2) is distinguished from type I by the absence of dystopia canthorum. WS type III has dystopia canthorum and is distinguished by the presence of upper limb abnormalities. WS type IV (WS4; 277580), also known as Waardenburg-Shah syndrome, has the additional feature of Hirschsprung disease (reviews by Read and Newton, 1997 and Pingault et al., 2010).
MERRF syndrome
MedGen UID:
56486
Concept ID:
C0162672
Disease or Syndrome
MERRF (myoclonic epilepsy with ragged red fibers) is a multisystem disorder characterized by myoclonus (often the first symptom) followed by generalized epilepsy, ataxia, weakness, exercise intolerance, and dementia. Onset can occur from childhood to adulthood, occurring after normal early development. Common findings are ptosis, hearing loss, short stature, optic atrophy, cardiomyopathy, cardiac dysrhythmias such as Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, and peripheral neuropathy. Pigmentary retinopathy, optic neuropathy, diabetes mellitus, and lipomatosis have been observed.
Johanson-Blizzard syndrome
MedGen UID:
59798
Concept ID:
C0175692
Disease or Syndrome
Johanson-Blizzard syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by poor growth, mental retardation, and variable dysmorphic features, including aplasia or hypoplasia of the nasal alae, abnormal hair patterns or scalp defects, and oligodontia. Other features include hypothyroidism, sensorineural hearing loss, imperforate anus, and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (summary by Al-Dosari et al., 2008).
Williams syndrome
MedGen UID:
59799
Concept ID:
C0175702
Disease or Syndrome
Williams syndrome (WS) is characterized by cardiovascular disease (elastin arteriopathy, peripheral pulmonary stenosis, supravalvar aortic stenosis, hypertension), distinctive facies, connective tissue abnormalities, intellectual disability (usually mild), a specific cognitive profile, unique personality characteristics, growth abnormalities, and endocrine abnormalities (hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, hypothyroidism, and early puberty). Feeding difficulties often lead to poor weight gain in infancy. Hypotonia and hyperextensible joints can result in delayed attainment of motor milestones.
Distal arthrogryposis type 1A
MedGen UID:
113099
Concept ID:
C0220662
Congenital Abnormality
Distal arthrogryposis type 1 is a disorder characterized by joint deformities (contractures) that restrict movement in the hands and feet. The term "arthrogryposis" comes from the Greek words for joint (arthro-) and crooked or hooked (gryposis). The characteristic features of this condition include permanently bent fingers and toes (camptodactyly), overlapping fingers, and a hand deformity in which all of the fingers are angled outward toward the fifth finger (ulnar deviation). Clubfoot, which is an inward- and upward-turning foot, is also commonly seen with distal arthrogryposis type 1. The specific hand and foot abnormalities vary among affected individuals. However, this condition typically does not cause any signs and symptoms affecting other parts of the body.
Cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
66320
Concept ID:
C0220722
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome is an autosomal recessive progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by microcephaly, congenital cataracts, severe mental retardation, facial dysmorphism, and arthrogryposis (summary by Jaakkola et al., 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Cerebrooculofacioskeletal Syndrome See also COFS2 (610756), caused by mutation in the ERCC2 gene (126340); COFS3 (616570), caused by mutation in the ERCC5 gene (133530); and COFS4 (610758), caused by mutation in the ERCC1 gene (126380).
Biotinidase deficiency
MedGen UID:
66323
Concept ID:
C0220754
Disease or Syndrome
If untreated, young children with profound biotinidase deficiency usually exhibit neurologic abnormalities including seizures, hypotonia, ataxia, developmental delay, vision problems, hearing loss, and cutaneous abnormalities (e.g., alopecia, skin rash, candidiasis). Older children and adolescents with profound biotinidase deficiency often exhibit motor limb weakness, spastic paresis, and decreased visual acuity. Once vision problems, hearing loss, and developmental delay occur, they are usually irreversible, even with biotin therapy. Individuals with partial biotinidase deficiency may have hypotonia, skin rash, and hair loss, particularly during times of stress.
FG syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
113106
Concept ID:
C0220769
Disease or Syndrome
MED12-related disorders include the phenotypes of FG syndrome type 1 (FGS1), Lujan syndrome (LS), X-linked Ohdo syndrome (XLOS), Hardikar syndrome (HS), and nonspecific intellectual disability (NSID). FGS1 and LS share the clinical findings of cognitive impairment, hypotonia, and abnormalities of the corpus callosum. FGS1 is further characterized by absolute or relative macrocephaly, tall forehead, downslanted palpebral fissures, small and simple ears, constipation and/or anal anomalies, broad thumbs and halluces, and characteristic behavior. LS is further characterized by large head, tall thin body habitus, long thin face, prominent nasal bridge, high narrow palate, and short philtrum. Carrier females in families with FGS1 and LS are typically unaffected. XLOS is characterized by intellectual disability, blepharophimosis, and facial coarsening. HS has been described in females with cleft lip and/or cleft palate, biliary and liver anomalies, intestinal malrotation, pigmentary retinopathy, and coarctation of the aorta. Developmental and cognitive concerns have not been reported in females with HS. Pathogenic variants in MED12 have been reported in an increasing number of males and females with NSID, with affected individuals often having clinical features identified in other MED12-related disorders.
DE SANCTIS-CACCHIONE SYNDROME
MedGen UID:
75550
Concept ID:
C0265201
Disease or Syndrome
A rare autosomal recessive inherited syndrome. It is characterized by xeroderma pigmentosum, mental retardation, dwarfism, hypogonadism, and neurologic abnormalities.
Marshall syndrome
MedGen UID:
82694
Concept ID:
C0265235
Disease or Syndrome
Marshall syndrome (MRSHS) is charactized by midfacial hypoplasia, cleft palate, ocular anomalies including high myopia and cataracts, sensorineural hearing loss, short stature with spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, and arthropathy. In constrast to Stickler syndrome type II, it has less severe eye findings but striking ocular hypertelorism, more pronounced maxillary hypoplasia, and ectodermal abnormalities (summary by Shanske et al., 1997 and Ala-Kokko and Shanske, 2009).
Coffin-Lowry syndrome
MedGen UID:
75556
Concept ID:
C0265252
Disease or Syndrome
Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is usually characterized by severe-to-profound intellectual disability in males; less severely impaired individuals have been reported. Neuropsychiatric concerns can include behavioral problems, loss of strength, progressive spasticity or paraplegia, sleep apnea, or stroke. Stimulus-induced drop attacks (SIDAs) in which unexpected tactile or auditory stimuli or excitement triggers a brief collapse but no loss of consciousness are present in approximately 20% of affected individuals. Typically SIDAs begin between mid-childhood and the teens. Characteristic facial features may be more apparent with age. Upper-extremity differences may be subtle and include short, soft, fleshy hands with tapered fingers as well as fleshy forearms. Progressive kyphoscoliosis is one of the most difficult aspects of long-term care. Affected females tend to have intellectual disability in the mild to moderate range and may also have the typical facial, hand, and skeletal findings noted in males.
Keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness syndrome, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
120536
Concept ID:
C0265336
Disease or Syndrome
Keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness (KID) syndrome is a rare ectodermal dysplasia characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, photophobia and corneal vascularization, hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles, erythrokeratoderma, follicular hyperkeratosis, and recurrent bacterial and fungal infections. A subset of patients with KID may develop multiple cystic pilar tumors, which are prone to malignant transformation and metastasis (Nyquist et al., 2007). Vohwinkel syndrome (124500) is an allelic disorder involving congenital deafness with keratopachydermia and constrictions of fingers and toes. Another similar disorder caused by mutation in GJB2 is palmoplantar keratoderma with deafness (148350). Genetic Heterogeneity of Keratitis-Ichthyosis-Deafness Syndrome An autosomal recessive form of KID syndrome (KIDAR; 242150) is caused by mutation in the AP1B1 gene (600157) on chromosome 22q12.
Pili torti-deafness syndrome
MedGen UID:
82728
Concept ID:
C0266006
Disease or Syndrome
Bjornstad syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and pili torti. The hearing loss is congenital and of variable severity. Pili torti (twisted hairs), a condition in which the hair shafts are flattened at irregular intervals and twisted 180 degrees from the normal axis, making the hair very brittle, is usually recognized early in childhood (Selvaag, 2000).
Atrophia bulborum hereditaria
MedGen UID:
75615
Concept ID:
C0266526
Congenital Abnormality
Norrie disease is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by very early childhood blindness due to degenerative and proliferative changes of the neuroretina. Approximately 50% of patients show some form of progressive mental disorder, often with psychotic features, and about one-third of patients develop sensorineural deafness in the second decade. In addition, some patients have more complex phenotypes, including growth failure and seizures (Berger et al., 1992). Warburg (1966) noted confusion of the terms 'pseudoglioma' and microphthalmia with Norrie disease in the literature. 'Pseudoglioma' is a nonspecific term for any condition resembling retinoblastoma and can have diverse causes, including inflammation, hemorrhage, trauma, neoplasia, or congenital malformation, and often shows unilateral involvement. Thus, 'pseudoglioma' is not an acceptable clinical or pathologic diagnosis (Duke-Elder, 1958).
Xeroderma pigmentosum group A
MedGen UID:
82775
Concept ID:
C0268135
Disease or Syndrome
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is characterized by: Sun sensitivity (severe sunburn with blistering, persistent erythema on minimal sun exposure in ~60% of affected individuals), with marked freckle-like pigmentation of the face before age two years in most affected individuals; Sunlight-induced ocular involvement (photophobia, keratitis, atrophy of the skin of the lids); Greatly increased risk of sunlight-induced cutaneous neoplasms (basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma). Approximately 25% of affected individuals have neurologic manifestations (acquired microcephaly, diminished or absent deep tendon stretch reflexes, progressive sensorineural hearing loss, and progressive cognitive impairment). The most common causes of death are skin cancer, neurologic degeneration, and internal cancer. The median age at death in persons with XP with neurodegeneration (29 years) was found to be younger than that in persons with XP without neurodegeneration (37 years).
Xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group b
MedGen UID:
78643
Concept ID:
C0268136
Disease or Syndrome
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is characterized by: Sun sensitivity (severe sunburn with blistering, persistent erythema on minimal sun exposure in ~60% of affected individuals), with marked freckle-like pigmentation of the face before age two years in most affected individuals; Sunlight-induced ocular involvement (photophobia, keratitis, atrophy of the skin of the lids); Greatly increased risk of sunlight-induced cutaneous neoplasms (basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma). Approximately 25% of affected individuals have neurologic manifestations (acquired microcephaly, diminished or absent deep tendon stretch reflexes, progressive sensorineural hearing loss, and progressive cognitive impairment). The most common causes of death are skin cancer, neurologic degeneration, and internal cancer. The median age at death in persons with XP with neurodegeneration (29 years) was found to be younger than that in persons with XP without neurodegeneration (37 years).
Xeroderma pigmentosum, group D
MedGen UID:
75656
Concept ID:
C0268138
Disease or Syndrome
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is characterized by: Sun sensitivity (severe sunburn with blistering, persistent erythema on minimal sun exposure in ~60% of affected individuals), with marked freckle-like pigmentation of the face before age two years in most affected individuals; Sunlight-induced ocular involvement (photophobia, keratitis, atrophy of the skin of the lids); Greatly increased risk of sunlight-induced cutaneous neoplasms (basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma). Approximately 25% of affected individuals have neurologic manifestations (acquired microcephaly, diminished or absent deep tendon stretch reflexes, progressive sensorineural hearing loss, and progressive cognitive impairment). The most common causes of death are skin cancer, neurologic degeneration, and internal cancer. The median age at death in persons with XP with neurodegeneration (29 years) was found to be younger than that in persons with XP without neurodegeneration (37 years).
Triglyceride storage disease with ichthyosis
MedGen UID:
82780
Concept ID:
C0268238
Disease or Syndrome
Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome is a condition in which fats (lipids) are stored abnormally in the body. Affected individuals cannot break down certain fats called triglycerides, and these fats accumulate in organs and tissues, including skin, liver, muscles, intestine, eyes, and ears. People with this condition also have dry, scaly skin (ichthyosis), which is usually present at birth. Additional features of this condition include an enlarged liver (hepatomegaly), clouding of the lens of the eyes (cataracts), difficulty with coordinating movements (ataxia), hearing loss, short stature, muscle weakness (myopathy), involuntary movement of the eyes (nystagmus), and mild intellectual disability.\n\nThe signs and symptoms vary greatly among individuals with Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome. Some people may have ichthyosis only, while others may have problems affecting many areas of the body.
Hyperphosphatasemia with bone disease
MedGen UID:
75678
Concept ID:
C0268414
Disease or Syndrome
Paget disease of bone-5 is an autosomal recessive, juvenile-onset form of Paget disease, a disorder of the skeleton resulting from abnormal bone resorption and formation. Clinical manifestations include short stature, progressive long bone deformities, fractures, vertebral collapse, skull enlargement, and hyperostosis with progressive deafness. There is phenotypic variability, with some patients presenting in infancy, while others present later in childhood (summary by Naot et al., 2014). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Paget disease of bone, see 167250.
Hyperleucine-isoleucinemia
MedGen UID:
82821
Concept ID:
C0268574
Disease or Syndrome
Histidine transport defect
MedGen UID:
82825
Concept ID:
C0268642
Disease or Syndrome
An increased concentration of histidine in the urine.
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 1B
MedGen UID:
79470
Concept ID:
C0282527
Disease or Syndrome
Zellweger spectrum disorder (ZSD) is a phenotypic continuum ranging from severe to mild. While individual phenotypes (e.g., Zellweger syndrome [ZS], neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy [NALD], and infantile Refsum disease [IRD]) were described in the past before the biochemical and molecular bases of this spectrum were fully determined, the term "ZSD" is now used to refer to all individuals with a defect in one of the ZSD-PEX genes regardless of phenotype. Individuals with ZSD usually come to clinical attention in the newborn period or later in childhood. Affected newborns are hypotonic and feed poorly. They have distinctive facies, congenital malformations (neuronal migration defects associated with neonatal-onset seizures, renal cysts, and bony stippling [chondrodysplasia punctata] of the patella[e] and the long bones), and liver disease that can be severe. Infants with severe ZSD are significantly impaired and typically die during the first year of life, usually having made no developmental progress. Individuals with intermediate/milder ZSD do not have congenital malformations, but rather progressive peroxisome dysfunction variably manifest as sensory loss (secondary to retinal dystrophy and sensorineural hearing loss), neurologic involvement (ataxia, polyneuropathy, and leukodystrophy), liver dysfunction, adrenal insufficiency, and renal oxalate stones. While hypotonia and developmental delays are typical, intellect can be normal. Some have osteopenia; almost all have ameleogenesis imperfecta in the secondary teeth.
Macrothrombocytopenia and granulocyte inclusions with or without nephritis or sensorineural hearing loss
MedGen UID:
87410
Concept ID:
C0340978
Disease or Syndrome
MYH9-related disease (MYH9-RD) is characterized in all affected individuals by hematologic features present from birth consisting of platelet macrocytosis (i.e., >40% of platelets larger than 3.9 µm in diameter), thrombocytopenia (platelet count <150 x 109/L), and aggregates of the MYH9 protein in the cytoplasm of neutrophil granulocytes. Most affected individuals develop one or more additional extrahematologic manifestations of the disease over their lifetime, including sensorineural hearing loss, renal disease (manifesting initially as glomerular nephropathy), presenile cataracts, and/or elevation of liver enzymes.
Hypogonadism, diabetes mellitus, alopecia, mental retardation and electrocardiographic abnormalities
MedGen UID:
83337
Concept ID:
C0342286
Disease or Syndrome
Virtually all individuals with Woodhouse-Sakati syndrome (WSS) have the endocrine findings of hypogonadism (evident at puberty) and progressive childhood-onset hair thinning that often progresses to alopecia totalis in adulthood. More than half of individuals have the neurologic findings of progressive extrapyramidal movements (dystonic spasms with dystonic posturing with dysarthria and dysphagia), moderate bilateral postlingual sensorineural hearing loss, and mild intellectual disability. To date, more than 40 families (including 33 with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis) with a total of 88 affected individuals have been reported in the literature.
Megaloblastic anemia, thiamine-responsive, with diabetes mellitus and sensorineural deafness
MedGen UID:
83338
Concept ID:
C0342287
Congenital Abnormality
Thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome (TRMA) is characterized by megaloblastic anemia, progressive sensorineural hearing loss, and diabetes mellitus. Onset of megaloblastic anemia occurs between infancy and adolescence. The anemia is corrected with thiamine treatment, but the red cells remain macrocytic, and anemia can recur when treatment is withdrawn. Progressive sensorineural hearing loss has generally been early and can be detected in toddlers; hearing loss is irreversible and may not be prevented by thiamine treatment. The diabetes mellitus is non-type I in nature, with age of onset from infancy to adolescence. Thiamine treatment may delay onset of diabetes in some individuals.
Diabetes-deafness syndrome maternally transmitted
MedGen UID:
90979
Concept ID:
C0342289
Disease or Syndrome
Maternally inherited diabetes-deafness syndrome (MIDD) is a mitochondrial disorder characterized by onset of sensorineural hearing loss and diabetes in adulthood. Some patients may have additional features observed in mitochondrial disorders, including pigmentary retinopathy, ptosis, cardiomyopathy, myopathy, renal problems, and neuropsychiatric symptoms (Ballinger et al., 1992; Reardon et al., 1992; Guillausseau et al., 2001). The association of diabetes and deafness is observed with Wolfram syndrome (see 222300), Rogers syndrome (249270), and Herrmann syndrome (172500), but all 3 of these disorders have other clinical manifestations.
D-Glyceric aciduria
MedGen UID:
452447
Concept ID:
C0342765
Disease or Syndrome
D-glyceric aciduria is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Some patients have an encephalopathic presentation, with severe mental retardation, seizures, microcephaly, and sometimes early death, whereas others have a mild phenotype with only mild speech delay or even normal development (summary by Sass et al., 2010).
Branchiooculofacial syndrome
MedGen UID:
91261
Concept ID:
C0376524
Disease or Syndrome
The branchiooculofacial syndrome (BOFS) is characterized by: branchial (cervical or infra- or supra-auricular) skin defects that range from barely perceptible thin skin or hair patch to erythematous "hemangiomatous" lesions to large weeping erosions; ocular anomalies that can include microphthalmia, anophthalmia, coloboma, and nasolacrimal duct stenosis/atresia; and facial anomalies that can include ocular hypertelorism or telecanthus, broad nasal tip, upslanted palpebral fissures, cleft lip or prominent philtral pillars that give the appearance of a repaired cleft lip (formerly called "pseudocleft lip") with or without cleft palate, upper lip pits, and lower facial weakness (asymmetric crying face or partial 7th cranial nerve weakness). Malformed and prominent pinnae and hearing loss from inner ear and/or petrous bone anomalies are common. Intellect is usually normal.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth Neuropathy X Type 1
MedGen UID:
98290
Concept ID:
C0393808
Disease or Syndrome
GJB1 disorders are typically characterized by peripheral motor and sensory neuropathy with or without fixed CNS abnormalities and/or acute, self-limited episodes of transient neurologic dysfunction (especially weakness and dysarthria). Peripheral neuropathy typically manifests in affected males between ages five and 25 years. Although both men and women are affected, manifestations tend to be less severe in women, some of whom may remain asymptomatic. Less commonly, initial manifestations in some affected individuals are stroke-like episodes (acute fulminant episodes of reversible CNS dysfunction).
Prune belly syndrome with pulmonic stenosis, mental retardation and deafness
MedGen UID:
96043
Concept ID:
C0403551
Disease or Syndrome
Renal tubular acidosis with progressive nerve deafness
MedGen UID:
98336
Concept ID:
C0403554
Disease or Syndrome
Individuals with hereditary distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) typically present in infancy with failure to thrive, although later presentations can occur, especially in individuals with autosomal dominant SLC4A1-dRTA. Initial clinical manifestations can also include emesis, polyuria, polydipsia, constipation, diarrhea, decreased appetite, and episodes of dehydration. Electrolyte manifestations include hyperchloremic non-anion gap metabolic acidosis and hypokalemia. Renal complications of dRTA include nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, medullary cysts, and impaired renal function. Additional manifestations include bone demineralization (rickets, osteomalacia), growth deficiency, sensorineural hearing loss (in ATP6V0A4-, ATP6V1B1-, and FOXI1-dRTA), and hereditary hemolytic anemia (in some individuals with SLC4A1-dRTA).
Familial cutaneous collagenoma
MedGen UID:
96073
Concept ID:
C0406817
Neoplastic Process
Lenz-Majewski hyperostosis syndrome
MedGen UID:
98483
Concept ID:
C0432269
Congenital Abnormality
Lenz-Majewski hyperostotic dwarfism is a rare condition characterized by intellectual disability, sclerosing bone dysplasia, distinct craniofacial and dental anomalies, loose skin, and distal limb anomalies, particularly brachydactyly and symphalangism. Patients have multiple radiographic abnormalities due to progressive generalized hyperostosis that affects the cranium, vertebrae, and diaphyses of tubular bones, leading to severe growth retardation (summary by Sousa et al., 2014).
Worth disease
MedGen UID:
140932
Concept ID:
C0432273
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant endosteal hyperostosis is a generalized bone dysplasia characterized by a cortical thickening of the long bones, with no alteration in external shape, and a remarkable resistance of the bone to fracture. The skeleton is normal in childhood. Facial metamorphoses occur in adolescence, as the forehead flattens, the mandible becomes elongated, and the gonial angle decreases. An enlarging osseous prominence (torus palatinus) develops in the hard palate, which may lead to malocclusion or loss of teeth (summary by Van Wesenbeeck et al., 2003).
Deletion of long arm of chromosome 18
MedGen UID:
96605
Concept ID:
C0432443
Disease or Syndrome
Monosomy 18q is a partial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 18 characterized by highly variable phenotype, most commonly including hypotonia, developmental delay, short stature, growth hormone deficiency, hearing loss and external ear anomalies, intellectual disability, palatal defects, dysmorphic facial features, skeletal anomalies (foot deformities, tapering fingers, scoliosis) and mood disorders.
Cockayne syndrome B
MedGen UID:
155487
Concept ID:
C0751038
Disease or Syndrome
Cockayne syndrome (referred to as CS in this GeneReview) spans a continuous phenotypic spectrum that includes: CS type I, the "classic" or "moderate" form; CS type II, a more severe form with symptoms present at birth; this form overlaps with cerebrooculofacioskeletal (COFS) syndrome; CS type III, a milder and later-onset form; COFS syndrome, a fetal form of CS. CS type I is characterized by normal prenatal growth with the onset of growth and developmental abnormalities in the first two years. By the time the disease has become fully manifest, height, weight, and head circumference are far below the fifth percentile. Progressive impairment of vision, hearing, and central and peripheral nervous system function leads to severe disability; death typically occurs in the first or second decade. CS type II is characterized by growth failure at birth, with little or no postnatal neurologic development. Congenital cataracts or other structural anomalies of the eye may be present. Affected children have early postnatal contractures of the spine (kyphosis, scoliosis) and joints. Death usually occurs by age five years. CS type III is a phenotype in which major clinical features associated with CS only become apparent after age two years; growth and/or cognition exceeds the expectations for CS type I. COFS syndrome is characterized by very severe prenatal developmental anomalies (arthrogryposis and microphthalmia).
Cockayne syndrome type A
MedGen UID:
155488
Concept ID:
C0751039
Disease or Syndrome
Cockayne syndrome (referred to as CS in this GeneReview) spans a continuous phenotypic spectrum that includes: CS type I, the "classic" or "moderate" form; CS type II, a more severe form with symptoms present at birth; this form overlaps with cerebrooculofacioskeletal (COFS) syndrome; CS type III, a milder and later-onset form; COFS syndrome, a fetal form of CS. CS type I is characterized by normal prenatal growth with the onset of growth and developmental abnormalities in the first two years. By the time the disease has become fully manifest, height, weight, and head circumference are far below the fifth percentile. Progressive impairment of vision, hearing, and central and peripheral nervous system function leads to severe disability; death typically occurs in the first or second decade. CS type II is characterized by growth failure at birth, with little or no postnatal neurologic development. Congenital cataracts or other structural anomalies of the eye may be present. Affected children have early postnatal contractures of the spine (kyphosis, scoliosis) and joints. Death usually occurs by age five years. CS type III is a phenotype in which major clinical features associated with CS only become apparent after age two years; growth and/or cognition exceeds the expectations for CS type I. COFS syndrome is characterized by very severe prenatal developmental anomalies (arthrogryposis and microphthalmia).
UDPglucose-4-epimerase deficiency
MedGen UID:
199598
Concept ID:
C0751161
Disease or Syndrome
Epimerase deficiency galactosemia (GALE deficiency galactosemia) is generally considered a continuum comprising several forms: Generalized. Enzyme activity is profoundly decreased in all tissues tested. Peripheral. Enzyme activity is deficient in red blood cells (RBC) and circulating white blood cells, but normal or near normal in all other tissues. Intermediate. Enzyme activity is deficient in red blood cells and circulating white blood cells and less than 50% of normal levels in other cells tested. Infants with generalized epimerase deficiency galactosemia develop clinical findings on a regular milk diet (which contains lactose, a disaccharide of galactose and glucose); manifestations include hypotonia, poor feeding, vomiting, weight loss, jaundice, hepatomegaly, liver dysfunction, aminoaciduria, and cataracts. Prompt removal of galactose/lactose from their diet resolves or prevents these acute symptoms. Longer-term features that may be seen in those with generalized epimerase deficiency include short stature, developmental delay, sensorineural hearing loss, and skeletal anomalies. In contrast, neonates with the peripheral or intermediate form generally remain clinically well even on a regular milk diet and are usually only identified by biochemical testing, often in newborn screening programs.
Cowchock syndrome
MedGen UID:
162891
Concept ID:
C0795910
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease-4 with or without cerebellar ataxia (CMTX4) is a mitochondrial disorder manifest as progressive neurologic dysfunction with highly variable features. The age at onset ranges from infancy to young adulthood, and patients can present with different features, including hearing loss, delayed motor development, or difficulty walking due to peripheral neuropathy and/or cerebellar ataxia. Most patients develop all features, including a progressive sensorimotor axonal neuropathy and deafness due to auditory neuropathy. Additional more variable features can include cognitive impairment, cerebellar atrophy on brain imaging, cerebellar signs, such as dysarthria, abnormal extraocular movements, tremor, and dysmetria, as well as spasticity. There is significant intrafamilial variability: the variable features are consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction. Prolonged treatment with riboflavin may result in some mild improvement in the ataxia (summary by Rinaldi et al., 2012, Heimer et al., 2018, Bogdanova-Mihaylova et al., 2019).
DOORS syndrome
MedGen UID:
208648
Concept ID:
C0795934
Disease or Syndrome
TBC1D24-related disorders comprise a continuum of features that were originally described as distinct, recognized phenotypes: DOORS syndrome (deafness, onychodystrophy, osteodystrophy, mental retardation, and seizures). Profound sensorineural hearing loss, onychodystrophy, osteodystrophy, intellectual disability / developmental delay, and seizures. Familial infantile myoclonic epilepsy (FIME). Early-onset myoclonic seizures, focal epilepsy, dysarthria, and mild-to-moderate intellectual disability. Progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME). Action myoclonus, tonic-clonic seizures, progressive neurologic decline, and ataxia. Early-infantile epileptic encephalopathy 16 (EIEE16). Epileptiform EEG abnormalities which themselves are believed to contribute to progressive disturbance in cerebral function. Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss, DFNB86. Profound prelingual deafness. Autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss, DFNA65. Slowly progressive deafness with onset in the third decade, initially affecting the high frequencies.
Fountain syndrome
MedGen UID:
208650
Concept ID:
C0795944
Disease or Syndrome
An extremely rare multi-systemic genetic disorder with characteristics of intellectual disability, deafness, skeletal abnormalities and coarse facial features.The syndrome is exceedingly rare and has been reported in only a few patients to date. Male and female patients have been described. The main clinical features include moderate to severe intellectual deficit, congenital sensorineural hearing impairment and broad, stubby hands and feet. A coarse face with full lips and cheeks is also found. These signs are reported to become more prominent with age. The pattern of inheritance appears to be autosomal recessive.
Richards-Rundle syndrome
MedGen UID:
163219
Concept ID:
C0796136
Disease or Syndrome
An extremely rare neurodegenerative disorder characterised by progressive spinocerebellar ataxia, sensorineural hearing loss, and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism associated with additional neurological manifestations (such as peripheral muscle wasting, nystagmus, intellectual disability or dementia) and ketoaciduria.
Spondyloperipheral dysplasia-short ulna syndrome
MedGen UID:
163223
Concept ID:
C0796173
Disease or Syndrome
Spondyloperipheral dysplasia is a disorder that impairs bone growth. This condition is characterized by flattened bones of the spine (platyspondyly) and unusually short fingers and toes (brachydactyly), with the exception of the first (big) toes. Other skeletal abnormalities associated with spondyloperipheral dysplasia include short stature, shortened long bones of the arms and legs, exaggerated curvature of the lower back (lordosis), and an inward- and upward-turning foot (clubfoot). Additionally, some affected individuals have nearsightedness (myopia), hearing loss, and intellectual disability.
Mental retardation, X-linked 12
MedGen UID:
901885
Concept ID:
C0796218
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked intellectual developmental disorder-12 (XLID12) is characterized by borderline to severe intellectual disability with variable neurologic features, short stature, and elevated body mass index (BMI) (Kumar et al., 2015).
Pettigrew syndrome
MedGen UID:
162924
Concept ID:
C0796254
Disease or Syndrome
Pettigrew syndrome is characterized by mental retardation and highly variable additional features, including choreoathetosis, hydrocephalus, Dandy-Walker malformation, seizures, and iron or calcium deposition in the brain, both between and within families (summary by Cacciagli et al., 2014). See 311510 for another X-linked mental retardation syndrome associated with basal ganglia disease (Waisman syndrome). See 220219 for another mental retardation syndrome with Dandy-Walker malformation.
Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere Syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
163239
Concept ID:
C0796274
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal recessive neurologic condition caused by mutation(s) in the SLC52A3 gene, encoding solute carrier family 52, riboflavin transporter, member 3. It is characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and varying cranial nerve palsies, usually affecting the motor components of the seventh and ninth to twelfth cranial nerves. Spinal motor nerves are often affected. Mutations in SLC52A3 may result in Faxio-Lone disease, which is a similar condition, but sensorineural deafness is not present.
SHORT syndrome
MedGen UID:
164212
Concept ID:
C0878684
Disease or Syndrome
SHORT syndrome is a mnemonic for short stature, hyperextensibility, ocular depression (deeply set eyes), Rieger anomaly, and teething delay. It is now recognized that the features most consistently observed in SHORT syndrome are mild intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR); mild to moderate short stature; partial lipodystrophy (evident in the face, and later in the chest and upper extremities, often sparing the buttocks and legs); and a characteristic facial gestalt. Insulin resistance may be evident in mid-childhood or adolescence, although diabetes mellitus typically does not develop until early adulthood. Other frequent features include Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly or related ocular anterior chamber dysgenesis, delayed dentition and other dental issues, and sensorineural hearing loss.
Progeroid short stature with pigmented nevi
MedGen UID:
224702
Concept ID:
C1261128
Disease or Syndrome
Mulvihill-Smith syndrome is characterized by premature aging, multiple pigmented nevi, lack of facial subcutaneous fat, microcephaly, short stature, sensorineural hearing loss, and mental retardation. Immunodeficiency may also be a feature. Adult manifestations include the development of tumors, a sleep disorder with severe insomnia, and cognitive decline (summary by Yagihashi et al., 2009).
Autosomal recessive keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness syndrome
MedGen UID:
224809
Concept ID:
C1275089
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness syndrome (KIDAR) is characterized by neonatal-onset ichthyotic erythroderma and profound sensorineural deafness, with failure to thrive and developmental delay in childhood. Severe corneal scarring with vision loss has been observed in adulthood. Low plasma copper and ceruloplasmin levels have been reported in some patients (Alsaif et al., 2019; Boyden et al., 2019). An autosomal dominant form of KID syndrome (KIDAD; 148210) is caused by mutation in the GJB2 gene (121011) on chromosome 13q12.
WT limb-blood syndrome
MedGen UID:
231231
Concept ID:
C1327917
Disease or Syndrome
Syndrome is characterized by hematological anomalies (Fanconi anemia, leukemia and lymphoma) often appearing during childhood. Anomalies of the limbs and hands are also present: bifid or hypoplastic thumbs, cutaneous syndactyly and ulnar and radial defects. The syndrome has been described in several families. Transmission is autosomal dominant.
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 2 with or without anosmia
MedGen UID:
289648
Concept ID:
C1563720
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt.
Usher syndrome type 1
MedGen UID:
292820
Concept ID:
C1568247
Disease or Syndrome
Usher syndrome type I (USH1) is characterized by congenital, bilateral, profound sensorineural hearing loss, vestibular areflexia, and adolescent-onset retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Unless fitted with a cochlear implant, individuals do not typically develop speech. RP, a progressive, bilateral, symmetric degeneration of rod and cone functions of the retina, develops in adolescence, resulting in progressively constricted visual fields and impaired visual acuity.
Usher Syndrome, Type III
MedGen UID:
339336
Concept ID:
C1568248
Disease or Syndrome
Usher syndrome type III is characterized by postlingual, progressive hearing loss, variable vestibular dysfunction, and onset of retinitis pigmentosa symptoms, including nyctalopia, constriction of the visual fields, and loss of central visual acuity, usually by the second decade of life (Karjalainen et al., 1985; Pakarinen et al., 1995). For a discussion of phenotypic heterogeneity of Usher syndrome, see USH1 (276900). Genetic Heterogeneity of Usher syndrome Type III Usher syndrome type IIIB (614504) is caused by mutation in the HARS gene (142810) on chromosome 5q31.3.
Duane-radial ray syndrome
MedGen UID:
301647
Concept ID:
C1623209
Disease or Syndrome
SALL4-related disorders include Duane-radial ray syndrome (DRRS, Okihiro syndrome), acro-renal-ocular syndrome (AROS), and SALL4-related Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS), three phenotypes previously thought to be distinct entities: DRRS is characterized by uni- or bilateral Duane anomaly and radial ray malformation that can include thenar hypoplasia and/or hypoplasia or aplasia of the thumbs, hypoplasia or aplasia of the radii, shortening and radial deviation of the forearms, triphalangeal thumbs, and duplication of the thumb (preaxial polydactyly). AROS is characterized by radial ray malformations, renal abnormalities (mild malrotation, ectopia, horseshoe kidney, renal hypoplasia, vesico-ureteral reflux, bladder diverticula), ocular coloboma, and Duane anomaly. Rarely, pathogenic variants in SALL4 may cause clinically typical HOS (i.e., radial ray malformations and cardiac malformations without additional features).
Deafness, autosomal dominant 12
MedGen UID:
321902
Concept ID:
C1832187
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal dominant nonsyndromic deafness in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the TECTA gene.
Peroxisome biogenesis disorders, Zellweger syndrome spectrum
MedGen UID:
330407
Concept ID:
C1832200
Disease or Syndrome
Zellweger spectrum disorder (ZSD) is a phenotypic continuum ranging from severe to mild. While individual phenotypes (e.g., Zellweger syndrome [ZS], neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy [NALD], and infantile Refsum disease [IRD]) were described in the past before the biochemical and molecular bases of this spectrum were fully determined, the term "ZSD" is now used to refer to all individuals with a defect in one of the ZSD-PEX genes regardless of phenotype. Individuals with ZSD usually come to clinical attention in the newborn period or later in childhood. Affected newborns are hypotonic and feed poorly. They have distinctive facies, congenital malformations (neuronal migration defects associated with neonatal-onset seizures, renal cysts, and bony stippling [chondrodysplasia punctata] of the patella[e] and the long bones), and liver disease that can be severe. Infants with severe ZSD are significantly impaired and typically die during the first year of life, usually having made no developmental progress. Individuals with intermediate/milder ZSD do not have congenital malformations, but rather progressive peroxisome dysfunction variably manifest as sensory loss (secondary to retinal dystrophy and sensorineural hearing loss), neurologic involvement (ataxia, polyneuropathy, and leukodystrophy), liver dysfunction, adrenal insufficiency, and renal oxalate stones. While hypotonia and developmental delays are typical, intellect can be normal. Some have osteopenia; almost all have ameleogenesis imperfecta in the secondary teeth.
Human HOXA1 syndromes
MedGen UID:
330410
Concept ID:
C1832215
Disease or Syndrome
Homozygous loss-of-function mutations in the HOXA1 gene result in disorders with variable phenotypic expressivity that span a spectrum. Two related, but somewhat distinctive, phenotypes have been described in different populations: the Athabaskan brainstem dysgenesis syndrome (ABDS) in Native Americans, and Bosley-Salih-Alorainy syndrome (BSAS) in individuals from the Middle East, including Turkey and Saudi Arabia. Features common to both disorders include Duane retraction syndrome with variable gaze palsies, sensorineural deafness associated with inner ear abnormalities, and delayed motor development. More variable features, observed in both disorders, include conotruncal cardiac malformations, cerebral vascular malformations, and impaired intellectual development with autism. Unique to ABDS are central hypoventilation, often resulting in early death, facial weakness, and more severe cognitive deficits. These features are thought to be due to a more severe malformation of the hindbrain in ABDS compared to BSAS (summary by Tischfield et al., 2005).
Deafness-epiphyseal dysplasia-short stature syndrome
MedGen UID:
371330
Concept ID:
C1832438
Disease or Syndrome
This syndrome has characteristics of sensorineural deafness, short stature, femoral epiphyseal dysplasia, umbilical and inguinal hernias and developmental delay (growth retardation and mild intellectual deficit). It has been described in two brothers born to consanguineous parents. They also have dysmorphic features (triangular face, pointed chin) and bilateral obstruction of lacrimal ducts. This syndrome is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait.
Cerebellar ataxia-areflexia-pes cavus-optic atrophy-sensorineural hearing loss syndrome
MedGen UID:
318633
Concept ID:
C1832466
Disease or Syndrome
ATP1A3-related neurologic disorders represent a clinical continuum in which at least three distinct phenotypes have been delineated: rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (RDP); alternating hemiplegia of childhood (ACH); and cerebellar ataxia, areflexia, pes cavus, optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss (CAPOS). However, some affected individuals have intermediate phenotypes or only a few features that do not fit well into one of these major phenotypes. RDP has been characterized by: abrupt onset of dystonia over days to weeks with parkinsonism (primarily bradykinesia and postural instability); common bulbar involvement; and absence or minimal response to an adequate trial of L-dopa therapy, with few exceptions. Often fever, physiologic stress, or alcoholic binges trigger the onset of symptoms. After their initial appearance, symptoms often stabilize with little improvement; occasionally second episodes occur with abrupt worsening of symptoms. Rarely, affected individuals have reported a more gradual onset of symptoms over weeks to months. Anxiety, depression, and seizures have been reported. Age of onset ranges from four to 55 years, although a childhood variation of RDP with onset between ages nine and 14 months has been reported. AHC is a complex neurodevelopmental syndrome most frequently manifesting in infancy or early childhood with paroxysmal episodic neurologic dysfunction including alternating hemiparesis or dystonia, quadriparesis, seizure-like episodes, and oculomotor abnormalities. Episodes can last for minutes, hours, days, or even weeks. Remission of symptoms occurs with sleep and immediately after awakening. Over time, persistent neurologic deficits including oculomotor apraxia, ataxia, choreoathetosis, dystonia, parkinsonism, and cognitive and behavioral dysfunction develop in the majority of those affected; more than 50% develop epilepsy in addition to their episodic movement disorder phenotype. CAPOS (cerebellar ataxia, areflexia, pes cavus, optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss) syndrome is characterized by episodes of ataxic encephalopathy and/or weakness during and after a febrile illness. Onset is between ages six months and four years. Some acute symptoms resolve; progression of sensory losses and severity vary.
Deafness, autosomal dominant 10
MedGen UID:
321966
Concept ID:
C1832476
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal dominant nonsyndromic deafness in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the EYA4 gene.
Ayme-gripp syndrome
MedGen UID:
371416
Concept ID:
C1832812
Disease or Syndrome
Aymé-Gripp syndrome is classically defined as the triad of bilateral early cataracts, sensorineural hearing loss, and characteristic facial features in combination with neurodevelopmental abnormalities. The facial features are often described as "Down syndrome-like" and include brachycephaly, flat facial appearance, short nose, long philtrum, narrow mouth, and low-set and posteriorly rotated ears. Hearing loss is often congenital. Other features may include postnatal short stature, seizure disorder, nonspecific brain abnormalities on head imaging, skeletal abnormalities, and joint limitations. A subset of individuals have been found to have pericarditis or pericardial effusion during the neonatal or infantile period. All affected individuals have had developmental delay, but the degree of cognitive impairment is extremely variable. Other features including gastrointestinal and endocrine abnormalities, ectodermal dysplasia (i.e., nail dystrophy and mammary gland hypoplasia), dental anomalies, and chronic glomerulopathy with proteinuria have been reported in rare affected individuals.
Deafness, autosomal recessive 8
MedGen UID:
322046
Concept ID:
C1832827
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness that has material basis in mutation in the TMPRSS3 gene on chromosome 21q22.
Deafness, autosomal recessive 9
MedGen UID:
331376
Concept ID:
C1832828
Disease or Syndrome
OTOF-related deafness is characterized by two phenotypes: prelingual nonsyndromic auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) and, less frequently, temperature-sensitive auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (TS-ANSD). OTOF-related ANSD is characterized by congenital or prelingual, typically severe-to-profound bilateral deafness without inner-ear anomalies on MRI or CT examination of the temporal bones. Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are present and auditory brain stem response is abnormal at birth. Newborn hearing screening testing of OAEs only will fail to detect this disorder in most individuals. OAEs may decrease or disappear with age in 20%-80% of individuals. TS-ANSD typically presents with normal-to-moderate hearing loss (0-55 dB) at baseline body temperature. An elevation of body temperature (approximately 0.5°C or more) triggers significant bilateral hearing loss ranging from severe to profound, with resolution of hearing loss typically occurring within hours of a return to baseline body temperature.
Deafness, autosomal recessive 7
MedGen UID:
322084
Concept ID:
C1832978
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the TMC1 gene.
Deafness, autosomal recessive 5
MedGen UID:
331485
Concept ID:
C1833319
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness that has material basis in variation in the chromosome region 14q12.
Otodental syndrome
MedGen UID:
318937
Concept ID:
C1833693
Disease or Syndrome
Otodental syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition characterized by grossly enlarged canine and molar teeth (globodontia), associated with sensorineural hearing loss. Ocular coloboma segregating with otodental syndrome has been reported (summary by Gregory-Evans et al., 2007).
Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions 1
MedGen UID:
371919
Concept ID:
C1834846
Disease or Syndrome
POLG-related disorders comprise a continuum of overlapping phenotypes that were clinically defined long before their molecular basis was known. Most affected individuals have some, but not all, of the features of a given phenotype; nonetheless, the following nomenclature can assist the clinician in diagnosis and management. Onset of the POLG-related disorders ranges from infancy to late adulthood. Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (AHS), one of the most severe phenotypes, is characterized by childhood-onset progressive and ultimately severe encephalopathy with intractable epilepsy and hepatic failure. Childhood myocerebrohepatopathy spectrum (MCHS) presents between the first few months of life and about age three years with developmental delay or dementia, lactic acidosis, and a myopathy with failure to thrive. Other findings can include liver failure, renal tubular acidosis, pancreatitis, cyclic vomiting, and hearing loss. Myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia (MEMSA) now describes the spectrum of disorders with epilepsy, myopathy, and ataxia without ophthalmoplegia. MEMSA now includes the disorders previously described as spinocerebellar ataxia with epilepsy (SCAE). The ataxia neuropathy spectrum (ANS) includes the phenotypes previously referred to as mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome (MIRAS) and sensory ataxia neuropathy dysarthria and ophthalmoplegia (SANDO). About 90% of persons in the ANS have ataxia and neuropathy as core features. Approximately two thirds develop seizures and almost one half develop ophthalmoplegia; clinical myopathy is rare. Autosomal recessive progressive external ophthalmoplegia (arPEO) is characterized by progressive weakness of the extraocular eye muscles resulting in ptosis and ophthalmoparesis (or paresis of the extraocular muscles) without associated systemic involvement; however, caution is advised because many individuals with apparently isolated arPEO at the onset develop other manifestations of POLG-related disorders over years or decades. Of note, in the ANS spectrum the neuropathy commonly precedes the onset of PEO by years to decades. Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO) typically includes a generalized myopathy and often variable degrees of sensorineural hearing loss, axonal neuropathy, ataxia, depression, parkinsonism, hypogonadism, and cataracts (in what has been called "chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia plus," or "CPEO+").
Deafness, autosomal recessive 68
MedGen UID:
324374
Concept ID:
C1835854
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the S1PR2 gene.
Aminoacylase 1 deficiency
MedGen UID:
324393
Concept ID:
C1835922
Disease or Syndrome
Aminoacylase-1 deficiency (ACY1D) is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism characterized by increased urinary excretion of specific N-actyl amino acids. Most patients show neurologic abnormalities such as intellectual disability, seizures, hypotonia, and motor delay (summary by Ferri et al., 2014).
Deafness, autosomal recessive 23
MedGen UID:
332110
Concept ID:
C1836027
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the PCDH15 gene.
CEDNIK syndrome
MedGen UID:
332113
Concept ID:
C1836033
Disease or Syndrome
CEDNIK (cerebral dysgenesis, neuropathy, ichthyosis, and keratoderma) syndrome refers to a unique constellation of clinical manifestations including microcephaly, severe neurologic impairment, psychomotor retardation, failure to thrive, and facial dysmorphism, as well as palmoplantar keratoderma and late-onset ichthyosis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows various degrees of cerebral dysgenesis including absence of corpus callosum and cortical dysplasia. The syndrome has been found to be uniformly fatal between the ages of 5 and 12 years (Fuchs-Telem et al., 2011). Diggle et al. (2017) noted that dermatologic features and peripheral neuropathy may be variable manifestations of this disorder and not observed in all patients with SNAP29 mutations.
Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions 2
MedGen UID:
322925
Concept ID:
C1836460
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia is characterized by multiple mitochondrial DNA deletions in skeletal muscle. The most common clinical features include adult onset of weakness of the external eye muscles and exercise intolerance. Both autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance can occur; autosomal recessive inheritance is usually more severe (Filosto et al., 2003; Luoma et al., 2004). PEO caused by mutations in the POLG gene are associated with more complicated phenotypes than those forms caused by mutations in the ANT1 or C10ORF2 genes (Lamantea et al., 2002). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia, see PEOA1 (157640).
Alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase deficiency type 2
MedGen UID:
324539
Concept ID:
C1836522
Disease or Syndrome
Alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (NAGA) deficiency is a very rare lysosomal storage disorder with atypical features. It is clinically heterogeneous with 3 main phenotypes: type I is an infantile-onset neuroaxonal dystrophy (609241); type II, also known as Kanzaki disease, is an adult-onset disorder characterized by angiokeratoma corporis diffusum and mild intellectual impairment; and type III is an intermediate disorder (see 609241) with mild to moderate neurologic manifestations (Desnick and Schindler, 2001).
Branchiogenic-deafness syndrome
MedGen UID:
322970
Concept ID:
C1836673
Disease or Syndrome
A multiple congenital anomalies syndrome, described in one family to date, with characteristics of branchial cysts or fistula, ear malformations, congenital hearing loss (conductive, sensorineural, and mixed), internal auditory canal hypoplasia, strabismus, trismus, abnormal fifth fingers, vitiliginous lesions, short stature and mild learning disability. Renal and urethral abnormalities are absent.
Peripheral demyelinating neuropathy, central dysmyelination, Waardenburg syndrome, and Hirschsprung disease
MedGen UID:
373160
Concept ID:
C1836727
Disease or Syndrome
PCWH syndrome is a complex neurocristopathy that includes features of 4 distinct syndromes: peripheral demyelinating neuropathy (see 118200), central dysmyelination, Waardenburg syndrome, and Hirschsprung disease (see 142623) (Inoue et al., 2004). Inoue et al. (2004) proposed the acronym PCWH for this disorder.
Auditory neuropathy, autosomal dominant, 1
MedGen UID:
322984
Concept ID:
C1836743
Disease or Syndrome
Auditory neuropathy is a type of hearing loss defined by the preservation of cochlear outer hair cell function and abnormal or absent auditory brainstem responses. Auditory neuropathy may accompany peripheral neuropathy in a variety of dominant syndromes such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (Satya-Murti et al., 1979) and has been observed in Friedreich ataxia (Satya-Murti et al., 1980). Auditory neuropathy unassociated with peripheral neuropathy most commonly occurs as a sporadic or recessive trait; see, for example, 601071.
Nephropathy with pretibial epidermolysis bullosa and deafness
MedGen UID:
323004
Concept ID:
C1836823
Disease or Syndrome
Nephrotic syndrome-deafness-pretibial epidermolysis bullosa syndrome is a rare, genetic, renal disease characterized by hereditary nephritis leading to nephrotic syndrome and end-stage renal failure associated with sensorineural hearing loss and pretibial skin blistering followed by atrophy. Other reported manifestations include bilateral lacrimal duct stenosis, dystrophic teeth and nails, bilateral cervical ribs, unilateral kidney, distal vaginal agenesis and anemia due to beta-thalassemia minor.
Deafness, autosomal recessive 36, with or without vestibular involvement
MedGen UID:
324662
Concept ID:
C1837007
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ESPN gene.
Growth delay due to insulin-like growth factor type 1 deficiency
MedGen UID:
373337
Concept ID:
C1837475
Disease or Syndrome
Growth delay due to insulin-like growth factor I deficiency is characterised by the association of intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation with sensorineural deafness and intellectual deficit.
Deafness, autosomal dominant 47
MedGen UID:
324838
Concept ID:
C1837609
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal dominant nonsyndromic deafness that has material basis in variation in the chromosome region 9p22-p21.
Deafness, autosomal dominant 28
MedGen UID:
324846
Concept ID:
C1837640
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal dominant nonsyndromic deafness in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the GRHL2 gene.
Deafness, autosomal recessive 35
MedGen UID:
324897
Concept ID:
C1837857
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ESRRB gene.
CODAS syndrome
MedGen UID:
333031
Concept ID:
C1838180
Disease or Syndrome
CODAS is an acronym for cerebral, ocular, dental, auricular, and skeletal anomalies. CODAS syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by a distinctive constellation of features that includes developmental delay, craniofacial anomalies, cataracts, ptosis, median nasal groove, delayed tooth eruption, hearing loss, short stature, delayed epiphyseal ossification, metaphyseal hip dysplasia, and vertebral coronal clefts (summary by Strauss et al., 2015).
Waardenburg syndrome type 2B
MedGen UID:
373973
Concept ID:
C1838447
Disease or Syndrome
Waardenburg syndrome type II (WS2) is an auditory-pigmentary syndrome characterized by pigmentary abnormalities of the hair, skin, and eyes; congenital sensorineural hearing loss; and the absence of 'dystopia canthorum,' the lateral displacement of the inner canthus of each eye, which is seen in some other forms of WS (Hughes et al., 1994). WS type 2B (WS2B) maps to chromosome 1p. Waardenburg syndrome type 2 is genetically heterogeneous (see WS2A; 193510). For a description of other clinical variants of Waardenburg syndrome, see WS1 (193500), WS3 (148820), and WS4 (277580).
Deafness, autosomal recessive 2
MedGen UID:
325485
Concept ID:
C1838701
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the MYO7A gene.
Wolfram syndrome, mitochondrial form
MedGen UID:
325511
Concept ID:
C1838782
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex I deficiency
MedGen UID:
374101
Concept ID:
C1838979
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated complex I deficiency is a rare inborn error of metabolism due to mutations in nuclear or mitochondrial genes encoding subunits or assembly factors of the human mitochondrial complex I (NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase) and is characterized by a wide range of manifestations including marked and often fatal lactic acidosis, cardiomyopathy, leukoencephalopathy, pure myopathy and hepatopathy with tubulopathy. Among the numerous clinical phenotypes observed are Leigh syndrome, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and MELAS syndrome (see these terms).
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, X-linked recessive, type 5
MedGen UID:
374254
Concept ID:
C1839566
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type 5 (CMTX5), part of the spectrum of PRPS1-related disorders, is characterized by peripheral neuropathy, early-onset (prelingual) bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss, and optic neuropathy. The onset of peripheral neuropathy is between ages five and 12 years. The lower extremities are affected earlier and more severely than upper extremities. Initial manifestations often include foot drop or gait disturbance. Onset of visual impairment is between ages seven and 20 years. Intellect and life span are normal. Carrier females do not have findings of CMTX5.
Hypoparathyroidism, deafness, renal disease syndrome
MedGen UID:
374443
Concept ID:
C1840333
Disease or Syndrome
HDR syndrome (HDR), also known as Barakat syndrome, is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by the triad of Hypoparathyroidism (H), nerve Deafness (D) and/or Renal disease (R). Variable clinical features include hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, polycystic ovaries, congenital heart disease, retinitis pigmentosa, and cognitive disability (Barakat et al., 2018).
Hyperostosis cranialis interna
MedGen UID:
327093
Concept ID:
C1840404
Finding
Hyperostosis cranialis interna is a bone disorder characterized by endosteal hyperostosis and osteosclerosis of the calvaria and the skull base. The progressive bone overgrowth causes entrapment and dysfunction of cranial nerves I, II, V, VII, and VIII (Waterval et al., 2010).
Deafness, autosomal dominant 43
MedGen UID:
330769
Concept ID:
C1842108
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal dominant nonsyndromic deafness that has material basis in variation in the chromosome region 2p12.
Branchiootic syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
333995
Concept ID:
C1842124
Disease or Syndrome
Branchiootorenal spectrum disorder (BORSD) is characterized by malformations of the outer, middle, and inner ear associated with conductive, sensorineural, or mixed hearing impairment, branchial fistulae and cysts, and renal malformations ranging from mild renal hypoplasia to bilateral renal agenesis. Some individuals progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) later in life. Extreme variability can be observed in the presence, severity, and type of branchial arch, otologic, audiologic, and renal abnormality from right side to left side in an affected individual and also among individuals in the same family.
Deafness, autosomal dominant 49
MedGen UID:
331222
Concept ID:
C1842136
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal dominant nonsyndromic deafness that is characterized by moderate loss for low and mid frequencies and mild loss for high frequencies and has material basis in variation in the chromosome region 1q21-q23.
Lipodystrophy, generalized, with mental retardation, deafness, short stature, and slender bones
MedGen UID:
334166
Concept ID:
C1842465
Disease or Syndrome
Lipodystrophy-intellectual disability-deafness syndrome is an extremely rare form of genetic lipodystrophy (see this term), reported in 3 patients from one family to date, characterized by generalized congenital lipodystrophy, low birth weight, progressive sensorineural deafness occurring in childhood, intellectual deficit, progressive osteopenia, delayed skeletal maturation, skeletal abnormalities described as slender, undermineralized tubular bones, and dense metaphyseal striations in the distal femur, ulna and radius of older patients. Autosomal recessive inheritance has been suggested.
Neuropathy, hereditary sensory and autonomic, type I, with cough and gastroesophageal reflux
MedGen UID:
330880
Concept ID:
C1842586
Disease or Syndrome
The hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN), which are also referred to as hereditary sensory neuropathies (HSN) in the absence of significant autonomic features, are a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of disorders associated with sensory dysfunction. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HSAN, see HSAN1A (162400).
Chromosome 1p36 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
334629
Concept ID:
C1842870
Disease or Syndrome
The constitutional deletion of chromosome 1p36 results in a syndrome with multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation (Shapira et al., 1997). Monosomy 1p36 is the most common terminal deletion syndrome in humans, occurring in 1 in 5,000 births (Shaffer and Lupski, 2000; Heilstedt et al., 2003). See also neurodevelopmental disorder with or without anomalies of the brain, eye, or heart (NEDBEH; 616975), which shows overlapping features and is caused by heterozygous mutation in the RERE gene (605226) on proximal chromosome 1p36. See also Radio-Tartaglia syndrome (RATARS; 619312), caused by mutation in the SPEN gene (613484) on chromosome 1p36, which shows overlapping features.
Deafness, autosomal dominant 48
MedGen UID:
375052
Concept ID:
C1842939
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal dominant nonsyndromic deafness in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the MYO1A gene.
Deafness, autosomal recessive 37
MedGen UID:
375076
Concept ID:
C1843028
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the MYO6 gene.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2J
MedGen UID:
375107
Concept ID:
C1843153
Disease or Syndrome
For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of axonal CMT, see CMT2A1 (118210).
Sensory ataxic neuropathy, dysarthria, and ophthalmoparesis
MedGen UID:
375302
Concept ID:
C1843851
Disease or Syndrome
POLG-related disorders comprise a continuum of overlapping phenotypes that were clinically defined long before their molecular basis was known. Most affected individuals have some, but not all, of the features of a given phenotype; nonetheless, the following nomenclature can assist the clinician in diagnosis and management. Onset of the POLG-related disorders ranges from infancy to late adulthood. Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (AHS), one of the most severe phenotypes, is characterized by childhood-onset progressive and ultimately severe encephalopathy with intractable epilepsy and hepatic failure. Childhood myocerebrohepatopathy spectrum (MCHS) presents between the first few months of life and about age three years with developmental delay or dementia, lactic acidosis, and a myopathy with failure to thrive. Other findings can include liver failure, renal tubular acidosis, pancreatitis, cyclic vomiting, and hearing loss. Myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia (MEMSA) now describes the spectrum of disorders with epilepsy, myopathy, and ataxia without ophthalmoplegia. MEMSA now includes the disorders previously described as spinocerebellar ataxia with epilepsy (SCAE). The ataxia neuropathy spectrum (ANS) includes the phenotypes previously referred to as mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome (MIRAS) and sensory ataxia neuropathy dysarthria and ophthalmoplegia (SANDO). About 90% of persons in the ANS have ataxia and neuropathy as core features. Approximately two thirds develop seizures and almost one half develop ophthalmoplegia; clinical myopathy is rare. Autosomal recessive progressive external ophthalmoplegia (arPEO) is characterized by progressive weakness of the extraocular eye muscles resulting in ptosis and ophthalmoparesis (or paresis of the extraocular muscles) without associated systemic involvement; however, caution is advised because many individuals with apparently isolated arPEO at the onset develop other manifestations of POLG-related disorders over years or decades. Of note, in the ANS spectrum the neuropathy commonly precedes the onset of PEO by years to decades. Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO) typically includes a generalized myopathy and often variable degrees of sensorineural hearing loss, axonal neuropathy, ataxia, depression, parkinsonism, hypogonadism, and cataracts (in what has been called "chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia plus," or "CPEO+").
Deafness, autosomal dominant 44
MedGen UID:
334525
Concept ID:
C1843895
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal dominant nonsyndromic deafness in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the CCDC50 gene.
Deafness, X-linked 1
MedGen UID:
336749
Concept ID:
C1844677
Disease or Syndrome
DFNX1 nonsyndromic hearing loss and deafness is part of the spectrum of PRPS1-related disorders. Hearing loss in hemizygous males is bilateral, sensorineural, and moderate to profound; prelingual or postlingual in onset; and progressive or non-progressive. The audiogram shape is variable. Hearing in female carriers can be normal or abnormal.
X-linked spinocerebellar ataxia type 3
MedGen UID:
337124
Concept ID:
C1844936
Disease or Syndrome
This syndrome is a form of spinocerebellar degeneration with onset in infancy of hypotonia, ataxia, sensorineural deafness, developmental delay, esotropia and optic atrophy and by a progressive course leading to death in childhood. It has been described one family with at least six affected males from five different sibships (connected through carrier females). It is transmitted as an X-linked recessive trait.
Alpha thalassemia-X-linked intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
337145
Concept ID:
C1845055
Disease or Syndrome
Alpha-thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability (ATR-X) syndrome is characterized by distinctive craniofacial features, genital anomalies, hypotonia, and mild-to-profound developmental delay / intellectual disability (DD/ID). Craniofacial abnormalities include small head circumference, telecanthus or widely spaced eyes, short triangular nose, tented upper lip, and thick or everted lower lip with coarsening of the facial features over time. While all affected individuals have a normal 46,XY karyotype, genital anomalies comprise a range from hypospadias and undescended testicles, to severe hypospadias and ambiguous genitalia, to normal-appearing female external genitalia. Alpha-thalassemia, observed in about 75% of affected individuals, is mild and typically does not require treatment. Osteosarcoma has been reported in a few males with germline pathogenic variants.
Mental retardation, X-linked, syndromic, martin-probst type
MedGen UID:
375620
Concept ID:
C1845285
Disease or Syndrome
Deafness-intellectual disability syndrome, Martin-Probst type is characterised by severe bilateral deafness, intellectual deficit, umbilical hernia and abnormal dermatoglyphics. It has been described in three males from three generations of one family. Mild facial dysmorphism (telangiectasias, hypertelorism, dental anomalies and a wide nasal root) was also present. Short stature, pancytopaenia, microcephaly, and renal and genitourinary anomalies were present in some of the patients. The mode of transmission is X-linked recessive and the causative gene has been localised to the q1-21 region of the X chromosome.
Corpus callosum, agenesis of, with mental retardation, ocular coloboma, and micrognathia
MedGen UID:
335185
Concept ID:
C1845446
Disease or Syndrome
Corpus callosum agenesis-intellectual disability-coloboma-micrognathia syndrome is a developmental anomalies syndrome characterized by coloboma of the iris and optic nerve, facial dysmorphism (high forehead, microretrognathia, low-set ears), intellectual deficit, agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC), sensorineural hearing loss, skeletal anomalies and short stature.
Mental retardation 46, X-linked
MedGen UID:
337255
Concept ID:
C1845526
Disease or Syndrome
FG syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
336965
Concept ID:
C1845546
Disease or Syndrome
CASK disorders include a spectrum of phenotypes in both females and males. Two main types of clinical presentation are seen: Microcephaly with pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia (MICPCH), generally associated with pathogenic loss-of-function variants in CASK. X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) with or without nystagmus, generally associated with hypomorphic CASK pathogenic variants. MICPCH is typically seen in females with moderate-to-severe intellectual disability, progressive microcephaly with or without ophthalmologic anomalies, and sensorineural hearing loss. Most are able to sit independently; 20%-25% attain the ability to walk; language is nearly absent in most. Neurologic features may include axial hypotonia, hypertonia/spasticity of the extremities, and dystonia or other movement disorders. Nearly 40% have seizures by age ten years. Behaviors may include sleep disturbances, hand stereotypies, and self biting. MICPCH in males may occur with or without severe epileptic encephalopathy in addition to severe-to-profound developmental delay. When seizures are present they occur early and may be intractable. In individuals and families with milder (i.e., hypomorphic) pathogenic variants, the clinical phenotype is usually that of XLID with or without nystagmus and additional clinical features. Males have mild-to-severe intellectual disability, with or without nystagmus and other ocular features. Females typically have normal intelligence with some displaying mild-to-severe intellectual disability with or without ocular features.
Oculofaciocardiodental syndrome
MedGen UID:
337547
Concept ID:
C1846265
Disease or Syndrome
Oculofaciocardiodental (OFCD) syndrome is a condition that affects the development of the eyes (oculo-), facial features (facio-), heart (cardio-) and teeth (dental). This condition occurs only in females.\n\nThe eye abnormalities associated with OFCD syndrome can affect one or both eyes. Many people with this condition are born with eyeballs that are abnormally small (microphthalmia). Other eye problems can include clouding of the lens (cataract) and a higher risk of glaucoma, an eye disease that increases the pressure in the eye. These abnormalities can lead to vision loss or blindness.\n\nPeople with OFCD syndrome often have a long, narrow face with distinctive facial features, including deep-set eyes and a broad nasal tip that is divided by a cleft. Some affected people have an opening in the roof of the mouth called a cleft palate.\n\nHeart defects are another common feature of OFCD syndrome. Babies with this condition may be born with a hole between two chambers of the heart (an atrial or ventricular septal defect) or a leak in one of the valves that controls blood flow through the heart (mitral valve prolapse).\n\nTeeth with very large roots (radiculomegaly) are characteristic of OFCD syndrome. Additional dental abnormalities can include delayed loss of primary (baby) teeth, missing or abnormally small teeth, misaligned teeth, and defective tooth enamel.
Developmental malformations-deafness-dystonia syndrome
MedGen UID:
339494
Concept ID:
C1846331
Disease or Syndrome
Baraitser-Winter cerebrofrontofacial (BWCFF) syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by typical craniofacial features and intellectual disability (ID) that ranges from mild (usually in those with normal brain structure) to profound (typically in those with a neuronal migration defect). Many (but not all) affected individuals have iris or retinal coloboma, sensorineural deafness, and muscle wasting resulting in a peculiar stance with kyphosis, anteverted shoulders, and slightly flexed elbows and knees. Seizures, congenital heart defects, and renal malformations also are common.
Deafness, autosomal recessive 31
MedGen UID:
339621
Concept ID:
C1846839
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the WHRN gene.
Deafness, autosomal recessive 22
MedGen UID:
339636
Concept ID:
C1846896
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the OTOA gene.
Deafness, autosomal dominant 21
MedGen UID:
339643
Concept ID:
C1846922
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal dominant nonsyndromic deafness that has material basis in variation in the chromosome region 6p24.1-p22.3.
Usher syndrome, type 1G
MedGen UID:
339683
Concept ID:
C1847089
Disease or Syndrome
Usher syndrome type I (USH1) is characterized by congenital, bilateral, profound sensorineural hearing loss, vestibular areflexia, and adolescent-onset retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Unless fitted with a cochlear implant, individuals do not typically develop speech. RP, a progressive, bilateral, symmetric degeneration of rod and cone functions of the retina, develops in adolescence, resulting in progressively constricted visual fields and impaired visual acuity.
Deafness, autosomal dominant 36
MedGen UID:
376173
Concept ID:
C1847626
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal dominant condition caused by mutations in the TMC1 gene, encoding transmembrane channel-like protein 1. It is characterized by bilateral progressive hearing loss.
Deafness, autosomal dominant 30
MedGen UID:
341116
Concept ID:
C1847972
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal dominant nonsyndromic deafness that has material basis in variation in the chromosome region 15q25-q26.
Deafness, X-linked 4
MedGen UID:
376307
Concept ID:
C1848204
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked deafness-4 is a nonsyndromic form of progressive hearing loss with postlingual onset. Affected males show earlier onset of hearing loss than affected females (summary by del Castillo et al., 1996).
Waardenburg syndrome type 4A
MedGen UID:
341244
Concept ID:
C1848519
Disease or Syndrome
Waardenburg syndrome type 4 (WS4), also known as Waardenburg-Shah syndrome, is an auditory-pigmentary syndrome characterized by pigmentary abnormalities of the hair, skin, and eyes, congenital sensorineural hearing loss, and Hirschsprung disease (reviews by Read and Newton, 1997 and Pingault et al., 2010). WS type 4A is caused by mutation in the EDNRB gene (131244). Clinical Variability of Waardenburg Syndrome Types 1-4 Waardenburg syndrome has been classified into 4 main phenotypes. Type I Waardenburg syndrome (WS1; 193500) is characterized by pigmentary abnormalities of the hair, including a white forelock and premature graying; pigmentary changes of the iris, such as heterochromia iridis and brilliant blue eyes; congenital sensorineural hearing loss; and 'dystopia canthorum.' WS type II (WS2) is distinguished from type I by the absence of dystopia canthorum. WS type III (WS3; 148820) has dystopia canthorum and is distinguished by the presence of upper limb abnormalities. WS type 4 has the additional feature of Hirschsprung disease (reviews by Read and Newton, 1997 and Pingault et al., 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Waardenburg Syndrome Type 4 Waardenburg syndrome type 4 is genetically heterogeneous. WS4B (613265) is caused by mutation in the EDN3 gene (131242) on chromosome 20q13, and WS4C (613266) is caused by mutation in the SOX10 gene (602229) on chromosome 22q13.
Thyrocerebrorenal syndrome
MedGen UID:
341311
Concept ID:
C1848813
Disease or Syndrome
A rare syndromic renal disorder characterized by renal, neurologic and thyroid disease, associated with thrombocytopenia. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1978.
Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome
MedGen UID:
341339
Concept ID:
C1848934
Disease or Syndrome
The FLNB disorders include a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from mild to severe. At the mild end are spondylocarpotarsal synostosis (SCT) syndrome and Larsen syndrome; at the severe end are the phenotypic continuum of atelosteogenesis types I (AOI) and III (AOIII) and Piepkorn osteochondrodysplasia (POCD). SCT syndrome is characterized by postnatal disproportionate short stature, scoliosis and lordosis, clubfeet, hearing loss, dental enamel hypoplasia, carpal and tarsal synostosis, and vertebral fusions. Larsen syndrome is characterized by congenital dislocations of the hip, knee, and elbow; clubfeet (equinovarus or equinovalgus foot deformities); scoliosis and cervical kyphosis, which can be associated with a cervical myelopathy; short, broad, spatulate distal phalanges; distinctive craniofacies (prominent forehead, depressed nasal bridge, malar flattening, and widely spaced eyes); vertebral anomalies; and supernumerary carpal and tarsal bone ossification centers. Individuals with SCT syndrome and Larsen syndrome can have midline cleft palate and hearing loss. AOI and AOIII are characterized by severe short-limbed dwarfism; dislocated hips, knees, and elbows; and clubfeet. AOI is lethal in the perinatal period. In individuals with AOIII, survival beyond the neonatal period is possible with intensive and invasive respiratory support. Piepkorn osteochondrodysplasia (POCD) is a perinatal-lethal micromelic dwarfism characterized by flipper-like limbs (polysyndactyly with complete syndactyly of all fingers and toes, hypoplastic or absent first digits, and duplicated intermediate and distal phalanges), macrobrachycephaly, prominant forehead, hypertelorism, and exophthalmos. Occasional features include cleft palate, omphalocele, and cardiac and genitourinary anomalies. The radiographic features at mid-gestation are characteristic.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 5A
MedGen UID:
376521
Concept ID:
C1849115
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia-5A (SPG5A) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder with a wide phenotypic spectrum. Some patients have pure spastic paraplegia affecting only gait, whereas others may have a complicated phenotype with additional manifestations, including optic atrophy or cerebellar ataxia (summary by Arnoldi et al., 2012). The hereditary spastic paraplegias (SPG) are a group of clinically and genetically diverse disorders characterized by progressive, usually severe, lower extremity spasticity; see reviews of Fink et al. (1996) and Fink (1997). Inheritance is most often autosomal dominant (see 182600), but X-linked (see 303350) and autosomal recessive forms also occur. Genetic Heterogeneity of Autosomal Recessive Spastic Paraplegia Autosomal recessive forms of SPG include SPG7 (607259), caused by mutation in the paraplegin gene (602783) on chromosome 16q24; SPG9B (616586), caused by mutation in the ALDH18A1 gene (138250) on 10q24; SPG11 (604360), caused by mutation in the spatacsin gene (610844) on 15q21; SPG15 (270700), caused by mutation in the ZFYVE26 gene (612012) on 14q24; SPG18 (611225), caused by mutation in the ERLIN2 gene (611605) on 8p11; SPG20 (275900), caused by mutation in the spartin gene (607111) on 13q12; SPG21 (248900), caused by mutation in the maspardin gene (608181) on 15q21; SPG26 (609195), caused by mutation in the B4GALNT1 gene (601873) on 12q13; SPG28 (609340), caused by mutation in the DDHD1 gene (614603) on 14q22; SPG30 (610357), caused by mutation in the KIF1A gene (601255) on 2q37; SPG35 (612319), caused by mutation in the FA2H gene (611026) on 16q23; SPG39 (612020), caused by mutation in the PNPLA6 gene (603197) on 19p13.3; SPG43 (615043), caused by mutation in the C19ORF12 gene (614297) on 19q12; SPG44 (613206), caused by mutation in the GJC2 gene (608803) on 1q42; SPG45 (613162), caused by mutation in the NT5C2 gene (600417) on 10q24; SPG46 (614409), caused by mutation in the GBA2 gene (609471) on 9p13; SPG48 (613647), caused by mutation in the KIAA0415 gene (613653) on 7p22.1; SPG54 (615033), caused by mutation in the DDHD2 gene (615003) on 8p11; SPG55 (615035), caused by mutation in the MTRFR gene on 12q24; SPG56 (615030), caused by mutation in the CYP2U1 gene (610670) on 4q25; SPG57 (615658), caused by mutation in the TFG gene (602498) on 3q12; SPG61 (615685), caused by mutation in the ARL6IP1 gene (607669) on 1p12; SPG62 (615681), caused by mutation in the ERLIN1 gene on 10q24; SPG63 (615686), caused by mutation in the AMPD2 gene (102771) on 1p13; SPG64 (615683), caused by mutation in the ENTPD1 gene (601752) on 10q24; SPG72 (615625), caused by mutation in the REEP2 gene (609347) on 5q31; SPG74 (616451), caused by mutation in the IBA57 gene (615316) on 1q42; SPG75 (616680), caused by mutation in the MAG gene (159460) on 19q13; SPG76 (616907), caused by mutation in the CAPN1 gene (114220) on 11q13; SPG77 (617046), caused by mutation in the FARS2 gene (611592) on 6p25; SPG78, caused by mutation in the ATP13A2 gene (610513) on 1p36; SPG79 (615491), caused by mutation in the UCHL1 gene (191342) on 4p13; SPG81 (618768), caused by mutation in the SELENOI gene (607915) on 2p23; SPG82 (618770), caused by mutation in the PCYT2 gene (602679) on 17q25; and SPG83 (619027), caused by mutation in the HPDL gene (618994) on chromosome 1p34. Additional autosomal recessive forms of SPG have been mapped to chromosomes 3q (SPG14; 605229), 13q14 (SPG24; 607584), 6q (SPG25; 608220), and 10q22 (SPG27; 609041). A disorder that was formerly designated SPG49 has been reclassified as hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy-9 with developmental delay (HSAN9; 615031).
Spastic ataxia
MedGen UID:
376528
Concept ID:
C1849156
Disease or Syndrome
Retinitis pigmentosa inversa with deafness
MedGen UID:
341447
Concept ID:
C1849405
Disease or Syndrome
Nephropathy - deafness - hyperparathyroidism syndrome
MedGen UID:
340569
Concept ID:
C1850553
Disease or Syndrome
A rare syndromic deafness characterized by renal failure without hematuria, parathyroid hyperplasia and sensorineural deafness. There have been no further reports since 1989.
Keipert syndrome
MedGen UID:
338088
Concept ID:
C1850627
Disease or Syndrome
Keipert syndrome (KPTS) is characterized by craniofacial and digital abnormalities and variable learning difficulties. The distinctive facial appearance includes broad forehead, hypertelorism, prominent nose, wide mouth, and prominent upper lip with cupid's bow configuration. Digital anomalies are also distinctive, with widening of all distal phalanges, particularly of the thumbs and great toes (Amor et al., 2019).
Friedreich ataxia, so-called, with optic atrophy and sensorineural deafness
MedGen UID:
376920
Concept ID:
C1850982
Disease or Syndrome
Deafness, autosomal dominant 1
MedGen UID:
343767
Concept ID:
C1852282
Disease or Syndrome
DFNA1 is an autosomal dominant form of progressive hearing loss with onset in the first decade. Some patients have mild thrombocytopenia and enlarged platelets, although most of these individuals do not have significant bleeding tendencies (summary by Neuhaus et al., 2017).
Deafness, mid-tone neural
MedGen UID:
338897
Concept ID:
C1852283
Disease or Syndrome
Craniofacial-deafness-hand syndrome
MedGen UID:
377694
Concept ID:
C1852510
Disease or Syndrome
Craniofacial-deafness-hand syndrome (CDHS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by dysmorphic facial features, hand abnormalities, absent or hypoplastic nasal and wrist bones, and severe sensorineural hearing impairment (summary by Gad et al., 2008).
Renal coloboma syndrome
MedGen UID:
339002
Concept ID:
C1852759
Disease or Syndrome
PAX2-related disorder is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with renal and eye abnormalities. The disorder was originally referred to as renal coloboma syndrome and characterized by renal hypodysplasia and abnormalities of the optic nerve; with improved access to molecular testing, a wider range of phenotypes has been recognized in association with pathogenic variants in PAX2. Abnormal renal structure or function is noted in 92% of affected individuals and ophthalmologic abnormalities in 77% of affected individuals. Renal abnormalities can be clinically silent in rare individuals. In most individuals, clinically significant renal insufficiency / renal failure is reported. End-stage renal disease requiring renal transplant is not uncommon. Uric acid nephrolithiasis has been reported. Ophthalmologic abnormalities are typically described as optic nerve coloboma or dysplasia. Iris colobomas have not been reported in any individual with PAX2–related disorder. Ophthalmologic abnormalities may significantly impair vision in some individuals, while others have subtle changes only noted after detailed ophthalmologic examination. Additional clinical findings include high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss, soft skin, and ligamentous laxity. PAX2 pathogenic variants have been identified in multiple sporadic and familial cases of nonsyndromic renal disease including renal hypodysplasia and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.
Neutral lipid storage myopathy
MedGen UID:
339913
Concept ID:
C1853136
Disease or Syndrome
Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy is an autosomal recessive muscle disorder characterized by adult onset of slowly progressive proximal muscle weakness affecting the upper and lower limbs and associated with increased serum creatine kinase; distal muscle weakness may also occur. About half of patients develop cardiomyopathy later in the disease course. Other variable features include diabetes mellitus, hepatic steatosis, hypertriglyceridemia, and possibly sensorineural hearing loss. Leukocytes and muscle cells show cytoplasmic accumulation of triglycerides (summary by Reilich et al., 2011). Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy belongs to a group of disorders termed neutral lipid storage disorders (NLSDs). These disorders are characterized by the presence of triglyceride-containing cytoplasmic droplets in leukocytes and in other tissues, including bone marrow, skin, and muscle. Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome (CDS; 275630) is defined as NLSD with ichthyosis (NLSDI). Patients with NLSDM present with myopathy but without ichthyosis (summary by Fischer et al., 2007).
Deafness, autosomal recessive 67
MedGen UID:
343997
Concept ID:
C1853223
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the LHFPL5 gene.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease axonal type 2C
MedGen UID:
342947
Concept ID:
C1853710
Disease or Syndrome
The autosomal dominant TRPV4 disorders (previously considered to be clinically distinct phenotypes before their molecular basis was discovered) are now grouped into neuromuscular disorders and skeletal dysplasias; however, the overlap within each group is considerable. Affected individuals typically have either neuromuscular or skeletal manifestations alone, and in only rare instances an overlap syndrome has been reported. The three autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorders (mildest to most severe) are: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2C. Scapuloperoneal spinal muscular atrophy. Congenital distal spinal muscular atrophy. The autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorders are characterized by a congenital-onset, static, or later-onset progressive peripheral neuropathy with variable combinations of laryngeal dysfunction (i.e., vocal fold paresis), respiratory dysfunction, and joint contractures. The six autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasias (mildest to most severe) are: Familial digital arthropathy-brachydactyly. Autosomal dominant brachyolmia. Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia, Kozlowski type. Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, Maroteaux type. Parastremmatic dysplasia. Metatropic dysplasia. The skeletal dysplasia is characterized by brachydactyly (in all 6); the five that are more severe have short stature that varies from mild to severe with progressive spinal deformity and involvement of the long bones and pelvis. In the mildest of the autosomal dominant TRPV4 disorders life span is normal; in the most severe it is shortened. Bilateral progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) can occur with both autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorders and skeletal dysplasias.
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 2B
MedGen UID:
342954
Concept ID:
C1853736
Disease or Syndrome
A form of congenital disorders of N-linked glycosylation characterized by generalized hypotonia, craniofacial dysmorphism (prominent occiput, short palpebral fissures, long eyelashes, broad nose, high arched palate, retrognathia), hypoplastic genitalia, seizures, feeding difficulties, hypoventilation, severe hypogammaglobulinemia with generalized edema and increased resistance to particular viral infections (particularly to enveloped viruses). The disease is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene MOGS (2p13.1).
Deafness, autosomal recessive 27
MedGen UID:
381303
Concept ID:
C1853941
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness that has material basis in variation in the chromosome region 2q23-q31.
Deafness, autosomal dominant 25
MedGen UID:
344221
Concept ID:
C1854158
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal dominant nonsyndromic deafness in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the SLC17A8 gene.
Deafness, autosomal recessive 26
MedGen UID:
340185
Concept ID:
C1854275
Disease or Syndrome
DFNB26 is characterized by prelingual severe to profound nonsyndromic hearing loss (Yousaf et al., 2018).
Dilated cardiomyopathy 1J
MedGen UID:
343105
Concept ID:
C1854368
Disease or Syndrome
Sensorineural deafness with dilated cardiomyopathy is an extremely rare autosomal dominant syndrome described in two families to date and characterized by moderate to severe sensorineural hearing loss manifesting during childhood, and associated with late-onset dilated cardiomyopathy that generally progresses to heart failure.
Deafness, autosomal dominant 23
MedGen UID:
343162
Concept ID:
C1854594
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal dominant nonsyndromic deafness in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the SIX1 gene.
Baraitser-Winter syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
340943
Concept ID:
C1855722
Disease or Syndrome
Baraitser-Winter cerebrofrontofacial (BWCFF) syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by typical craniofacial features and intellectual disability (ID) that ranges from mild (usually in those with normal brain structure) to profound (typically in those with a neuronal migration defect). Many (but not all) affected individuals have iris or retinal coloboma, sensorineural deafness, and muscle wasting resulting in a peculiar stance with kyphosis, anteverted shoulders, and slightly flexed elbows and knees. Seizures, congenital heart defects, and renal malformations also are common.
Vici syndrome
MedGen UID:
340962
Concept ID:
C1855772
Disease or Syndrome
Vici syndrome is a rare congenital multisystem disorder characterized by agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC), cataracts, pigmentary defects, progressive cardiomyopathy, and variable immunodeficiency. Affected individuals also have profound psychomotor retardation and hypotonia due to a myopathy (summary by Finocchi et al., 2012).
Ermine phenotype
MedGen UID:
346466
Concept ID:
C1856899
Disease or Syndrome
Cutaneous albinism-ermine phenotype is characterised by the association of white hair with black tufts, depigmented skin and sensorineural deafness. It has been described in two pairs of siblings and one individual case. The depigmentation may present as vitiligo, or be spotted with brown patches. Nystagmus, photophobia, retinal depigmentation and intellectual deficit were also reported in one pair of siblings. An autoimmune mechanism or failure of melanocyte migration may be responsible for the disease.
Ectodermal dysplasia and neurosensory deafness
MedGen UID:
346503
Concept ID:
C1857068
Disease or Syndrome
Ectodermal dysplasia-sensorineural deafness syndrome is characterised by hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, sensorineural hearing loss, and contracture of the fifth fingers. It has been described in brother and sister born to consanguineous parents. The girl also presented with thoracic scoliosis. The mode of inheritance is likely to be autosomal recessive.
Disorganization, mouse, homolog of
MedGen UID:
387773
Concept ID:
C1857230
Finding
Donnai-Barrow syndrome
MedGen UID:
347406
Concept ID:
C1857277
Disease or Syndrome
Donnai-Barrow syndrome (DBS) is characterized by typical craniofacial features (large anterior fontanelle, wide metopic suture, widow's peak, markedly widely spaced eyes, enlarged globes, downslanted palpebral fissures, posteriorly rotated ears, depressed nasal bridge, and short nose. Ocular complications include high myopia, retinal detachment, retinal dystrophy, and progressive vision loss. Additional common features include agenesis of the corpus callosum, sensorineural hearing loss, intellectual disability, and congenital diaphragmatic hernia and/or omphalocele. Both inter- and intrafamilial phenotypic variability are observed.
Deafness, sensorineural, autosomal-mitochondrial type
MedGen UID:
346566
Concept ID:
C1857332
Disease or Syndrome
Deafness, neural, with atypical atopic dermatitis
MedGen UID:
346567
Concept ID:
C1857334
Disease or Syndrome
Deafness, neural, congenital moderate
MedGen UID:
347425
Concept ID:
C1857337
Disease or Syndrome
Deafness-small bowel diverticulosis-neuropathy syndrome
MedGen UID:
347426
Concept ID:
C1857338
Disease or Syndrome
Syndrome with characteristics of progressive sensorineural deafness, progressive sensory neuropathy and gastrointestinal abnormalities (progressive loss of gastric motility, small bowel diverticulosis). It has been described in five patients (three sisters in a family and two sisters born to consanguineous parents). This syndrome is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait.
Split-hand/foot malformation 1 with sensorineural hearing loss
MedGen UID:
347431
Concept ID:
C1857344
Congenital Abnormality
An extremely rare genetic syndrome with clinical characteristics of split hand/split foot malformation and mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss, sometimes associated with cleft palate and intellectual deficit. There is evidence this syndrome may be caused by homozygous mutation in the DLX5 gene on chromosome 7q21.
Craniosynostosis-intellectual disability syndrome of 51N and Gettig
MedGen UID:
341781
Concept ID:
C1857473
Disease or Syndrome
Corneal dystrophy-perceptive deafness syndrome
MedGen UID:
387858
Concept ID:
C1857572
Disease or Syndrome
Harboyan syndrome, or corneal dystrophy and perceptive deafness (CDPD), consists of congenital corneal endothelial dystrophy and progressive sensorineural deafness, and is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait (summary by Desir et al., 2007).
Deafness, autosomal recessive 59
MedGen UID:
387899
Concept ID:
C1857744
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the PJVK gene.
Deafness, autosomal recessive 66
MedGen UID:
346659
Concept ID:
C1857750
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the DCDC2 gene.
Diabetes mellitus, neonatal, with congenital hypothyroidism
MedGen UID:
347541
Concept ID:
C1857775
Disease or Syndrome
Neonatal diabetes mellitus with congenital hypothyroidism (NDH) syndrome is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation and onset of nonimmune diabetes mellitus within the first few weeks of life. Other features include renal parenchymal disease, primarily renal cystic dysplasia, and hepatic disease, with hepatitis in some patients and hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis in others. Facial dysmorphism, when present, consistently involves low-set ears, epicanthal folds, flat nasal bridge, long philtrum, and thin upper lip. Most patients exhibit developmental delay (Dimitri et al., 2015).
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 29
MedGen UID:
346682
Concept ID:
C1857855
Disease or Syndrome
A complex form of hereditary spastic paraplegia characterized by a spastic paraplegia presenting in adolescence, associated with the additional manifestations of sensorial hearing impairment due to auditory neuropathy and persistent vomiting due to a hiatal or paraesophageal hernia.
Wolfram syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
347604
Concept ID:
C1858028
Disease or Syndrome
Wolfram syndrome-2 is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by diabetes mellitus, high frequency sensorineural hearing loss, optic atrophy or neuropathy, and defective platelet aggregation resulting in peptic ulcer bleeding (summary by Mozzillo et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Wolfram syndrome, see WFS1 (222300).
Stickler syndrome type 2
MedGen UID:
347615
Concept ID:
C1858084
Disease or Syndrome
Stickler syndrome is a connective tissue disorder that can include ocular findings of myopia, cataract, and retinal detachment; hearing loss that is both conductive and sensorineural; midfacial underdevelopment and cleft palate (either alone or as part of the Robin sequence); and mild spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia and/or precocious arthritis. Variable phenotypic expression of Stickler syndrome occurs both within and among families; interfamilial variability is in part explained by locus and allelic heterogeneity.
Primary autosomal recessive microcephaly 3
MedGen UID:
347619
Concept ID:
C1858108
Disease or Syndrome
People with MCPH usually have few or no other features associated with the condition. Some have a narrow, sloping forehead; mild seizures; problems with attention or behavior; or short stature compared to others in their family. The condition typically does not affect any other major organ systems or cause other health problems.\n\nMCPH causes intellectual disability, which is typically mild to moderate and does not become more severe with age. Most affected individuals have delayed speech and language skills. Motor skills, such as sitting, standing, and walking, may also be mildly delayed.\n\nInfants with MCPH have an unusually small head circumference compared to other infants of the same sex and age. Head circumference is the distance around the widest part of the head, measured by placing a measuring tape above the eyebrows and ears and around the back of the head. Affected infants' brain volume is also smaller than usual, although they usually do not have any major abnormalities in the structure of the brain. The head and brain grow throughout childhood and adolescence, but they continue to be much smaller than normal.\n\nAutosomal recessive primary microcephaly (often shortened to MCPH, which stands for "microcephaly primary hereditary") is a condition in which infants are born with a very small head and a small brain. The term "microcephaly" comes from the Greek words for "small head."
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type 4B2
MedGen UID:
346869
Concept ID:
C1858278
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4B is a demyelinating hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy characterized by abnormal folding of myelin sheaths. CMT4B1 (601382) is a clinically similar disorder caused by mutation in the MTMR2 gene (603557) on 11q22. For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive demyelinating CMT, see CMT4A (214400).
Blepharophimosis with facial and genital anomalies and mental retardation
MedGen UID:
347661
Concept ID:
C1858538
Disease or Syndrome
Blepharophimosis-intellectual disability syndrome, Verloes type is a rare, genetic multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome characterized by congenital microcephaly, severe epilepsy with hypsarrhythmia, adducted thumbs, abnormal genitalia, and normal thyroid function. Hypotonia, moderate to severe psychomotor delay, and characteristic facial dysmorphism (including round face with prominent cheeks, blepharophimosis, large, bulbous nose with wide alae nasi, posteriorly rotated ears with dysplastic conchae, narrow mouth, cleft palate, and mild micrognathia) are additional characteristic features.
Deafness, autosomal recessive 20
MedGen UID:
347005
Concept ID:
C1858840
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness that has material basis in variation in the chromosome region 11q25-qter.
Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata type 1
MedGen UID:
347072
Concept ID:
C1859133
Disease or Syndrome
Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata type 1 (RCDP1), a peroxisome biogenesis disorder (PBD) has a classic (severe) form and a nonclassic (mild) form. Classic (severe) RCDP1 is characterized by proximal shortening of the humerus (rhizomelia) and to a lesser degree the femur, punctate calcifications in cartilage with epiphyseal and metaphyseal abnormalities (chondrodysplasia punctata, or CDP), coronal clefts of the vertebral bodies, and cataracts that are usually present at birth or appear in the first few months of life. Birth weight, length, and head circumference are often at the lower range of normal; postnatal growth deficiency is profound. Intellectual disability is severe, and the majority of children develop seizures. Most affected children do not survive the first decade of life; a proportion die in the neonatal period. Nonclassic (mild) RCDP1 is characterized by congenital or childhood cataracts, CDP or infrequently, chondrodysplasia manifesting only as mild epiphyseal changes, variable rhizomelia, and milder intellectual disability and growth restriction than classic RCDP1.
Klippel-Feil syndrome 2, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
395201
Concept ID:
C1859209
Disease or Syndrome
Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS) is a congenital anomaly characterized by a defect in the formation or segmentation of the cervical vertebrae, resulting in a fused appearance. The clinical triad consists of short neck, low posterior hairline, and limited neck movement, although less than 50% of patients demonstrate all 3 clinical features (Tracy et al., 2004). Clarke et al. (1998) proposed a classification system for KFS in which an autosomal recessive form is characterized by the most rostral fusion at C1 and the presence of severe associated anomalies, including short neck, cardiac defects, and craniofacial anomalies. For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Klippel-Feil syndrome, see KFS1 (118100).
Cerebellar ataxia and neurosensory deafness
MedGen UID:
395224
Concept ID:
C1859304
Disease or Syndrome
Atherosclerosis-deafness-diabetes-epilepsy-nephropathy syndrome
MedGen UID:
349198
Concept ID:
C1859596
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, severe, circulatory system disease characterized by premature, diffuse, severe atherosclerosis (including the aorta and renal, coronary, and cerebral arteries), sensorineural deafness, diabetes mellitus, progressive neurological deterioration with cerebellar symptoms and photomyoclonic seizures, and progressive nephropathy. Partial deficiency of mitochondrial complexes III and IV in the kidney and fibroblasts (but not in muscle) may be associated. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1994.
Ataxia, deafness and cardiomyopathy
MedGen UID:
395312
Concept ID:
C1859645
Disease or Syndrome
Anophthalmia/microphthalmia-esophageal atresia syndrome
MedGen UID:
347232
Concept ID:
C1859773
Disease or Syndrome
The phenotypic spectrum of SOX2 disorder includes anophthalmia and/or microphthalmia, brain malformations, developmental delay / intellectual disability, esophageal atresia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (manifest as cryptorchidism and micropenis in males, gonadal dysgenesis infrequently in females, and delayed puberty in both sexes), pituitary hypoplasia, postnatal growth delay, hypotonia, seizures, and spastic or dystonic movements.
Acrocraniofacial dysostosis
MedGen UID:
349738
Concept ID:
C1860145
Disease or Syndrome
A very rare form of acrofacial dysostosis, reported in two sisters to date, with characteristics of short stature, acrocephaly, ocular hypertelorism, ptosis of eyelids, ocular proptosis, downslanting palpebral fissures, high nasal bridge, anteverted nostrils, short philtrum, cleft palate, micrognathia, abnormal external ears, preauricular pits, mixed hearing loss, bulbous digits, metatarsus varus, pectus excavatum and various radiological abnormalities. Features of this syndrome were reported to overlap with otopalatodigital syndrome types 1 and 2. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1988.
Otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
349293
Concept ID:
C1861481
Disease or Syndrome
Stickler syndrome is a connective tissue disorder that can include ocular findings of myopia, cataract, and retinal detachment; hearing loss that is both conductive and sensorineural; midfacial underdevelopment and cleft palate (either alone or as part of the Robin sequence); and mild spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia and/or precocious arthritis. Variable phenotypic expression of Stickler syndrome occurs both within and among families; interfamilial variability is in part explained by locus and allelic heterogeneity.
Neuropathy, hereditary motor and sensory, with deafness, mental retardation, and absent sensory large myelinated fibers
MedGen UID:
348419
Concept ID:
C1861669
Disease or Syndrome
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease-deafness-intellectual disability syndrome is a rare demyelinating hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy characterized by early-onset, slowly progressive, distal muscular weakness and atrophy with no sensory impairment, congenital sensorineural deafness and mild intellectual disability (with absence of normal speech development). The absence of large myelinated fibers on sural nerve biopsy is equally characteristic of the disease.
Klippel-Feil syndrome 1, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
396196
Concept ID:
C1861689
Disease or Syndrome
Klippel-Feil syndrome is a bone disorder characterized by the abnormal joining (fusion) of two or more spinal bones in the neck (cervical vertebrae). The vertebral fusion is present from birth. Three major features result from this vertebral fusion: a short neck, the resulting appearance of a low hairline at the back of the head, and a limited range of motion in the neck. Most affected people have one or two of these characteristic features. Less than half of all individuals with Klippel-Feil syndrome have all three classic features of this condition.\n\nIn people with Klippel-Feil syndrome, the fused vertebrae can limit the range of movement of the neck and back as well as lead to chronic headaches and muscle pain in the neck and back that range in severity. People with minimal bone involvement often have fewer problems compared to individuals with several vertebrae affected. The shortened neck can cause a slight difference in the size and shape of the right and left sides of the face (facial asymmetry). Trauma to the spine, such as a fall or car accident, can aggravate problems in the fused area. Fusion of the vertebrae can lead to nerve damage in the head, neck, or back. Over time, individuals with Klippel-Feil syndrome can develop a narrowing of the spinal canal (spinal stenosis) in the neck, which can compress and damage the spinal cord. Rarely, spinal nerve abnormalities may cause abnormal sensations or involuntary movements in people with Klippel-Feil syndrome. Affected individuals may develop a painful joint disorder called osteoarthritis around the areas of fused bone or experience painful involuntary tensing of the neck muscles (cervical dystonia). In addition to the fused cervical bones, people with this condition may have abnormalities in other vertebrae. Many people with Klippel-Feil syndrome have abnormal side-to-side curvature of the spine (scoliosis) due to malformation of the vertebrae; fusion of additional vertebrae below the neck may also occur.\n\nIn some cases, Klippel-Feil syndrome occurs as a feature of another disorder or syndrome, such as Wildervanck syndrome or hemifacial microsomia. In these instances, affected individuals have the signs and symptoms of both Klippel-Feil syndrome and the additional disorder.\n\nPeople with Klippel-Feil syndrome may have a wide variety of other features in addition to their spine abnormalities. Some people with this condition have hearing difficulties, eye abnormalities, an opening in the roof of the mouth (cleft palate), genitourinary problems such as abnormal kidneys or reproductive organs, heart abnormalities, or lung defects that can cause breathing problems. Affected individuals may have other skeletal defects including arms or legs of unequal length (limb length discrepancy), which can result in misalignment of the hips or knees. Additionally, the shoulder blades may be underdeveloped so that they sit abnormally high on the back, a condition called Sprengel deformity. Rarely, structural brain abnormalities or a type of birth defect that occurs during the development of the brain and spinal cord (neural tube defect) can occur in people with Klippel-Feil syndrome.
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 31
MedGen UID:
348439
Concept ID:
C1861736
Disease or Syndrome
The hereditary ataxias are a group of genetic disorders characterized by slowly progressive incoordination of gait and often associated with poor coordination of hands, speech, and eye movements. Frequently, atrophy of the cerebellum occurs. In this GeneReview the hereditary ataxias are categorized by mode of inheritance and gene (or chromosome locus) in which pathogenic variants occur.
Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly with partially absent eye muscles, distinctive face, hydrocephaly, and skeletal abnormalities
MedGen UID:
349489
Concept ID:
C1862373
Disease or Syndrome
Arthrogryposis-like hand anomaly-sensorineural deafness syndrome
MedGen UID:
350677
Concept ID:
C1862471
Disease or Syndrome
Distal arthrogryposis type 6 (DA6) is distinguished by the additional feature of sensorineural deafness (summary by Bamshad et al., 2009). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of distal arthrogryposis, see DA1 (108120).
Deafness, autosomal recessive 16
MedGen UID:
350211
Concept ID:
C1863561
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the STRC gene.
Deafness, autosomal recessive 14
MedGen UID:
350931
Concept ID:
C1863613
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness that has material basis in variation between D7S554 and D7S2459 in the chromosome region 7q31.
Neuroendocrine carcinoma of salivary glands, sensorineural hearing loss, and enamel hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
355029
Concept ID:
C1863649
Neoplastic Process
Deafness, autosomal recessive 21
MedGen UID:
355030
Concept ID:
C1863655
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the TECTA gene.
Craniosynostosis-anal anomalies-porokeratosis syndrome
MedGen UID:
351066
Concept ID:
C1864186
Disease or Syndrome
A very rare condition with characteristics of craniosynostosis and clavicular hypoplasia, delayed closure of the fontanelle, anal anomalies, genitourinary malformations and skin eruptions. It has been described in seven patients from four unrelated families. Cranial abnormalities include a coronal synostosis with wide-open anterior and posterior fontanelles and large parietal foramina. In some patients the skin eruption has been classified as porokeratosis. Sensorineural hearing loss and mild to severe developmental delay are common. The condition is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait.
Deafness, autosomal recessive 13
MedGen UID:
350361
Concept ID:
C1864199
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness that has material basis in variation in the chromosome region 7q34-q36.
Deafness, autosomal recessive 17
MedGen UID:
355180
Concept ID:
C1864276
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness that has material basis in variation between D7S2453 and D7S525 in the chromosome region 7q31.
Muenke syndrome
MedGen UID:
355217
Concept ID:
C1864436
Disease or Syndrome
Muenke syndrome is defined by the presence of the specific FGFR3 pathogenic variant – c.749C>G – that results in the protein change p.Pro250Arg. Muenke syndrome is characterized by considerable phenotypic variability: features may include coronal synostosis (more often bilateral than unilateral); synostosis of other sutures, all sutures (pan synostosis), or no sutures; or macrocephaly. Bilateral coronal synostosis typically results in brachycephaly (reduced anteroposterior dimension of the skull), although turribrachycephaly (a "tower-shaped" skull) or a cloverleaf skull can be observed. Unilateral coronal synostosis results in anterior plagiocephaly (asymmetry of the skull and face). Other craniofacial findings typically include: temporal bossing; widely spaced eyes, ptosis or proptosis (usually mild); midface retrusion (usually mild); and highly arched palate or cleft lip and palate. Strabismus is common. Other findings can include: hearing loss (in 33%-100% of affected individuals); developmental delay (~33%); epilepsy; intracranial anomalies; intellectual disability; carpal bone and/or tarsal bone fusions; brachydactyly, broad toes, broad thumbs, and/or clinodactyly; and radiographic findings of thimble-like (short and broad) middle phalanges and/or cone-shaped epiphyses. Phenotypic variability is considerable even within the same family. Of note, some individuals who have the p.Pro250Arg pathogenic variant may have no signs of Muenke syndrome on physical or radiographic examination.
Histiocytosis-lymphadenopathy plus syndrome
MedGen UID:
400532
Concept ID:
C1864445
Disease or Syndrome
The histiocytosis-lymphadenopathy plus syndrome comprises features of 4 histiocytic disorders previously thought to be distinct: Faisalabad histiocytosis (FHC), sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML), H syndrome, and pigmented hypertrichosis with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus syndrome (PHID). FHC described an autosomal recessive disease involving joint deformities, sensorineural hearing loss, and subsequent development of generalized lymphadenopathy and swellings in the eyelids that contain histiocytes (summary by Morgan et al., 2010). SHML, or familial Rosai-Dorfman disease, was described as a rare cause of lymph node enlargement in children, consisting of chronic massive enlargement of cervical lymph nodes frequently accompanied by fever, leukocytosis, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia. Extranodal sites were involved in approximately 25% of patients, including salivary glands, orbit, eyelid, spleen, and testes. The involvement of retropharyngeal lymphoid tissue sometimes caused snoring and sleep apnea (summary by Kismet et al., 2005). H syndrome was characterized by cutaneous hyperpigmentation and hypertrichosis, hepatosplenomegaly, heart anomalies, and hypogonadism; hearing loss was also found in about half of patients, and many had short stature. PHID was characterized by predominantly antibody-negative insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus associated with pigmented hypertrichosis and variable occurrence of other features of H syndrome, with hepatosplenomegaly occurring in about half of patients (Cliffe et al., 2009). Bolze et al. (2012) noted that mutations in the SLC29A3 gene (612373) had been implicated in H syndrome, PHID, FHC, and SHML, and that some patients presented a combination of features from 2 or more of these syndromes, leading to the suggestion that these phenotypes should be grouped together as 'SLC29A3 disorder.' Bolze et al. (2012) suggested that the histologic features of the lesions seemed to be the most uniform phenotype in these patients. In addition, the immunophenotype of infiltrating cells in H syndrome patients was shown to be the same as that seen in patients with the familial form of Rosai-Dorfman disease, further supporting the relationship between these disorders (Avitan-Hersh et al., 2011; Colmenero et al., 2012).
Deafness, autosomal recessive 53
MedGen UID:
400602
Concept ID:
C1864746
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the COL11A2 gene.
Deafness, autosomal recessive 42
MedGen UID:
351225
Concept ID:
C1864818
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ILDR1 gene.
Camptodactyly-tall stature-scoliosis-hearing loss syndrome
MedGen UID:
355844
Concept ID:
C1864852
Disease or Syndrome
Camptodactyly-tall stature-scoliosis-hearing loss syndrome is characterised by camptodactyly, tall stature, scoliosis, and hearing loss (CATSHL). It has been described in around 30 individuals from seven generations of the same family. The syndrome is caused by a missense mutation in the FGFR3 gene, leading to a partial loss of function of the encoded protein, which is a negative regulator of bone growth.
Autosomal dominant nonsyndromic deafness 53
MedGen UID:
355336
Concept ID:
C1864957
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal dominant nonsyndromic deafness that has material basis in variation in the chromosome region 14q11.2-q12.
Ectodermal dysplasia, sensorineural hearing loss, and distinctive facial features
MedGen UID:
355878
Concept ID:
C1864966
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness 51
MedGen UID:
355880
Concept ID:
C1864968
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness that has material basis in variation in the chromosome region 11p13-p12.
Spondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia with upper limb mesomelia, punctate calcifications, and deafness
MedGen UID:
355893
Concept ID:
C1865022
Disease or Syndrome
Branchiootic syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
351307
Concept ID:
C1865143
Disease or Syndrome
Branchiootorenal spectrum disorder (BORSD) is characterized by malformations of the outer, middle, and inner ear associated with conductive, sensorineural, or mixed hearing impairment, branchial fistulae and cysts, and renal malformations ranging from mild renal hypoplasia to bilateral renal agenesis. Some individuals progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) later in life. Extreme variability can be observed in the presence, severity, and type of branchial arch, otologic, audiologic, and renal abnormality from right side to left side in an affected individual and also among individuals in the same family.
Hystrix-like ichthyosis with deafness
MedGen UID:
355410
Concept ID:
C1865234
Disease or Syndrome
Hystrix-like ichthyosis with deafness (HID) is a disorder characterized by dry, scaly skin (ichthyosis) and hearing loss that is usually profound. Hystrix-like means resembling a porcupine; in this type of ichthyosis, the scales may be thick and spiky, giving the appearance of porcupine quills.\n\nNewborns with HID typically develop reddened skin. The skin abnormalities worsen over time, and the ichthyosis eventually covers most of the body, although the palms of the hands and soles of the feet are usually only mildly affected. Breaks in the skin may occur and in severe cases can lead to life-threatening infections. Affected individuals have an increased risk of developing a type of skin cancer called squamous cell carcinoma, which can also affect mucous membranes such as the inner lining of the mouth. People with HID may also have patchy hair loss caused by scarring on particular areas of skin.
Bartter disease type 4a
MedGen UID:
355430
Concept ID:
C1865270
Disease or Syndrome
Bartter syndrome refers to a group of disorders that are unified by autosomal recessive transmission of impaired salt reabsorption in the thick ascending loop of Henle with pronounced salt wasting, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, and hypercalciuria. Clinical disease results from defective renal reabsorption of sodium chloride in the thick ascending limb (TAL) of the Henle loop, where 30% of filtered salt is normally reabsorbed (Simon et al., 1997). Patients with antenatal (or neonatal) forms of Bartter syndrome typically present with premature birth associated with polyhydramnios and low birth weight and may develop life-threatening dehydration in the neonatal period. Patients with classic Bartter syndrome (see BARTS3, 607364) present later in life and may be sporadically asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic (summary by Simon et al., 1996 and Fremont and Chan, 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bartter syndrome, see 607364.
Deafness, autosomal recessive 18
MedGen UID:
356389
Concept ID:
C1865870
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the USH1C gene.
Otofacioosseous-gonadal syndrome
MedGen UID:
356416
Concept ID:
C1865988
Disease or Syndrome
Deafness, congenital heart defects, and posterior embryotoxon
MedGen UID:
355614
Concept ID:
C1866053
Disease or Syndrome
Deafness, autosomal recessive 15
MedGen UID:
355626
Concept ID:
C1866094
Disease or Syndrome
This form of autosomal recessive deafness is sensorineural and nonsyndromic, and shows prelingual onset (summary by Charizopoulou et al., 2011).
Deafness, autosomal dominant 13
MedGen UID:
400917
Concept ID:
C1866095
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal dominant nonsyndromic deafness in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the COL11A2 gene.
Premature aging syndrome, Penttinen type
MedGen UID:
400936
Concept ID:
C1866182
Disease or Syndrome
Penttinen syndrome is characterized by a prematurely aged appearance involving lipoatrophy and epidermal and dermal atrophy, as well as hypertrophic lesions that resemble scars, thin hair, proptosis, underdeveloped cheekbones, and marked acroosteolysis (Johnston et al., 2015).
Peroxisome Biogenesis Disorder, Complementation Group 11
MedGen UID:
356213
Concept ID:
C1866351
Disease or Syndrome
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder, complementation group R
MedGen UID:
356512
Concept ID:
C1866352
Disease or Syndrome
Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, myopia, and sensorineural deafness
MedGen UID:
401067
Concept ID:
C1866719
Disease or Syndrome
Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (SED), MacDermot type is characterized by short stature, femoral epiphyseal dysplasia, mild vertebral changes and sensorineural deafness.
4p partial monosomy syndrome
MedGen UID:
408255
Concept ID:
C1956097
Disease or Syndrome
Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome is a congenital malformation syndrome characterized by pre- and postnatal growth deficiency, developmental disability of variable degree, characteristic craniofacial features ('Greek warrior helmet' appearance of the nose, high forehead, prominent glabella, hypertelorism, high-arched eyebrows, protruding eyes, epicanthal folds, short philtrum, distinct mouth with downturned corners, and micrognathia), and a seizure disorder (Battaglia et al., 2008).
Brachydactyly type B2
MedGen UID:
409880
Concept ID:
C1969652
Disease or Syndrome
Brachydactyly type B2 (BDB2) is a subtype of brachydactyly characterized by hypoplasia/aplasia of distal phalanges in combination with distal symphalangism, fusion of carpal/tarsal bones, and partial cutaneous syndactyly (summary by Lehmann et al., 2007).
Hamamy syndrome
MedGen UID:
370148
Concept ID:
C1970027
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic developmental defect during embryogenesis disorder with characteristics of craniofacial dysmorphism (including brachycephaly, prominent forehead, sparse lateral eyebrows, severe hypertelorism, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthal folds, protruding ears, broad nasal bridge, pointed nasal tip, flat philtrum, anteverted nostrils, large mouth, thin upper vermilion border, highly arched palate and mild micrognathia) associated with osteopenia leading to repeated long bone fractures, severe myopia, mild to moderate sensorineural or mixed hearing loss, enamel hypoplasia, sloping shoulders and mild intellectual disability. There is evidence the disease can be caused by homozygous mutation in the IRX5 gene on chromosome 16q11.2.
Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase superactivity
MedGen UID:
370358
Concept ID:
C1970827
Disease or Syndrome
Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase (PRS) superactivity is characterized by hyperuricemia and hyperuricosuria and is divided into a severe phenotype with infantile or early-childhood onset and a milder phenotype with late-juvenile or early-adult onset. Variable combinations of sensorineural hearing loss, hypotonia, and ataxia observed in the severe type are not usually present in the mild type. In the mild type, uric acid crystalluria or a urinary stone is commonly the first clinical finding, followed later by gouty arthritis if serum urate concentration is not controlled.
Stickler syndrome type 1
MedGen UID:
810955
Concept ID:
C2020284
Disease or Syndrome
Stickler syndrome is a connective tissue disorder that can include ocular findings of myopia, cataract, and retinal detachment; hearing loss that is both conductive and sensorineural; midfacial underdevelopment and cleft palate (either alone or as part of the Robin sequence); and mild spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia and/or precocious arthritis. Variable phenotypic expression of Stickler syndrome occurs both within and among families; interfamilial variability is in part explained by locus and allelic heterogeneity.
Familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
435869
Concept ID:
C2673198
Disease or Syndrome
Familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome-2 (FCAS2) is an autosomal dominant autoinflammatory disorder characterized by episodic and recurrent rash, urticaria, arthralgia, myalgia, and headache. In most patients, these episodes are accompanied by fever and serologic evidence of inflammation. Most, but not all, patients report exposure to cold as a trigger for the episodes. Additional features may include abdominal pain, thoracic pain, and sensorineural deafness. The age at onset is variable, ranging from the first year of life to middle age, and the severity and clinical manifestations are heterogeneous (summary by Shen et al., 2017). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome, see FCAS1 (120100).
Deafness, autosomal recessive 1A
MedGen UID:
388720
Concept ID:
C2673759
Disease or Syndrome
Nonsyndromic hearing loss and deafness (DFNB1) is characterized by congenital non-progressive mild-to-profound sensorineural hearing impairment. No other associated medical findings are present.
Chromosome 10q26 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
436306
Concept ID:
C2674937
Disease or Syndrome
10q26 deletion syndrome is a condition that results from the loss (deletion) of a small piece of chromosome 10 in each cell. The deletion occurs on the long (q) arm of the chromosome at a position designated 10q26.\n\nThe signs and symptoms of 10q26 deletion syndrome vary widely, even among affected members of the same family. Among the more common features associated with this chromosomal change are distinctive facial features, mild to moderate intellectual disability, growth problems, and developmental delay. People with 10q26 deletion syndrome often have delayed development of speech and of motor skills such as sitting, crawling, and walking. Some have limited speech throughout life. Affected individuals may experience seizures, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), poor impulse control (impulsivity), or exhibit autistic behaviors that affect communication and social interaction.\n\nA range of facial features is seen in people with 10q26 deletion syndrome, but not all affected individuals have these features. Facial features of people with 10q26 deletion syndrome may include a prominent or beaked nose, a broad nasal bridge, a small jaw (micrognathia), malformed ears that are low set, a thin upper lip, and an unusually small head size (microcephaly). Many affected individuals have widely spaced eyes (hypertelorism) that do not look in the same direction (strabismus). Some people with this condition have a short neck with extra folds of skin (webbed neck).\n\nLess common signs and symptoms can occur in 10q26 deletion syndrome. Skeletal problems include a spine that curves to the side (scoliosis), limited movement in the elbows or other joints, or curved fifth fingers and toes (clinodactyly). Slow growth before and after birth can also occur in affected individuals. Males with this condition may have genital abnormalities, such as a small penis (micropenis), undescended testes (cryptorchidism), or the urethra opening on the underside of the penis (hypospadias). Some people with 10q26 deletion syndrome have kidney abnormalities, heart defects, breathing problems, recurrent infections, or hearing or vision problems.
Polyneuropathy, hearing loss, ataxia, retinitis pigmentosa, and cataract
MedGen UID:
436373
Concept ID:
C2675204
Disease or Syndrome
Fiskerstrand type peripheral neuropathy is a slowly-progressive Refsum-like disorder associating signs of peripheral neuropathy with late-onset hearing loss, cataract and pigmentary retinopathy that become evident during the third decade of life.
Deafness, autosomal dominant 59
MedGen UID:
390743
Concept ID:
C2675238
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal dominant nonsyndromic deafness that has material basis in variation in the chromosome region 11p14.2-q12.3.
Chromosome 6pter-p24 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
393396
Concept ID:
C2675486
Disease or Syndrome
Distal monosomy 6p is responsible for a distinct chromosome deletion syndrome with a recognizable clinical picture including intellectual deficit, ocular abnormalities, hearing loss, and facial dysmorphism.
Deafness, congenital, with onychodystrophy, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
382676
Concept ID:
C2675730
Disease or Syndrome
The DDOD syndrome is characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance of congenital deafness and onychodystrophy. Conical, hypoplastic teeth is also a feature (Robinson et al., 1962). See also DOOR syndrome (220500), an autosomal recessive disorder, which includes congenital deafness, onychodystrophy, osteodystrophy, and mental retardation.
Deafness, autosomal dominant 3a
MedGen UID:
436512
Concept ID:
C2675750
Disease or Syndrome
Nonsyndromic hearing loss and deafness, DFNA3 is characterized by pre- or postlingual, mild-to-profound progressive high-frequency sensorineural hearing impairment. Affected individuals have no other associated medical findings.
2p15-16.1 microdeletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
390902
Concept ID:
C2675875
Disease or Syndrome
Chromosome 2p16.1-p15 deletion syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, and variable but distinctive dysmorphic features, including microcephaly, bitemporal narrowing, smooth and long philtrum, hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, broad nasal root, thin upper lip, and high palate. Many patients have behavioral disorders, including autistic features, as well as structural brain abnormalities, such as pachygyria or hypoplastic corpus callosum. Those with deletions including the BCL11A gene (606557) also have persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HbF), which is asymptomatic and does not affected hematologic parameters or susceptibility to infection (summary by Funnell et al., 2015). Point mutation in the BCL11A gene causes intellectual developmental disorder with persistence of fetal hemoglobin (617101), which shows overlapping features. See also fetal hemoglobin quantitative trait locus-5 (HBFQTL5; 142335).
Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
394108
Concept ID:
C2676723
Disease or Syndrome
Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome (JLNS) is characterized by congenital profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and long QTc, usually >500 msec. Prolongation of the QTc interval is associated with tachyarrhythmias, including ventricular tachycardia, episodes of torsade de pointes ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation, which may culminate in syncope or sudden death. Iron-deficient anemia and elevated levels of gastrin are also frequent features of JLNS. The classic presentation of JLNS is a deaf child who experiences syncopal episodes during periods of stress, exercise, or fright. Fifty percent of individuals with JLNS had cardiac events before age three years. More than half of untreated children with JLNS die before age 15 years.
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 1N
MedGen UID:
383145
Concept ID:
C2677590
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are a genetically heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by enzymatic defects in the synthesis and processing of asparagine (N)-linked glycans or oligosaccharides on glycoproteins. Type I CDGs comprise defects in the assembly of the dolichol lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO) chain and its transfer to the nascent protein. These disorders can be identified by a characteristic abnormal isoelectric focusing profile of plasma transferrin (Leroy, 2006). For a discussion of the classification of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065).
Hunter-MacDonald syndrome
MedGen UID:
383181
Concept ID:
C2677745
Disease or Syndrome
Mental retardation and microcephaly with pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
437070
Concept ID:
C2677903
Disease or Syndrome
CASK disorders include a spectrum of phenotypes in both females and males. Two main types of clinical presentation are seen: Microcephaly with pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia (MICPCH), generally associated with pathogenic loss-of-function variants in CASK. X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) with or without nystagmus, generally associated with hypomorphic CASK pathogenic variants. MICPCH is typically seen in females with moderate-to-severe intellectual disability, progressive microcephaly with or without ophthalmologic anomalies, and sensorineural hearing loss. Most are able to sit independently; 20%-25% attain the ability to walk; language is nearly absent in most. Neurologic features may include axial hypotonia, hypertonia/spasticity of the extremities, and dystonia or other movement disorders. Nearly 40% have seizures by age ten years. Behaviors may include sleep disturbances, hand stereotypies, and self biting. MICPCH in males may occur with or without severe epileptic encephalopathy in addition to severe-to-profound developmental delay. When seizures are present they occur early and may be intractable. In individuals and families with milder (i.e., hypomorphic) pathogenic variants, the clinical phenotype is usually that of XLID with or without nystagmus and additional clinical features. Males have mild-to-severe intellectual disability, with or without nystagmus and other ocular features. Females typically have normal intelligence with some displaying mild-to-severe intellectual disability with or without ocular features.
Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome type 3
MedGen UID:
394534
Concept ID:
C2678503
Disease or Syndrome
Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome is primarily an eye disorder, although it can also affect other parts of the body. This condition is characterized by abnormalities of the front part of the eye, an area known as the anterior segment. For example, the colored part of the eye (the iris), may be thin or poorly developed. The iris normally has a single central hole, called the pupil, through which light enters the eye. People with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome often have a pupil that is off-center (corectopia) or extra holes in the iris that can look like multiple pupils (polycoria). This condition can also cause abnormalities of the cornea, which is the clear front covering of the eye.\n\nAbout half of affected individuals develop glaucoma, a serious condition that increases pressure inside the eye. When glaucoma occurs with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome, it most often develops in late childhood or adolescence, although it can occur as early as infancy. Glaucoma can cause vision loss or blindness.\n\nThe signs and symptoms of Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome can also affect other parts of the body. Many affected individuals have distinctive facial features such as widely spaced eyes (hypertelorism); a flattened mid-face with a broad, flat nasal bridge; and a prominent forehead. The condition is also associated with dental abnormalities including unusually small teeth (microdontia) or fewer than normal teeth (oligodontia). Some people with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome have extra folds of skin around their belly button (redundant periumbilical skin). Other, less common features can include heart defects, the opening of the urethra on the underside of the penis (hypospadias), narrowing of the anus (anal stenosis), and abnormalities of the pituitary gland that can result in slow growth.\n\nResearchers have described at least three types of Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome. The types, which are numbered 1 through 3, are distinguished by their genetic cause.
Waardenburg syndrome type 2E
MedGen UID:
398476
Concept ID:
C2700405
Disease or Syndrome
Waardenburg syndrome type 2 is an auditory-pigmentary syndrome characterized by pigmentary abnormalities of the hair, skin, and eyes; congenital sensorineural hearing loss; and the absence of 'dystopia canthorum,' the lateral displacement of the inner canthus of each eye, which is seen in some other forms of WS (review by Read and Newton, 1997). Individuals with WS type 2E, which is caused by mutation in the SOX10 gene (602229), may have neurologic abnormalities, including mental impairment, myelination defects, and ataxia. Waardenburg syndrome type 2 is genetically heterogeneous (see WS2A; 193510). For a description of other clinical variants of Waardenburg syndrome, see WS1 (193500), WS3 (148820), and WS4 (277580).
EAST syndrome
MedGen UID:
411243
Concept ID:
C2748572
Disease or Syndrome
Syndrome with characteristics of seizures, sensorineural deafness, ataxia, intellectual deficit, and electrolyte imbalance. It has been described in five patients from four families. The disease is caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the KCNJ10 gene, encoding a potassium channel expressed in the brain, spinal cord, inner ear and kidneys. Transmission is autosomal recessive.
Refsum disease, adult, 2
MedGen UID:
440765
Concept ID:
C2749346
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 5 (encephalomyopathic with or without methylmalonic aciduria)
MedGen UID:
413170
Concept ID:
C2749864
Disease or Syndrome
SUCLA2-related mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndrome, encephalomyopathic form with methylmalonic aciduria is characterized by onset of the following features in infancy or childhood (median age of onset 2 months; range of onset birth to 6 years): psychomotor retardation, hypotonia, dystonia, muscular atrophy, sensorineural hearing impairment, postnatal growth retardation, and feeding difficulties. Other, less frequent, features include distinctive facial features, contractures, kyphoscoliosis, gastroesophageal reflux, ptosis, choreoathetosis, ophthalmoplegia, and epilepsy (infantile spasms or generalized convulsions). The median survival is 20 years; approximately 30% of affected individuals succumb during childhood. Affected individuals may have hyperintensities in the basal ganglia, cerebral atrophy, and leukoencephalopathy on head MRI. Elevation of methylmalonic acid (MMA) in the urine and plasma is found in a vast majority of affected individuals, although at levels that are far below those typically seen in individuals with classic methylmalonic aciduria.
Deafness, autosomal recessive 79
MedGen UID:
413222
Concept ID:
C2750082
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the TPRN gene.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type 2N
MedGen UID:
413754
Concept ID:
C2750090
Disease or Syndrome
A mild form of axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, a peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy, characterized by distal legs sensory loss and weakness that can be asymmetric. Tendon reflexes are reduced in the knees and absent in ankles. Progression is slow.
Waardenburg syndrome type 4C
MedGen UID:
413310
Concept ID:
C2750452
Disease or Syndrome
Waardenburg syndrome type 4 is an auditory-pigmentary syndrome characterized by pigmentary abnormalities of the eye, deafness, and Hirschsprung disease (review by Read and Newton, 1997). WS type 4C is caused by mutation in the SOX10 gene (602229). WS type 4 is genetically heterogeneous (see WS4A; 277580). For a description of other clinical variants of Waardenburg syndrome, see WS1 (193500), WS2 (193510), and WS3 (148820).
Waardenburg syndrome type 4B
MedGen UID:
412961
Concept ID:
C2750457
Disease or Syndrome
Waardenburg syndrome type 4 is an auditory-pigmentary syndrome characterized by pigmentary abnormalities of the eye, deafness, and Hirschsprung disease (review by Read and Newton, 1997). WS type 4B is caused by mutation in the EDN3 gene (131242). WS type 4 is genetically heterogeneous (see WS4A; 277580). For a description of other clinical variants of Waardenburg syndrome, see WS1 (193500), WS2 (193510), and WS3 (148820).
Noonan syndrome 6
MedGen UID:
413028
Concept ID:
C2750732
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by characteristic facies, short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one fourth of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability, and language impairments in general are more common in NS than in the general population.
Spastic paraplegia 44, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
413042
Concept ID:
C2750784
Disease or Syndrome
gene (1q41-q42) encoding the gap junction gamma-2 protein.
Myopathy, mitochondrial progressive, with congenital cataract, hearing loss, and developmental delay
MedGen UID:
416525
Concept ID:
C2751320
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital cataract-progressive muscular hypotonia-hearing loss-developmental delay syndrome is a rare, genetic, mitochondrial myopathy disorder characterized by congenital cataract, progressive muscular hypotonia that particularly affects the lower limbs, reduced deep tendon reflexes, sensorineural hearing loss, global development delay and lactic acidosis. Muscle biopsy reveals reduced complex I, II and IV respiratory chain activity.
Optic atrophy 7
MedGen UID:
414112
Concept ID:
C2751812
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, syndromic, hereditary optic neuropathy disorder characterized by early-onset, severe, progressive visual impairment, optic disc pallor and central scotoma, variably associated with dyschromatopsia, auditory neuropathy (e.g. mild progressive sensorineural hearing loss), sensorimotor axonal neuropathy and, occasionally, moderate hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Leukoencephalopathy, cystic, without megalencephaly
MedGen UID:
416646
Concept ID:
C2751843
Disease or Syndrome
RNAse T2-deficient leukoencephalopathy is a disorder that affects the brain. People with RNAse T2-deficient leukoencephalopathy have neurological problems that become apparent during infancy; the problems generally do not worsen over time (progress). Most affected individuals have severe intellectual disability; muscle stiffness (spasticity); and a delay in developing motor skills such as sitting, crawling, and walking. Some do not learn to walk, and most do not develop the ability to speak. Other neurological features that can occur in RNAse T2-deficient leukoencephalopathy include hearing loss caused by abnormalities in the inner ear (sensorineural deafness), seizures, involuntary writhing movements of the hands (athetosis), uncontrolled muscle tensing (dystonia), and involuntary eye movements (nystagmus). In addition to the neurological problems associated with this disorder, some affected individuals have unusual facial features sometimes described as a "doll-like face."\n\nThe neurological problems in this disorder are caused by abnormalities in the brain. People with this condition have leukoencephalopathy, an abnormality of the brain's white matter that can be detected with medical imaging. White matter consists of nerve fibers covered by a fatty substance called myelin. Myelin insulates nerve fibers and promotes the rapid transmission of nerve impulses. In people with RNAse T2-deficient leukoencephalopathy, myelin is not made in sufficient amounts during development, leading to patchy white matter abnormalities (lesions) in the brain. In addition, individuals with RNAse T2-deficient leukoencephalopathy may have cysts in regions of the brain called the temporal lobes and enlargement of the fluid-filled cavities (ventricles) near the center of the brain. The white matter lesions are primarily concentrated around the cysts and the ventricles. An abnormally small head and brain size (microcephaly) often occurs in this disorder.
Growth retardation, developmental delay, coarse facies, and early death
MedGen UID:
414158
Concept ID:
C2752001
Congenital Abnormality
Growth retardation, developmental delay, and facial dysmorphism (GDFD) is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by severe psychomotor retardation, poor overall growth, and dysmorphic facial features. Additional features may include cardiac malformations and deafness (summary by Daoud et al., 2016).
Corneal hypesthesia with retinal abnormalities, sensorineural deafness, unusual facies, persistent ductus arteriosus, and mental retardation
MedGen UID:
418932
Concept ID:
C2930866
Disease or Syndrome
An extremely rare genetic disorder characterized by corneal anesthesia, retinal abnormalities, bilateral hearing loss, distinct facies, patent ductus arteriosus, Hirschsprung disease, short stature and intellectual disability. The phenotype is variable. Some affected individuals have only mild disease manifestations. The etiology of this syndrome is not yet known. Mutations in an as of yet unidentified gene, involved in autonomic nervous system function, are suspected. Follows an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, probably with variable expressivity.
ALG12-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
443954
Concept ID:
C2931001
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG), previously called carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndromes (CDGSs), are a group of hereditary multisystem disorders first recognized by Jaeken et al. (1980). The characteristic biochemical abnormality of CDGs is the hypoglycosylation of glycoproteins, which is routinely determined by isoelectric focusing (IEF) of serum transferrin. Type I CDG comprises those disorders in which there is a defect in the assembly of lipid-linked oligosaccharides or their transfer onto nascent glycoproteins, whereas type II CDG comprises defects of trimming, elongation, and processing of protein-bound glycans. CDG1G is a multisystem disorder characterized by impaired psychomotor development, dysmorphic features, failure to thrive, male genital hypoplasia, coagulation abnormalities, and immune deficiency. More variable features include skeletal dysplasia, cardiac anomalies, ocular abnormalities, and sensorineural hearing loss. Some patients die in the early neonatal or infantile period, whereas others are mildly affected and live to adulthood (summary by Tahata et al., 2019). For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065) and CDG1B (602579).
Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type IIa
MedGen UID:
443956
Concept ID:
C2931008
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are a genetically heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by enzymatic defects in the synthesis and processing of asparagine (N)-linked glycans or oligosaccharides on glycoproteins. These glycoconjugates play critical roles in metabolism, cell recognition and adhesion, cell migration, protease resistance, host defense, and antigenicity, among others. CDGs are divided into 2 main groups: type I CDGs (see, e.g., CDG1A, 212065) comprise defects in the assembly of the dolichol lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO) chain and its transfer to the nascent protein, whereas type II CDGs refer to defects in the trimming and processing of the protein-bound glycans either late in the endoplasmic reticulum or the Golgi compartments. The biochemical changes of CDGs are most readily observed in serum transferrin (TF; 190000), and the diagnosis is usually made by isoelectric focusing of this glycoprotein (reviews by Marquardt and Denecke, 2003; Grunewald et al., 2002). Genetic Heterogeneity of Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation Type II Multiple forms of CDG type II have been identified; see CDG2B (606056) through CDG2W (619525).
Leber congenital amaurosis 1
MedGen UID:
419026
Concept ID:
C2931258
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant nonsyndromic deafness 22
MedGen UID:
419894
Concept ID:
C2931767
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal dominant nonsyndromic deafness in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the MYO6 gene.
Chromosome 2q37 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
419169
Concept ID:
C2931817
Disease or Syndrome
Patients with chromosome 2q37 deletion syndrome show highly variable clinical manifestations likely resulting from different deletion sizes and deletions of different genes. Variable clinical features included brachydactyly type E (BDE), affecting the metacarpals and metatarsals (in about 50% of patients), short stature, mild to moderate intellectual disability, behavioral abnormalities, and dysmorphic facial features. However, many individuals with deletions do not show cognitive deficits (summary by Villavicencio-Lorini et al., 2013, Wheeler et al., 2014, Jean-Marcais et al., 2015).
Hypertryptophanemia, familial
MedGen UID:
419177
Concept ID:
C2931837
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital hypertryptophanemia, which is accompanied by hyperserotonemia, does not appear to have significant clinical consequences (Ferreira et al., 2017).
Nephronophthisis-like nephropathy 1
MedGen UID:
461769
Concept ID:
C3150419
Disease or Syndrome
The nephronophthisis (NPH) phenotype is characterized by reduced renal concentrating ability, chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis, cystic renal disease, and progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) before age 30 years. Three age-based clinical subtypes are recognized: infantile, juvenile, and adolescent/adult. Infantile NPH can present in utero with oligohydramnios sequence (limb contractures, pulmonary hypoplasia, and facial dysmorphisms) or postnatally with renal manifestations that progress to ESRD before age 3 years. Juvenile NPH, the most prevalent subtype, typically presents with polydipsia and polyuria, growth retardation, chronic iron-resistant anemia, or other findings related to chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hypertension is typically absent due to salt wasting. ESRD develops at a median age of 13 years. Ultrasound findings are increased echogenicity, reduced corticomedullary differentiation, and renal cysts (in 50% of affected individuals). Histologic findings include tubulointerstitial fibrosis, thickened and disrupted tubular basement membrane, sporadic corticomedullary cysts, and normal or reduced kidney size. Adolescent/adult NPH is clinically similar to juvenile NPH, but ESRD develops at a median age of 19 years. Within a subtype, inter- and intrafamilial variability in rate of progression to ESRD is considerable. Approximately 80%-90% of individuals with the NPH phenotype have no extrarenal features (i.e., they have isolated NPH); ~10%-20% have extrarenal manifestations that constitute a recognizable syndrome (e.g., Joubert syndrome, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, Jeune syndrome and related skeletal disorders, Meckel-Gruber syndrome, Senior-Løken syndrome, Leber congenital amaurosis, COACH syndrome, and oculomotor apraxia, Cogan type).
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 1P
MedGen UID:
462263
Concept ID:
C3150913
Disease or Syndrome
A form of congenital disorders of N-linked glycosylation with characteristics of facial dysmorphism (microcephaly, high forehead, low posterior hairline, strabismus), hypotonia, failure to thrive, intractable seizures, developmental delay, persistent vomiting and gastric bleeding. Additional features that may be observed include fat pads anomalies, inverted nipples, and body temperature oscillation. The disease is caused by mutations in the gene ALG11 (13q14.3).
LEOPARD syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
462321
Concept ID:
C3150971
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML) is a condition in which the cardinal features consist of lentigines, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, short stature, pectus deformity, and dysmorphic facial features, including widely spaced eyes and ptosis. Multiple lentigines present as dispersed flat, black-brown macules, mostly on the face, neck and upper part of the trunk with sparing of the mucosa. In general, lentigines do not appear until age four to five years but then increase to the thousands by puberty. Some individuals with NSML do not exhibit lentigines. Approximately 85% of affected individuals have heart defects, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) (typically appearing during infancy and sometimes progressive) and pulmonary valve stenosis. Postnatal growth retardation resulting in short stature occurs in fewer than 50% of affected persons, although most affected individuals have a height that is less than the 25th percentile for age. Sensorineural hearing deficits, present in approximately 20%, are poorly characterized. Intellectual disability, typically mild, is observed in approximately 30% of persons with NSML.
Retinitis pigmentosa 59
MedGen UID:
462577
Concept ID:
C3151227
Disease or Syndrome
Deafness, autosomal recessive 61
MedGen UID:
462580
Concept ID:
C3151230
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the SLC26A5 gene.
Ataxia, spastic, childhood-onset, autosomal recessive, with optic atrophy and mental retardation
MedGen UID:
462969
Concept ID:
C3151619
Disease or Syndrome
This progressive neurodegenerative disorder is characterized by early childhood onset of spastic ataxia with mental retardation, cerebellar signs, and variable optic atrophy (Hogan and Bauman, 1977).
HSD10 disease
MedGen UID:
781653
Concept ID:
C3266731
Disease or Syndrome
HSD10 mitochondrial disease (HSD10MD) most commonly presents as an X-linked neurodegenerative disorder with highly variable severity and age at onset ranging from the neonatal period to early childhood. The features are usually multisystemic, consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction. Some affected males have a severe infantile form associated with cardiomyopathy that may result in death in early childhood, whereas other rare patients may have juvenile onset or even atypical presentations with normal neurologic development. More severely affected males show developmental regression in infancy or early childhood, often associated with early-onset intractable seizures, progressive choreoathetosis and spastic tetraplegia, optic atrophy or retinal degeneration resulting in visual loss, and mental retardation. Heterozygous females may show non-progressive developmental delay and intellectual disability, but may also be clinically normal. Although the diagnosis can be aided by the observation of increased urinary levels of metabolites of isoleucine breakdown (2-methyl-3 hydroxybutyrate and tiglylglycine), there is not a correlation between these laboratory features and the phenotype. In addition, patients do not develop severe metabolic crises in the neonatal period as observed in other organic acidurias, but may show persistent lactic acidosis, most likely reflecting mitochondrial dysfunction (summary by Rauschenberger et al., 2010; Zschocke, 2012). In a review of this disorder, Zschocke (2012) noted that although it was originally thought to be an inborn error of branched-chain fatty acid and isoleucine metabolism resulting from decreased HSD17B10 dehydrogenase activity (HSD17B10 'deficiency'), subsequent studies have shown that the HSD17B10 gene product has additional functions and also acts as a component of the mitochondrial RNase P holoenzyme, which is involved in mitochondrial tRNA processing and maturation and ultimately mitochondrial protein synthesis. The multisystemic features of HSD10MD most likely result from the adverse effect of HSD17B10 mutations on mitochondrial function, rather than from the effects on the dehydrogenase activity (see PATHOGENESIS).
Deafness, autosomal recessive 29
MedGen UID:
481290
Concept ID:
C3279660
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the CLDN14 gene.
Hereditary sensory neuropathy type IE
MedGen UID:
481515
Concept ID:
C3279885
Disease or Syndrome
DNMT1-related disorder is a degenerative disorder of the central and peripheral nervous systems comprising a phenotypic spectrum that includes hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 1E (HSAN1E) and autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia, deafness, and narcolepsy (ADCA-DN). DNMT1 disorder is often characterized by moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss beginning in the teens or early 20s, sensory impairment, sudomotor dysfunction (loss of sweating), and dementia usually beginning in the mid-40s. In some affected individuals, narcolepsy/cataplexy syndrome and ataxia are predominant findings.
Stickler syndrome, type 4
MedGen UID:
481571
Concept ID:
C3279941
Disease or Syndrome
Stickler syndrome is a connective tissue disorder that can include ocular findings of myopia, cataract, and retinal detachment; hearing loss that is both conductive and sensorineural; midfacial underdevelopment and cleft palate (either alone or as part of the Robin sequence); and mild spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia and/or precocious arthritis. Variable phenotypic expression of Stickler syndrome occurs both within and among families; interfamilial variability is in part explained by locus and allelic heterogeneity.
Deafness, autosomal dominant 64
MedGen UID:
481578
Concept ID:
C3279948
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal dominant nonsyndromic deafness in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the DIABLO gene.
Chromosome 8q21.11 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
481861
Concept ID:
C3280231
Disease or Syndrome
The chromosome 8q21.11 deletion syndrome is characterized by impaired intellectual development and common facial dysmorphic features (summary by Palomares et al., 2011).
Stickler syndrome, type 5
MedGen UID:
481972
Concept ID:
C3280342
Disease or Syndrome
Stickler syndrome is a connective tissue disorder that can include ocular findings of myopia, cataract, and retinal detachment; hearing loss that is both conductive and sensorineural; midfacial underdevelopment and cleft palate (either alone or as part of the Robin sequence); and mild spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia and/or precocious arthritis. Variable phenotypic expression of Stickler syndrome occurs both within and among families; interfamilial variability is in part explained by locus and allelic heterogeneity.
Infantile cerebellar-retinal degeneration
MedGen UID:
482822
Concept ID:
C3281192
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile cerebellar-retinal degeneration (ICRD) is a severe autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset between ages 2 and 6 months of truncal hypotonia, athetosis, seizures, and ophthalmologic abnormalities, particularly optic atrophy and retinal degeneration. Affected individuals show profound psychomotor retardation, with only some achieving rolling, sitting, or recognition of family. Brain MRI shows progressive cerebral and cerebellar degeneration (summary by Spiegel et al., 2012). A subset of patients may have a milder phenotype with variable features, including ataxia, developmental delay, and behavioral abnormalities (Blackburn et al., 2020).
Non-acquired combined pituitary hormone deficiency with spine abnormalities
MedGen UID:
483740
Concept ID:
C3489787
Disease or Syndrome
Combined pituitary hormone deficiency is a condition that causes a shortage (deficiency) of several hormones produced by the pituitary gland, which is located at the base of the brain. A lack of these hormones may affect the development of many parts of the body. The first signs of this condition include a failure to grow at the expected rate and short stature that usually becomes apparent in early childhood.\n\nRarely, people with combined pituitary hormone deficiency have intellectual disability; a short, stiff neck; or underdeveloped optic nerves, which carry visual information from the eyes to the brain.\n\nPeople with combined pituitary hormone deficiency may have hypothyroidism, which is underactivity of the butterfly-shaped thyroid gland in the lower neck. Hypothyroidism can cause many symptoms, including weight gain and fatigue. Other features of combined pituitary hormone deficiency include delayed or absent puberty and lack the ability to have biological children (infertility). The condition can also be associated with a deficiency of the hormone cortisol. Cortisol deficiency can impair the body's immune system, causing individuals to be more susceptible to infection.
Goldenhar syndrome
MedGen UID:
501171
Concept ID:
C3495417
Congenital Abnormality
Hemifacial microsomia is a common birth defect involving the first and second branchial arch derivatives. It typically affects the external ear, middle ear, mandible and temporomandibular joint, muscles of mastication and facial muscles, and other facial soft tissues on the affected side. In some cases, other facial structures, such as the orbit, eye, nose, cranium, or neck, may be involved. Involvement is usually limited to one side, but bilateral involvement is known. In addition to craniofacial anomalies, there may be cardiac, vertebral, and central nervous system defects. The phenotype is highly variable. Most cases are sporadic, but there are rare familial cases that exhibit autosomal dominant inheritance (summary by Poole, 1989 and Hennekam et al., 2010). See also hemifacial microsomia with radial defects (141400) and oculoauriculofrontonasal dysplasia (OAFNS; 601452), which may be part of the OAV spectrum.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease and deafness
MedGen UID:
501212
Concept ID:
C3495591
Disease or Syndrome
mutation, with some cases being very mild and even resembling hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies, while others having an earlier onset with a more severe phenotype (reminiscent of Dejerine-Sottas syndrome) than that seen in CMT1A, caused by gene duplication. These severe cases may also report deafness and much slower motor nerve conduction velocities compared to CMT1A patients.
Usher syndrome, type 3A
MedGen UID:
1708326
Concept ID:
C3510450
Disease or Syndrome
Any Usher syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the CLRN1 gene.
Deafness, autosomal recessive 4, with enlarged vestibular aqueduct
MedGen UID:
761234
Concept ID:
C3538946
Disease or Syndrome
Pendred syndrome/nonsyndromic enlarged vestibular aqueduct (PDS/NSEVA) comprises a phenotypic spectrum of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) that is usually congenital and often severe to profound (although mild-to-moderate progressive hearing impairment also occurs), vestibular dysfunction, and temporal bone abnormalities (bilateral enlarged vestibular aqueduct with or without cochlear hypoplasia). PDS also includes development of euthyroid goiter in late childhood to early adulthood whereas NSEVA does not.
Pontine tegmental cap dysplasia
MedGen UID:
762040
Concept ID:
C3541340
Disease or Syndrome
Pontine tegmental cap dysplasia (PTCD) refers to a neurologic condition characterized by a distinct pattern of hindbrain malformations apparent on brain imaging. The abnormalities affect the pons, medulla, and cerebellum. In neuroradiologic studies, the ventral side of the pons is flattened, whereas there is vaulting ('capping') of the dorsal pontine border into the fourth ventricle. Affected individuals show a variety of neurologic deficits, most commonly sensorineural deafness, impaired cranial nerve function, and variable psychomotor retardation (summary by Barth et al., 2007).
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 5B
MedGen UID:
762202
Concept ID:
C3542026
Disease or Syndrome
The overlapping phenotypes of neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD) and infantile Refsum disease (IRD) represent the milder manifestations of the Zellweger syndrome spectrum (ZSS) of peroxisome biogenesis disorders. The clinical course of patients with the NALD and IRD presentation is variable and may include developmental delay, hypotonia, liver dysfunction, sensorineural hearing loss, retinal dystrophy, and visual impairment. Children with the NALD presentation may reach their teens, and those with the IRD presentation may reach adulthood (summary by Waterham and Ebberink, 2012). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PBD(NALD/IRD), see 601539. Individuals with mutations in the PEX2 gene have cells of complementation group 5 (CG5, equivalent to CG10 and CGF). For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100.
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder type 3B
MedGen UID:
763607
Concept ID:
C3550693
Disease or Syndrome
Zellweger spectrum disorder (ZSD) is a phenotypic continuum ranging from severe to mild. While individual phenotypes (e.g., Zellweger syndrome [ZS], neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy [NALD], and infantile Refsum disease [IRD]) were described in the past before the biochemical and molecular bases of this spectrum were fully determined, the term "ZSD" is now used to refer to all individuals with a defect in one of the ZSD-PEX genes regardless of phenotype. Individuals with ZSD usually come to clinical attention in the newborn period or later in childhood. Affected newborns are hypotonic and feed poorly. They have distinctive facies, congenital malformations (neuronal migration defects associated with neonatal-onset seizures, renal cysts, and bony stippling [chondrodysplasia punctata] of the patella[e] and the long bones), and liver disease that can be severe. Infants with severe ZSD are significantly impaired and typically die during the first year of life, usually having made no developmental progress. Individuals with intermediate/milder ZSD do not have congenital malformations, but rather progressive peroxisome dysfunction variably manifest as sensory loss (secondary to retinal dystrophy and sensorineural hearing loss), neurologic involvement (ataxia, polyneuropathy, and leukodystrophy), liver dysfunction, adrenal insufficiency, and renal oxalate stones. While hypotonia and developmental delays are typical, intellect can be normal. Some have osteopenia; almost all have ameleogenesis imperfecta in the secondary teeth.
Coenzyme Q10 deficiency, primary 1
MedGen UID:
764868
Concept ID:
C3551954
Disease or Syndrome
Primary coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency is usually associated with multisystem involvement, including neurologic manifestations such as fatal neonatal encephalopathy with hypotonia; a late-onset slowly progressive multiple-system atrophy-like phenotype (neurodegeneration with autonomic failure and various combinations of parkinsonism and cerebellar ataxia, and pyramidal dysfunction); and dystonia, spasticity, seizures, and intellectual disability. Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), the hallmark renal manifestation, is often the initial manifestation either as isolated renal involvement that progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or associated with encephalopathy (seizures, stroke-like episodes, severe neurologic impairment) resulting in early death. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), retinopathy or optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss can also be seen.
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 5 with or without anosmia
MedGen UID:
765467
Concept ID:
C3552553
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt.
Coenzyme Q10 deficiency, primary, 6
MedGen UID:
766263
Concept ID:
C3553349
Disease or Syndrome
Primary coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency is usually associated with multisystem involvement, including neurologic manifestations such as fatal neonatal encephalopathy with hypotonia; a late-onset slowly progressive multiple-system atrophy-like phenotype (neurodegeneration with autonomic failure and various combinations of parkinsonism and cerebellar ataxia, and pyramidal dysfunction); and dystonia, spasticity, seizures, and intellectual disability. Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), the hallmark renal manifestation, is often the initial manifestation either as isolated renal involvement that progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or associated with encephalopathy (seizures, stroke-like episodes, severe neurologic impairment) resulting in early death. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), retinopathy or optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss can also be seen.
Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
766452
Concept ID:
C3553538
Disease or Syndrome
Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome-2 is an autosomal recessive progressive neurologic disorder characterized by early childhood onset of sensorineural deafness, bulbar dysfunction, and severe diffuse muscle weakness and wasting of the upper and lower limbs and axial muscles, resulting in respiratory insufficiency. Some patients may lose independent ambulation. Because it results from a defect in riboflavin metabolism, some patients may benefit from high-dose riboflavin supplementation (summary by Johnson et al., 2012; Foley et al., 2014). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome, see BVVLS1 (211530).
3-methylglutaconic aciduria with deafness, encephalopathy, and Leigh-like syndrome
MedGen UID:
766511
Concept ID:
C3553597
Disease or Syndrome
The phenotypic spectrum of SERAC1 deficiency comprises MEGD(H)EL syndrome (3-methylglutaconic aciduria with deafness-dystonia, [hepatopathy], encephalopathy, and Leigh-like syndrome), juvenile-onset complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia (in 1 consanguineous family), and adult-onset generalized dystonia (in 1 adult male). MEGD(H)EL syndrome is characterized in neonates by hypoglycemia and a sepsis-like clinical picture for which no infectious agent can be found. During the first year of life feeding problems, failure to thrive, and/or truncal hypotonia become evident; many infants experience (transient) liver involvement ranging from undulating transaminases to prolonged hyperbilirubinemia and near-fatal liver failure. By age two years progressive deafness, dystonia, and spasticity prevent further psychomotor development and/or result in loss of acquired skills. Affected children are completely dependent on care for all activities of daily living; speech is absent.
Hereditary congenital facial paresis 3
MedGen UID:
766539
Concept ID:
C3553625
Disease or Syndrome
HCFP3 is an autosomal recessive congenital cranial dysinnervation disorder characterized by isolated dysfunction of the seventh cranial nerve resulting in facial palsy. Additional features may include orofacial anomalies, such as smooth philtrum, lagophthalmos, swallowing difficulties, and dysarthria, as well as hearing loss. There is some phenotypic overlap with Moebius syndrome (see, e.g., 157900), but patients with HCFP usually retain full eye motility or have esotropia without paralysis of the sixth cranial nerve (summary by Vogel et al., 2016). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hereditary congenital facial paresis, see 601471.
Deafness, autosomal recessive 98
MedGen UID:
766846
Concept ID:
C3553932
Disease or Syndrome
This form of autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness is sensorineural and shows prelingual onset (Delmaghani et al., 2012).
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 4B
MedGen UID:
766851
Concept ID:
C3553937
Disease or Syndrome
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder-4B (PBD4B) includes the overlapping phenotypes of neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD) and infantile Refsum disease (IRD), which represent milder manifestations of the Zellweger syndrome spectrum (ZSS) of peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBDs). The clinical course of patients with the NALD and IRD presentation is variable and may include developmental delay, hypotonia, liver dysfunction, sensorineural hearing loss, retinal dystrophy, and visual impairment. Children with the NALD presentation may reach their teens, and those with the IRD presentation may reach adulthood (summary by Waterham and Ebberink, 2012). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PBD(NALD/IRD), see 601539. Individuals with mutations in the PEX6 gene have cells of complementation group 4 (CG4, equivalent to CG6 and CGC). For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100.
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 6B
MedGen UID:
766862
Concept ID:
C3553948
Disease or Syndrome
The overlapping phenotypes of neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD) and infantile Refsum disease (IRD) represent the milder manifestations of the Zellweger syndrome spectrum (ZSS) of peroxisome biogenesis disorders. The clinical course of patients with the NALD and IRD presentation is variable and may include developmental delay, hypotonia, liver dysfunction, sensorineural hearing loss, retinal dystrophy, and visual impairment. Children with the NALD presentation may reach their teens, and those with the IRD presentation may reach adulthood. Some patients with PEX10 mutations have a milder disorder characterized by childhood-onset cerebellar ataxia and neuropathy without mental retardation (summary by Waterham and Ebberink, 2012). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PBD(NALD/IRD), see 601539. Individuals with mutations in the PEX10 gene have cells of complementation group 7 (CG7, equivalent to CGB). For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100.
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 7B
MedGen UID:
766865
Concept ID:
C3553951
Disease or Syndrome
The overlapping phenotypes of neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD) and infantile Refsum disease (IRD) represent the milder manifestations of the Zellweger syndrome spectrum (ZSS) of peroxisome biogenesis disorders. The clinical course of patients with the NALD and IRD presentation is variable and may include developmental delay, hypotonia, liver dysfunction, sensorineural hearing loss, retinal dystrophy, and visual impairment. Children with the NALD presentation may reach their teens, and those with the IRD presentation may reach adulthood (summary by Waterham and Ebberink, 2012). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PBD(NALD/IRD), see 601539. Individuals with mutations in the PEX26 gene have cells of complementation group 8 (CG8, equivalent to CGA). For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100.
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 8B
MedGen UID:
766874
Concept ID:
C3553960
Disease or Syndrome
The overlapping phenotypes of neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD) and infantile Refsum disease (IRD) represent the milder manifestations of the Zellweger syndrome spectrum (ZSS) of peroxisome biogenesis disorders. The clinical course of patients with the NALD and IRD presentation is variable and may include developmental delay, hypotonia, liver dysfunction, sensorineural hearing loss, retinal dystrophy, and visual impairment. Children with the NALD presentation may reach their teens, and those with the IRD presentation may reach adulthood (summary by Waterham and Ebberink, 2012). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PBD(NALD/IRD), see 601539. Individuals with mutations in the PEX16 gene have cells of complementation group 9 (CG9, equivalent to CGD). For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100.
Perrault syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
767019
Concept ID:
C3554105
Disease or Syndrome
Perrault syndrome is characterized by sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in males and females and ovarian dysfunction in females. SNHL is bilateral and ranges from profound with prelingual (congenital) onset to moderate with early-childhood onset. When onset is in early childhood, hearing loss can be progressive. Ovarian dysfunction ranges from gonadal dysgenesis (absent or streak gonads) manifesting as primary amenorrhea to primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) defined as cessation of menses before age 40 years. Fertility in affected males is reported as normal (although the number of reported males is limited). Neurologic features described in some individuals with Perrault syndrome include learning difficulties and developmental delay, cerebellar ataxia, and motor and sensory peripheral neuropathy.
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 13
MedGen UID:
767043
Concept ID:
C3554129
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-13 is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder resulting from mitochondrial dysfunction. Affected individuals develop severe neurologic impairment in the first months of life, including hypotonia, abnormal dystonic movements, hearing loss, poor feeding, global developmental delay, and abnormal eye movements. Brain imaging shows signal abnormalities in putamen, basal ganglia, caudate nuclei, or corpus callosum, as well as delayed myelination. Analysis of patient tissues shows multiple defects in enzymatic activities of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, although some tissues may show normal values since tissue expression of the mitochondrial defect and metabolic needs of specific tissues are variable (summary by Vedrenne et al., 2012).
Carpenter syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
767161
Concept ID:
C3554247
Disease or Syndrome
Carpenter syndrome-2 is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital malformation disorder characterized by multisuture craniosynostosis and polysyndactyly of the hands and feet, in association with abnormal left-right patterning and other features, most commonly obesity, umbilical hernia, cryptorchidism, and congenital heart disease (summary by Twigg et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Carpenter syndrome, see 201000.
Osteogenesis imperfecta, type xiv
MedGen UID:
767342
Concept ID:
C3554428
Disease or Syndrome
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by bone fragility and low bone mass. Due to considerable phenotypic variability, Sillence et al. (1979) developed a classification of OI subtypes based on clinical features and disease severity: OI type I, with blue sclerae (166200); perinatal lethal OI type II, also known as congenital OI (166210); OI type III, a progressively deforming form with normal sclerae (259420); and OI type IV, with normal sclerae (166220). Most cases of OI are autosomal dominant with mutations in 1 of the 2 genes that code for type I collagen alpha chains, COL1A1 (120150) and COL1A2 (120160). Shaheen et al. (2012) described osteogenesis imperfecta type XIV (OI14), an autosomal recessive form of the disorder characterized by variable degrees of severity of multiple fractures and osteopenia, with normal teeth, sclerae, and hearing. Fractures first occur prenatally or by age 6 years.
Steel syndrome
MedGen UID:
767508
Concept ID:
C3554594
Disease or Syndrome
Steel syndrome is characterized by characteristic facies, dislocated hips and radial heads, carpal coalition (fusion of carpal bones), short stature, scoliosis, and cervical spine anomalies. The dislocated hips are resistant to surgical intervention (summary by Flynn et al., 2010).
Hydrocephalus, congenital, 2, with or without brain or eye anomalies
MedGen UID:
767605
Concept ID:
C3554691
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital hydrocephalus-2 is a congenital disorder with onset in utero. Affected individuals have hydrocephalus with variably dilated ventricles and variable neurologic sequelae. Some individuals have other brain abnormalities, including lissencephaly, thinning of the corpus callosum, and neuronal heterotopia. Most patients have delayed motor development and some have delayed intellectual development and/or seizures. Additional congenital features, including cardiac septal defects, iris coloboma, and nonspecific dysmorphic features, may be observed. Some patients die in utero, in infancy, or in early childhood, whereas others have long-term survival (summary by Shaheen et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital hydrocephalus, see 233600.
Mandibular hypoplasia, deafness, progeroid features, and lipodystrophy syndrome
MedGen UID:
811623
Concept ID:
C3715192
Disease or Syndrome
Mandibular hypoplasia, deafness, progeroid features, and lipodystrophy syndrome (MDPL) is an autosomal dominant systemic disorder characterized by prominent loss of subcutaneous fat, a characteristic facial appearance, and metabolic abnormalities including insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. Sensorineural deafness occurs late in the first or second decades of life (summary by Weedon et al., 2013).
Chromosome Xq28 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
812964
Concept ID:
C3806634
Disease or Syndrome
Deafness, dystonia, and cerebral hypomyelination is an X-linked recessive mental retardation syndrome characterized by almost no psychomotor development, dysmorphic facial features, sensorineural deafness, dystonia, pyramidal signs, and hypomyelination on brain imaging (summary by Cacciagli et al., 2013).
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, X-linked dominant, 6
MedGen UID:
813032
Concept ID:
C3806702
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 6 is a rare, genetic, principally axonal, peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy characterized by an X-linked dominant inheritance pattern and the childhood-onset of slowly progressive, moderate to severe, distal muscle weakness and atrophy of the lower extremities, as well as distal, panmodal sensory abnormalities, bilateral foot deformities (pes cavus, clawed toes), absent ankle reflexes and gait abnormalities (steppage gait). Females are usually asymptomatic or only present mild manifestations (mild postural hand tremor, mild wasting of hand intrinsic muscles).
Cerebellar ataxia, deafness, and narcolepsy, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
813625
Concept ID:
C3807295
Disease or Syndrome
ADCADN is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by adult onset of progressive cerebellar ataxia, narcolepsy/cataplexy, sensorineural deafness, and dementia. More variable features include optic atrophy, sensory neuropathy, psychosis, and depression (summary by Winkelmann et al., 2012).
Perrault syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
814744
Concept ID:
C3808414
Disease or Syndrome
Perrault syndrome is characterized by sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in males and females and ovarian dysfunction in females. SNHL is bilateral and ranges from profound with prelingual (congenital) onset to moderate with early-childhood onset. When onset is in early childhood, hearing loss can be progressive. Ovarian dysfunction ranges from gonadal dysgenesis (absent or streak gonads) manifesting as primary amenorrhea to primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) defined as cessation of menses before age 40 years. Fertility in affected males is reported as normal (although the number of reported males is limited). Neurologic features described in some individuals with Perrault syndrome include learning difficulties and developmental delay, cerebellar ataxia, and motor and sensory peripheral neuropathy.
Nephrotic syndrome, type 8
MedGen UID:
815283
Concept ID:
C3808953
Disease or Syndrome
Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with brain and eye anomalies), type a, 12
MedGen UID:
815294
Concept ID:
C3808964
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy with brain and eye anomalies (type A) is an autosomal recessive disorder with congenital muscular dystrophy resulting in muscle weakness early in life and brain and eye anomalies. It is usually associated with delayed psychomotor development and shortened life expectancy. The phenotype includes the alternative clinical designations Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) and muscle-eye-brain disease (MEB). The disorder represents the most severe end of a phenotypic spectrum of similar disorders resulting from defective glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (DAG1; 128239), collectively known as dystroglycanopathies (summary by Stevens et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type A, see MDDGA1 (236670).
Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with brain and eye anomalies), type a, 14
MedGen UID:
815546
Concept ID:
C3809216
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile liver failure syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
815852
Concept ID:
C3809522
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, genetic, parenchymal hepatic disease characterized by acute liver failure, that occurs in the first year of life, which manifests with failure to thrive, hypotonia, moderate global developmental delay, seizures, abnormal liver function tests, microcytic anemia and elevated serum lactate. Other associated features include hepatosteatosis and fibrosis, abnormal brain morphology, and renal tubulopathy. Minor illness exacerbates deterioration of liver failure.
Van Maldergem syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
816205
Concept ID:
C3809875
Disease or Syndrome
Van Maldergem syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by intellectual disability, typical craniofacial features, auditory malformations resulting in hearing loss, and skeletal and limb malformations. Some patients have renal hypoplasia. Brain MRI typically shows periventricular nodular heterotopia (summary by Cappello et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Van Maldergem syndrome, see 601390.
Joubert syndrome 21
MedGen UID:
816542
Concept ID:
C3810212
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Deafness, autosomal dominant 27
MedGen UID:
854637
Concept ID:
C3887929
Disease or Syndrome
DFNA27 is characterized by postlingual progressive moderate to profound sensorineural hearing loss (Peters et al., 2008).
Deafness, autosomal dominant 33
MedGen UID:
854638
Concept ID:
C3887930
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal dominant nonsyndromic deafness that has material basis in variation in the chromosome region 13q34.
Deafness, Y-linked 1
MedGen UID:
854748
Concept ID:
C3888076
Disease or Syndrome
Y-linked deafness-1 (DFNY1) is characterized by male-limited postlingual progressive sensorineural hearing loss of variable severity, with onset in the first to third decades of life (Wang et al., 2009). Genetic Heterogeneity of Y-Linked Deafness DFNY2 (400047) is caused by mutation in the TBL1Y gene (400033).
Deafness, autosomal dominant 50
MedGen UID:
854780
Concept ID:
C3888123
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant deafness-50 is a form of nonsyndromic hearing loss. Hearing impairment shows postlingual onset and is progressive (summary by Mencia et al., 2009).
Hennekam lymphangiectasia-lymphedema syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
860487
Concept ID:
C4012050
Disease or Syndrome
Hennekam lymphangiectasia-lymphedema syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by generalized lymphatic dysplasia affecting various organs, including the intestinal tract, pericardium, and limbs. Additional features of the disorder include facial dysmorphism and cognitive impairment (summary by Alders et al., 2014). Genetic Heterogeneity of Hennekam Lymphangiectasia-Lymphedema Syndrome See also HKLLS2 (616006), caused by mutation in the FAT4 gene (612411) on chromosome 4q28, and HKLLS3 (618154), caused by mutation in the ADAMTS3 gene (605011) on chromosome 4q13.
Immunodeficiency 23
MedGen UID:
862808
Concept ID:
C4014371
Disease or Syndrome
IMD23 is an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by onset of recurrent infections, usually respiratory or cutaneous, in early childhood. Immune workup usually shows neutropenia, lymphopenia, eosinophilia, and increased serum IgE or IgA. Neutrophil chemotactic defects have also been reported. Infectious agents include bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Many patients develop atopic dermatitis, eczema, and other signs of autoinflammation. Affected individuals may also show developmental delay or cognitive impairment of varying severity (summary by Bjorksten and Lundmark, 1976 and Zhang et al., 2014).
Frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2
MedGen UID:
863085
Concept ID:
C4014648
Disease or Syndrome
CHCHD10-related disorders are characterized by a spectrum of adult-onset neurologic phenotypes that can include: Mitochondrial myopathy (may also be early onset): weakness, amyotrophy, exercise intolerance. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): progressive degeneration of upper motor neurons and lower motor neurons. Frontotemporal dementia (FTD): slowly progressive behavioral changes, language disturbances, cognitive decline, extrapyramidal signs. Late-onset spinal motor neuronopathy (SMA, Jokela type): weakness, cramps, and/or fasciculations; areflexia. Axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy: slowly progressive lower-leg muscle weakness and atrophy, small hand muscle weakness, loss of tendon reflexes, sensory abnormalities. Cerebellar ataxia: gait ataxia, kinetic ataxia (progressive loss of coordination of lower- and upper-limb movements), dysarthria/dysphagia, nystagmus, cerebellar oculomotor disorder. Because of the recent discovery of CHCHD10-related disorders and the limited number of affected individuals reported to date, the natural history of these disorders (except for SMAJ caused by the p.Gly66Val pathogenic variant) is largely unknown.
Immunodeficiency 26 with or without neurologic abnormalities
MedGen UID:
863270
Concept ID:
C4014833
Disease or Syndrome
Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) due to DNA-PKcs deficiency is an extremely rare type of SCID (see this term) characterized by the classical signs of SCID (severe and recurrent infections, diarrhea, failure to thrive), absence of T and B lymphocytes, and cell sensitivity to ionizing radiation.
Cataracts, growth hormone deficiency, sensory neuropathy, sensorineural hearing loss, and skeletal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
863379
Concept ID:
C4014942
Disease or Syndrome
CAGSSS, which comprises cataracts, growth hormone deficiency, sensory neuropathy, sensorineural hearing loss, and skeletal dysplasia, is an autosomal recessive multisystemic disorder with a highly variable phenotypic spectrum. Not all of these features are always present, and almost all the features may present at different times and/or become more apparent with age. The skeletal features are consistent with spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia (SEMD) (summary by Vona et al., 2018). One family had a distinctive presentation with infantile-onset intractable seizures and cortical abnormalities reminiscent of Leigh syndrome (see 256000). The correlation between genotype and phenotype remains unclear, but since the IARS2 gene is involved in mitochondrial function, heterogeneous manifestations can be expected (Takezawa et al., 2018).
Deafness, autosomal recessive 103
MedGen UID:
863487
Concept ID:
C4015050
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the CLIC5 gene.
Sideroblastic anemia with B-cell immunodeficiency, periodic fevers, and developmental delay
MedGen UID:
863609
Concept ID:
C4015172
Disease or Syndrome
Sideroblastic anemia with B-cell immunodeficiency, periodic fevers, and developmental delay (SIFD) is an autosomal recessive syndromic disorder characterized by onset of severe sideroblastic anemia in the neonatal period or infancy. Affected individuals show delayed psychomotor development with variable neurodegeneration. Recurrent periodic fevers without an infectious etiology occur throughout infancy and childhood; immunologic work-up shows B-cell lymphopenia and hypogammaglobulinemia. Other more variable features include sensorineural hearing loss, retinitis pigmentosa, nephrocalcinosis, and cardiomyopathy. Death in the first decade may occur (summary by Wiseman et al., 2013).
Ataxia, combined cerebellar and peripheral, with hearing loss and diabetes mellitus
MedGen UID:
863873
Concept ID:
C4015436
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic disease characterized by juvenile-onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus associated with central and peripheral nervous system abnormalities with variable onset between infancy and adolescence. Neurological manifestations include combined cerebellar and afferent ataxia, sensorineural hearing loss, pyramidal tract signs, and demyelinating sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy. Hypothyroidism has been reported in some patients. Brain imaging may show generalized cerebral atrophy.
Neurologic, endocrine, and pancreatic disease, multisystem, infantile-onset
MedGen UID:
864165
Concept ID:
C4015728
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile-onset multisystem neurologic, endocrine, and pancreatic disease-1 (IMNEPD1) is an autosomal recessive multisystemic disorder with variable expressivity. The core features usually include global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and speech delay, ataxia, sensorineural hearing loss, and pancreatic insufficiency. Additional features may include peripheral neuropathy, postnatal microcephaly, dysmorphic facial features, and cerebellar atrophy. However, some patients may not display all features (summary by Picker-Minh et al., 2016, Sharkia et al., 2017). Genetic Heterogeneity of Infantile-Onset Multisystem Neurologic, Endocrine, and Pancreatic Disease See also IMNEPD2 (619418), caused by mutation in the YARS1 gene (603623) on chromosome 1p35.
Deafness, autosomal dominant 40
MedGen UID:
896665
Concept ID:
C4084708
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal dominant nonsyndromic deafness in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the CRYM gene.
Deafness, autosomal recessive 97
MedGen UID:
899875
Concept ID:
C4084709
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the MET gene.
Deafness, autosomal dominant 67
MedGen UID:
900413
Concept ID:
C4084712
Disease or Syndrome
DFNA67 is a form of nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss. Onset ranges from the first to the fourth year of life. Hearing loss initially affects high frequencies, with variable progression. There are no vestibular symptoms (Xing et al., 2015; Thoenes et al., 2015).
Optic atrophy 8
MedGen UID:
898923
Concept ID:
C4085249
Disease or Syndrome
Optic atrophy-8 (OPA8) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by progressive visual loss during the first or second decade of life. Some patients may have additional features, mainly late-onset sensorineural hearing loss. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of optic atrophy, see OPA1 (165500).
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 14 (cardioencephalomyopathic type)
MedGen UID:
903789
Concept ID:
C4225163
Disease or Syndrome
Split-foot malformation with mesoaxial polydactyly
MedGen UID:
898233
Concept ID:
C4225167
Disease or Syndrome
Recurrent metabolic encephalomyopathic crises-rhabdomyolysis-cardiac arrhythmia-intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
894196
Concept ID:
C4225171
Disease or Syndrome
Individuals with TANGO2-related metabolic encephalopathy and arrhythmias can present in acute metabolic crisis (hypoglycemia, elevated lactate, mild hyperammonemia) or with developmental delay, regression, and/or seizures. The acute presentation varies from profound muscle weakness, ataxia, and/or disorientation to a comatose state. Individuals can present with intermittent acute episodes of rhabdomyolysis. The first episode of myoglobinuria has been known to occur as early as age five months. Acute renal tubular damage due to myoglobinuria can result in acute kidney injury and renal failure. During acute illness, transient electrocardiogram changes can be seen; the most common is QT prolongation. Life-threatening recurrent ventricular tachycardia or torsade de pointes occurs primarily during times of acute illness. Individuals who do not present in metabolic crises may present with gait incoordination, progressively unsteady gait, difficulty with speech, or clumsiness. Intellectual disability of variable severity is observed in almost all individuals. Seizures are observed outside the periods of crises in more than 75% of individuals. Hypothyroidism has been reported in more than one third of individuals.
Microcephaly, short stature, and impaired glucose metabolism 2
MedGen UID:
906140
Concept ID:
C4225195
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia and psychomotor retardation with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
897828
Concept ID:
C4225215
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia and psychomotor retardation with or without seizures is an autosomal recessive complex neurodevelopmental disorder with onset in infancy. Affected children show hypotonia followed by severely impaired global development and significant motor disability. Most develop seizures in childhood and have speech delay. Other features, such as ocular abnormalities, foot deformities, hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, and decreased white matter, are more variable (summary by Hollstein et al., 2015).
Radioulnar synostosis with amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia 2
MedGen UID:
901732
Concept ID:
C4225221
Disease or Syndrome
Radioulnar synostosis with amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia (RUSAT) is characterized by thrombocytopenia that progresses to pancytopenia, in association with congenital proximal fusion of the radius and ulna that results in extremely limited pronation and supination of the forearm (summary by Niihori et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of radioulnar synostosis with amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia, see RUSAT1 (605432).
Takenouchi-Kosaki syndrome
MedGen UID:
906646
Concept ID:
C4225222
Disease or Syndrome
Takenouchi-Kosaki syndrome is a highly heterogeneous autosomal dominant complex congenital developmental disorder affecting multiple organ systems. The core phenotype includes delayed psychomotor development with variable intellectual disability, dysmorphic facial features, and cardiac, genitourinary, and hematologic or lymphatic defects, including thrombocytopenia and lymphedema. Additional features may include abnormalities on brain imaging, skeletal anomalies, and recurrent infections. Some patients have a milder disease course reminiscent of Noonan syndrome (see, e.g., NS1, 163950) (summary by Martinelli et al., 2018).
Desanto-shinawi syndrome
MedGen UID:
908218
Concept ID:
C4225239
Disease or Syndrome
WAC-related intellectual disability (ID) is typically characterized by variable degrees of developmental delay and/or intellectual disability. Behavioral abnormalities including anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and/or autism spectrum disorder are observed in the majority of older children and adults. Most affected infants have significant but nonspecific features at birth such as neonatal hypotonia and feeding problems. Some affected individuals come to medical attention with respiratory or vision problems. Facial features may be mildly dysmorphic, but are nonspecific. To date, 18 individuals have been identified with WAC-related ID.
Deafness, autosomal dominant 68
MedGen UID:
898808
Concept ID:
C4225240
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal dominant nonsyndromic deafness in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the HOMER2 gene.
Deafness, autosomal dominant 69
MedGen UID:
905882
Concept ID:
C4225241
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal dominant nonsyndromic deafness in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the KITLG gene.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type 4k
MedGen UID:
895560
Concept ID:
C4225246
Disease or Syndrome
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4K is an autosomal recessive demyelinating peripheral neuropathy characterized by onset in the first decade of distal muscle weakness and atrophy associated with impaired distal sensation. Both upper and lower limbs are affected. Affected individuals may also have nystagmus and late-onset cerebellar ataxia. Laboratory studies show increased serum lactate and isolated mitochondrial complex IV deficiency (summary by Echaniz-Laguna et al., 2013). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, see CMT4A (214400).
Craniosynostosis 6
MedGen UID:
904675
Concept ID:
C4225269
Disease or Syndrome
Craniosynostosis is a primary abnormality of skull growth involving premature fusion of the cranial sutures such that the growth velocity of the skull often cannot match that of the developing brain. This produces skull deformity and, in some cases, raises intracranial pressure, which must be treated promptly to avoid permanent neurodevelopmental disability (summary by Fitzpatrick, 2013). Craniosynostosis-6 is a bicoronal form associated with bony defects in the sagittal, metopic, or lambdoid sutures (Twigg et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of craniosynostosis, see CRS1 (123100). Structural brain anomalies with impaired intellectual development and craniosynostosis (BAIDCS; 618736) is an allelic disorder.
Epilepsy, hearing loss, and mental retardation syndrome
MedGen UID:
895574
Concept ID:
C4225276
Disease or Syndrome
Epilepsy, hearing loss, and mental retardation syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe neurologic impairment including intellectual disability, intractable epilepsy, microcephaly, abnormal muscle tone, and sensorineural hearing loss. Most affected individuals are nonambulatory, cannot sit unassisted, and have no speech development. More variable features include feeding difficulties, poor growth, cortical visual impairment, spasticity, scoliosis, immunodeficiency, and thrombocytopenia (summary by Tanaka et al., 2015).
Short stature, microcephaly, and endocrine dysfunction
MedGen UID:
895448
Concept ID:
C4225288
Disease or Syndrome
In patients with SSMED, short stature and microcephaly are apparent at birth, and there is progressive postnatal growth failure. Endocrine dysfunction, including hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, multinodular goiter, and diabetes mellitus, is present in affected adults. Progressive ataxia has been reported in some patients, with onset ranging from the second to fifth decade of life. In addition, a few patients have developed tumors, suggesting that there may be a predisposition to tumorigenesis. In contrast to syndromes involving defects in other components of the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) complex (see, e.g., 606593), no clinically overt immunodeficiency has been observed in SSMED, although laboratory analysis has revealed lymphopenia or borderline leukopenia in some patients (Murray et al., 2015; Bee et al., 2015; de Bruin et al., 2015; Guo et al., 2015).
Mental retardation, autosomal recessive 50
MedGen UID:
906893
Concept ID:
C4225319
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Zimmermann-Laband syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
897567
Concept ID:
C4225321
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 20
MedGen UID:
903867
Concept ID:
C4225355
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-20 is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severely delayed psychomotor development with poor or absent speech, wide-based or absent gait, coarse facies, and cerebellar atrophy (summary by Thomas et al., 2014).
Robinow syndrome, autosomal dominant 2
MedGen UID:
897039
Concept ID:
C4225363
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome (ADRS) is characterized by skeletal findings (short stature, mesomelic limb shortening predominantly of the upper limbs, and brachydactyly), genital abnormalities (in males: micropenis / webbed penis, hypoplastic scrotum, cryptorchidism; in females: hypoplastic clitoris and labia majora), dysmorphic facial features (widely spaced and prominent eyes, frontal bossing, anteverted nares, midface retrusion), dental abnormalities (including malocclusion, crowding, hypodontia, late eruption of permanent teeth), bilobed tongue, and occasional prenatal macrocephaly that persists postnatally. Less common findings include renal anomalies, radial head dislocation, vertebral abnormalities such as hemivertebrae and scoliosis, nail dysplasia, cardiac defects, cleft lip/palate, and (rarely) cognitive delay. When present, cardiac defects are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. A variant of Robinow syndrome, associated with osteosclerosis and caused by a heterozygous pathogenic variant in DVL1, is characterized by normal stature, persistent macrocephaly, increased bone mineral density with skull osteosclerosis, and hearing loss, in addition to the typical features described above.
Diamond-Blackfan anemia 15 with mandibulofacial dysostosis
MedGen UID:
902755
Concept ID:
C4225411
Disease or Syndrome
Spondyloocular syndrome, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
900371
Concept ID:
C4225412
Disease or Syndrome
Spondylo-ocular syndrome is a very rare association of spinal and ocular manifestations that is characterized by dense cataracts, and retinal detachment along with generalized osteoporosis and platyspondyly. Mild craniofacial dysphormism has been reported including short neck, large head and prominent eyebrows.
Frontometaphyseal dysplasia 1
MedGen UID:
923943
Concept ID:
C4281559
Congenital Abnormality
The X-linked otopalatodigital (X-OPD) spectrum disorders, characterized primarily by skeletal dysplasia, include the following: Otopalatodigital syndrome type 1 (OPD1). Otopalatodigital syndrome type 2 (OPD2). Frontometaphyseal dysplasia type 1 (FMD1). Melnick-Needles syndrome (MNS). Terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary skin defects (TODPD). In OPD1, most manifestations are present at birth; females can present with severity similar to affected males, although some have only mild manifestations. In OPD2, females are less severely affected than related affected males. Most males with OPD2 die during the first year of life, usually from thoracic hypoplasia resulting in pulmonary insufficiency. Males who live beyond the first year of life are usually developmentally delayed and require respiratory support and assistance with feeding. In FMD1, females are less severely affected than related affected males. Males do not experience a progressive skeletal dysplasia but may have joint contractures and hand and foot malformations. Progressive scoliosis is observed in both affected males and females. In MNS, wide phenotypic variability is observed; some individuals are diagnosed in adulthood, while others require respiratory support and have reduced longevity. MNS in males results in perinatal lethality in all recorded cases. TODPD, seen only in females, is characterized by a skeletal dysplasia that is most prominent in the digits, pigmentary defects of the skin, and recurrent digital fibromata.
Sialidosis type 2
MedGen UID:
924303
Concept ID:
C4282398
Disease or Syndrome
Sialidosis is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the progressive lysosomal storage of sialylated glycopeptides and oligosaccharides caused by a deficiency of the enzyme neuraminidase. Common to the sialidoses is the accumulation and/or excretion of sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid) covalently linked ('bound') to a variety of oligosaccharides and/or glycoproteins (summary by Lowden and O'Brien, 1979). The sialidoses are distinct from the sialurias in which there is storage and excretion of 'free' sialic acid, rather than 'bound' sialic acid; neuraminidase activity in sialuria is normal or elevated. Salla disease (604369) is a form of 'free' sialic acid disease. Classification Lowden and O'Brien (1979) provided a logical nosology of neuraminidase deficiency into sialidosis type I and type II. Type I is the milder form, also known as the 'normosomatic' type or the cherry red spot-myoclonus syndrome. Sialidosis type II is the more severe form with an earlier onset, and is also known as the 'dysmorphic' type. Type II has been subdivided into juvenile and infantile forms. Other terms for sialidosis type II are mucolipidosis I and lipomucopolysaccharidosis.
Deafness, autosomal dominant 66
MedGen UID:
924418
Concept ID:
C4283893
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant deafness-66 is a form of nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing impairment with widely variable age at onset (Nyegaard et al., 2015).
3-methylglutaconic aciduria, type VIII
MedGen UID:
934617
Concept ID:
C4310650
Disease or Syndrome
MGCA8 is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder resulting in death in infancy. Features include hypotonia, abnormal movements, respiratory insufficiency with apneic episodes, and lack of developmental progress, often with seizures. Brain imaging is variable, but may show progressive cerebral atrophy. Laboratory studies show increased serum lactate and 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, suggesting a mitochondrial defect (summary by Mandel et al., 2016). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, see MGCA type I (250950).
Frontometaphyseal dysplasia 2
MedGen UID:
934664
Concept ID:
C4310697
Disease or Syndrome
Frontometaphyseal dysplasia (FMD) is a progressive sclerosing skeletal dysplasia characterized by supraorbital hyperostosis, undermodeling of the small bones, and small and large joint contractures, as well as extraskeletal developmental abnormalities, primarily of the cardiorespiratory system and genitourinary tract. Patients with FMD2 appear to have a propensity for keloid formation (summary by Wade et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of frontometaphyseal dysplasia, see FMD1 (305620).
Thauvin-Robinet-Faivre syndrome
MedGen UID:
934682
Concept ID:
C4310715
Disease or Syndrome
Thauvin-Robinet-Faivre syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by generalized overgrowth, mainly of height, and mildly delayed psychomotor development with mild or severe learning difficulties. More variable features may include congenital heart defects, kidney abnormalities, and skeletal defects. Patients may have an increased risk for Wilms tumor (summary by Akawi et al., 2016).
Growth retardation, intellectual developmental disorder, hypotonia, and hepatopathy
MedGen UID:
934687
Concept ID:
C4310720
Disease or Syndrome
GRIDHH is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by poor overall growth, impaired intellectual development, hypotonia, and variable liver dysfunction. Additional features, such as seizures and hearing loss, may also be present (summary by Kopajtich et al., 2016).
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, autosomal recessive 4
MedGen UID:
934700
Concept ID:
C4310733
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions-4 (PEOB4) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by adult onset of eye muscle weakness and proximal limb muscle weakness associated with deletions of mtDNA on skeletal muscle biopsy, which results from defective mtDNA replication in post-mitotic muscle tissue. Additional features are more variable (summary by Ronchi et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive PEO, see PEOB1 (258450).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with or without anomalies of the brain, eye, or heart
MedGen UID:
934739
Concept ID:
C4310772
Disease or Syndrome
RERE-related disorders are characterized by neurodevelopmental problems with or without structural anomalies of the eyes, heart, kidneys, and genitourinary tract and mild sensorineural hearing loss. Hypotonia and feeding problems are common among affected individuals. Developmental delay and intellectual disability range from mild to profound. Behavior problems may include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, self-injurious behavior, and autism spectrum disorder. A variety of eye anomalies (coloboma, optic nerve anomalies, microphthalmia, and/or Peter's anomaly) and vision issues (myopia, anisometropia, astigmatism, exotropia, esotropia) have been reported. Congenital heart defects, most commonly septal defects, have also been described. Genitourinary abnormalities include vesicoureteral reflux, and cryptorchidism and hypospadias in males. Sensorineural hearing loss can be unilateral or bilateral.
Bartter syndrome, type 4b
MedGen UID:
934772
Concept ID:
C4310805
Disease or Syndrome
Bartter syndrome refers to a group of disorders that are unified by autosomal recessive transmission of impaired salt reabsorption in the thick ascending loop of Henle with pronounced salt wasting, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, and hypercalciuria. Clinical disease results from defective renal reabsorption of sodium chloride in the thick ascending limb (TAL) of the Henle loop, where 30% of filtered salt is normally reabsorbed (Simon et al., 1997). Patients with antenatal (or neonatal) forms of Bartter syndrome (e.g., BARTS1, 601678) typically present with premature birth associated with polyhydramnios and low birth weight and may develop life-threatening dehydration in the neonatal period. Patients with classic Bartter syndrome present later in life and may be sporadically asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic (summary by Simon et al., 1996 and Fremont and Chan, 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bartter syndrome, see 607364.
Midface hypoplasia, hearing impairment, elliptocytosis, and nephrocalcinosis
MedGen UID:
934777
Concept ID:
C4310810
Disease or Syndrome
Midface hypoplasia, hearing impairment, elliptocytosis, and nephrocalcinosis is an X-linked recessive disorder with onset of features in early childhood. Anemia is sometimes present. Some patients may show mild early motor or speech delay, but cognition is normal (summary by Andreoletti et al., 2017).
Immunodeficiency 47
MedGen UID:
934786
Concept ID:
C4310819
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-47 (IMD47) is an X-linked recessive complex syndrome characterized by liver dysfunction, recurrent bacterial infections, hypogammaglobulinemia, and defective glycosylation of serum proteins. Some patients also have neurologic abnormalities (summary by Jansen et al., 2016).
Myopathy, congenital, with neuropathy and deafness
MedGen UID:
1382171
Concept ID:
C4479603
Disease or Syndrome
SPTBN4 disorder is typically characterized by severe-to-profound developmental delay and/or intellectual disability, although two individuals in one family had a milder phenotype, including one individual with normal cognitive development. Speech and language skills are often severely limited. Affected individuals rarely achieve head control. Most are unable to sit, stand, or walk. Affected individuals typically have congenital hypotonia that may transition to hypertonia. Axonal motor neuropathy leads to hyporeflexia/areflexia and weakness, which can result in respiratory difficulties requiring ventilatory support. Most affected individuals require tube feeding for nutrition. Half of affected individuals develop seizures. Cortical visual impairment and auditory neuropathy have also been reported.
Perrault syndrome 6
MedGen UID:
1391447
Concept ID:
C4479656
Disease or Syndrome
Perrault syndrome is characterized by sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in males and females and ovarian dysfunction in females. SNHL is bilateral and ranges from profound with prelingual (congenital) onset to moderate with early-childhood onset. When onset is in early childhood, hearing loss can be progressive. Ovarian dysfunction ranges from gonadal dysgenesis (absent or streak gonads) manifesting as primary amenorrhea to primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) defined as cessation of menses before age 40 years. Fertility in affected males is reported as normal (although the number of reported males is limited). Neurologic features described in some individuals with Perrault syndrome include learning difficulties and developmental delay, cerebellar ataxia, and motor and sensory peripheral neuropathy.
Otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1617409
Concept ID:
C4520892
Disease or Syndrome
Otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia (OSMED) is characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, enlarged epiphyses, disproportionate shortness of the limbs, abnormalities in vertebral bodies, and typical facial features (summary by Harel et al., 2005).
Deafness, autosomal dominant 71
MedGen UID:
1621646
Concept ID:
C4539881
Disease or Syndrome
Deafness, autosomal dominant 72
MedGen UID:
1614203
Concept ID:
C4539886
Disease or Syndrome
Vertebral, cardiac, renal, and limb defects syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1621146
Concept ID:
C4540004
Disease or Syndrome
VCRL1 is an autosomal recessive congenital malformation syndrome characterized by vertebral segmentation abnormalities, congenital cardiac defects, renal defects, and distal mild limb defects. Additional features are variable (summary by Shi et al., 2017). Genetic Heterogeneity of Vertebral, Cardiac, Renal, and Limb Defects Syndrome VCRL2 (617661) is caused by mutation in the KYNU gene (605197) on chromosome 2q22. VCRL3 (618845) is caused by mutation in the NADSYN1 gene (608285) on chromosome 11q13.
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 33
MedGen UID:
1623699
Concept ID:
C4540209
Disease or Syndrome
COXPD33 is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder resulting from a defect in mitochondrial energy metabolism. The phenotype is highly variable, ranging from death in infancy to adult-onset progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO) and myopathy. A common finding is cardiomyopathy and increased serum lactate (summary by Feichtinger et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 48
MedGen UID:
1619532
Concept ID:
C4540321
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Retinitis pigmentosa-hearing loss-premature aging-short stature-facial dysmorphism syndrome
MedGen UID:
1615526
Concept ID:
C4540367
Disease or Syndrome
SHRF is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by short stature, brachydactyly, dysmorphic facial features, hearing loss, and visual impairment. Onset of the hearing and visual abnormalities, including retinitis pigmentosa, varies from birth to the second decade. Patients have mild intellectual disability and mild cerebellar atrophy with myelination defects on brain imaging (summary by Di Donato et al., 2016).
Nephrotic syndrome type 14
MedGen UID:
1617660
Concept ID:
C4540559
Disease or Syndrome
Sphingosine phosphate lyase insufficiency syndrome (SPLIS) is characterized by varying combinations of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (ranging from nonimmune fetal hydrops to adolescent onset), primary adrenal insufficiency (with or without mineralocorticoid deficiency), testicular insufficiency, hypothyroidism, ichthyosis, lymphopenia/immunodeficiency, and neurologic abnormalities that can include developmental delay, regression / progressive neurologic involvement, cranial nerve deficits, and peripheral motor and sensory neuropathy.
Townes-Brocks syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1635275
Concept ID:
C4551481
Disease or Syndrome
Townes-Brocks syndrome (TBS) is characterized by the triad of imperforate anus (84%), dysplastic ears (87%; overfolded superior helices and preauricular tags; frequently associated with sensorineural and/or conductive hearing impairment [65%]), and thumb malformations (89%; triphalangeal thumbs, duplication of the thumb [preaxial polydactyly], and rarely hypoplasia of the thumbs). Renal impairment (42%), including end-stage renal disease (ESRD), may occur with or without structural abnormalities (mild malrotation, ectopia, horseshoe kidney, renal hypoplasia, polycystic kidneys, vesicoutereral reflux). Congenital heart disease occurs in 25%. Foot malformations (52%; flat feet, overlapping toes) and genitourinary malformations (36%) are common. Intellectual disability occurs in approximately 10% of individuals. Rare features include iris coloboma, Duane anomaly, Arnold-Chiari malformation type 1, and growth retardation.
LEOPARD syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1631694
Concept ID:
C4551484
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML) is a condition in which the cardinal features consist of lentigines, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, short stature, pectus deformity, and dysmorphic facial features, including widely spaced eyes and ptosis. Multiple lentigines present as dispersed flat, black-brown macules, mostly on the face, neck and upper part of the trunk with sparing of the mucosa. In general, lentigines do not appear until age four to five years but then increase to the thousands by puberty. Some individuals with NSML do not exhibit lentigines. Approximately 85% of affected individuals have heart defects, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) (typically appearing during infancy and sometimes progressive) and pulmonary valve stenosis. Postnatal growth retardation resulting in short stature occurs in fewer than 50% of affected persons, although most affected individuals have a height that is less than the 25th percentile for age. Sensorineural hearing deficits, present in approximately 20%, are poorly characterized. Intellectual disability, typically mild, is observed in approximately 30% of persons with NSML.
Autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic vitamin D refractory rickets
MedGen UID:
1632314
Concept ID:
C4551495
Disease or Syndrome
Hyperphosphatasia with mental retardation syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1647044
Concept ID:
C4551502
Disease or Syndrome
Hyperphosphatasia with mental retardation syndrome-1 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by mental retardation, various neurologic abnormalities such as seizures and hypotonia, and hyperphosphatasia. Other features include facial dysmorphism and variable degrees of brachytelephalangy (summary by Krawitz et al., 2010). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis; see GPIBD1 (610293). Genetic Heterogeneity of Hyperphosphatasia with Mental Retardation Syndrome See also HPMRS2 (614749), caused by mutation in the PIGO gene (614730) on chromosome 9p13; HPMRS3 (614207), caused by mutation in the PGAP2 gene (615187) on chromosome 11p15; HPMRS4 (615716), caused by mutation in the PGAP3 gene (611801) on chromosome 17q12; HPMRS5 (616025), caused by mutation in the PIGW gene (610275) on chromosome 17q12; and HPMRS6 (616809), caused by mutation in the PIGY gene (610662) on chromosome 4q22. Knaus et al. (2018) provided a review of the main clinical features of the different types of HPMRS, noting that some patients have a distinct pattern of facial anomalies that can be detected by computer-assisted comparison, particularly those with mutations in the PIGV and PGAP3 genes. Individuals with HPMRS have variable increased in alkaline phosphatase (AP) as well as variable decreases in GPI-linked proteins that can be detected by flow cytometry. However, there was no clear correlation between AP levels or GPI-linked protein abnormalities and degree of neurologic involvement, mutation class, or gene involved. Knaus et al. (2018) concluded that a distinction between HPMRS and MCAHS (see, e.g., 614080), which is also caused by mutation in genes involved in GPI biosynthesis, may be artificial and even inaccurate, and that all these disorders should be considered and classified under the more encompassing term of 'GPI biosynthesis defects' (GPIBD).
Carpenter syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1644017
Concept ID:
C4551510
Disease or Syndrome
Carpenter syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with the cardinal features of acrocephaly with variable synostosis of the sagittal, lambdoid, and coronal sutures; peculiar facies; brachydactyly of the hands with syndactyly; preaxial polydactyly and syndactyly of the feet; congenital heart defects; growth retardation; mental retardation; hypogenitalism; and obesity. In addition, cerebral malformations, oral and dental abnormalities, coxa valga, genu valgum, hydronephrosis, precocious puberty, and hearing loss may be observed (summary by Altunhan et al., 2011). Genetic Heterogeneity of Carpenter Syndrome Carpenter syndrome-2 (CRPT2; 614976), in which the features of Carpenter syndrome are sometimes associated with defective lateralization, is caused by mutation in the MEGF8 gene (604267).
Noonan syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1638960
Concept ID:
C4551602
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by characteristic facies, short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one fourth of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability, and language impairments in general are more common in NS than in the general population.
Wolfram syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1641635
Concept ID:
C4551693
Disease or Syndrome
WFS1 Wolfram syndrome spectrum disorder (WFS1-WSSD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset of diabetes mellitus (DM) and optic atrophy (OA) before age 16 years, and typically associated with other endocrine abnormalities, sensorineural hearing loss, and progressive neurologic abnormalities (cerebellar ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, dementia, psychiatric illness, and urinary tract atony). Although DM is mostly insulin-dependent, overall the course is milder (with lower prevalence of microvascular disease) than that seen in isolated DM. OA typically results in significantly reduced visual acuity in the first decade. Sensorineural hearing impairment ranges from congenital deafness to milder, sometimes progressive, hearing impairment.
Branchiootorenal Syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1632634
Concept ID:
C4551702
Disease or Syndrome
Branchiootorenal spectrum disorder (BORSD) is characterized by malformations of the outer, middle, and inner ear associated with conductive, sensorineural, or mixed hearing impairment, branchial fistulae and cysts, and renal malformations ranging from mild renal hypoplasia to bilateral renal agenesis. Some individuals progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) later in life. Extreme variability can be observed in the presence, severity, and type of branchial arch, otologic, audiologic, and renal abnormality from right side to left side in an affected individual and also among individuals in the same family.
Perrault syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1640257
Concept ID:
C4551721
Disease or Syndrome
Perrault syndrome is characterized by sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in males and females and ovarian dysfunction in females. SNHL is bilateral and ranges from profound with prelingual (congenital) onset to moderate with early-childhood onset. When onset is in early childhood, hearing loss can be progressive. Ovarian dysfunction ranges from gonadal dysgenesis (absent or streak gonads) manifesting as primary amenorrhea to primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) defined as cessation of menses before age 40 years. Fertility in affected males is reported as normal (although the number of reported males is limited). Neurologic features described in some individuals with Perrault syndrome include learning difficulties and developmental delay, cerebellar ataxia, and motor and sensory peripheral neuropathy.
Cornelia de Lange syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1645760
Concept ID:
C4551851
Disease or Syndrome
Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) encompasses a spectrum of findings from mild to severe. Severe (classic) CdLS is characterized by distinctive facial features, growth restriction (prenatal onset; <5th centile throughout life), hypertrichosis, and upper-limb reduction defects that range from subtle phalangeal abnormalities to oligodactyly (missing digits). Craniofacial features include synophrys, highly arched and/or thick eyebrows, long eyelashes, short nasal bridge with anteverted nares, small widely spaced teeth, and microcephaly. Individuals with a milder phenotype have less severe growth, cognitive, and limb involvement, but often have facial features consistent with CdLS. Across the CdLS spectrum IQ ranges from below 30 to 102 (mean: 53). Many individuals demonstrate autistic and self-destructive tendencies. Other frequent findings include cardiac septal defects, gastrointestinal dysfunction, hearing loss, myopia, and cryptorchidism or hypoplastic genitalia.
Van Maldergem syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1644627
Concept ID:
C4551950
Disease or Syndrome
Van Maldergem syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by intellectual disability, typical craniofacial features, auditory malformations resulting in hearing loss, and skeletal and limb malformations. Some patients have renal hypoplasia. Brain MRI typically shows periventricular nodular heterotopia (summary by Cappello et al., 2013). Genetic Heterogeneity of Van Maldergem Syndrome See also VMLDS2 (615546), caused by mutation in the FAT4 gene (612411) on chromosome 4q28.
Radioulnar synostosis with amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia 1
MedGen UID:
1637913
Concept ID:
C4551975
Disease or Syndrome
Radioulnar synostosis with amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia (RUSAT) is characterized by thrombocytopenia that progresses to pancytopenia, in association with congenital proximal fusion of the radius and ulna that results in extremely limited pronation and supination of the forearm (summary by Niihori et al., 2015). Genetic Heterogeneity of Radioulnar Synostosis with Amegakaryocytic Thrombocytopenia Radioulnar synostosis with amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia-2 (RUSAT2; 616738) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the MECOM gene (165215) on chromosome 3q26.
Heimler syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1647369
Concept ID:
C4551980
Disease or Syndrome
Heimler syndrome-1 (HMLR1), which represents the mildest end of the peroxisomal biogenesis disorder spectrum (see PBD1A, 214100), is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, enamel hyoplasia of the secondary dentition, and nail abnormalities (Ratbi et al., 2015). Genetic Heterogeneity of Heimler Syndrome Another form of Heimler syndrome (HMLR2; 616617) is caused by mutation in the PEX6 gene (601498) on chromosome 6p21.
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 1 (MNGIE type)
MedGen UID:
1631838
Concept ID:
C4551995
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy (MNGIE) disease is characterized by progressive gastrointestinal dysmotility (manifesting as early satiety, nausea, dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux, postprandial emesis, episodic abdominal pain and/or distention, and diarrhea); cachexia; ptosis/ophthalmoplegia or ophthalmoparesis; leukoencephalopathy; and demyelinating peripheral neuropathy (manifesting as paresthesias (tingling, numbness, and pain) and symmetric and distal weakness more prominently affecting the lower extremities). The order in which manifestations appear is unpredictable. Onset is usually between the first and fifth decades; in about 60% of individuals, symptoms begin before age 20 years.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, dominant intermediate G
MedGen UID:
1642893
Concept ID:
C4693509
Disease or Syndrome
CMTDIG is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Most affected individuals have onset in the first or second decades of slowly progressive distal motor weakness and atrophy, resulting in gait instability and distal upper limb impairment, as well as distal sensory impairment. More severely affected individuals may have pes cavus and claw hands and become wheelchair-bound, whereas other affected individuals have later onset with a milder disease course. Electrophysiologic studies tend to show median motor nerve conduction velocities (NCV) in the 'intermediate' range, between 25 and 45 m/s (summary by Berciano et al., 2017). In a review of intermediate CMT, Berciano et al. (2017) noted that advanced axonal degeneration may induce secondary demyelinating changes resulting in decreased NCV and attenuated compound muscle action potential (CMAP) in median nerve conduction studies. They thus suggested that testing the upper arm, axilla to elbow, may provide more accurate assessment of NCV and CMAP and reveal an intermediate phenotype (review by Berciano et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMTDI, see 606482.
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 36
MedGen UID:
1644927
Concept ID:
C4693722
Disease or Syndrome
Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 15
MedGen UID:
1633653
Concept ID:
C4693733
Disease or Syndrome
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-15 is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset of motor and cognitive impairment in the first or second decade of life. Features include dystonia, ataxia, spasticity, and dysphagia. Most patients develop severe optic atrophy, and some have hearing loss. Brain imaging shows hypomyelinating leukodystrophy with thin corpus callosum. The severity of the disorder is variable (summary by Mendes et al., 2018) For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HLD, see 312080.
Deafness, autosomal recessive 57
MedGen UID:
1631180
Concept ID:
C4693893
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive deafness-57 is characterized by symmetric bilateral moderate to severe hearing loss, represented by gently downward-sloping audiograms. The hearing loss may be mildly progressive (Guan et al., 2018).
Adenosine kinase deficiency
MedGen UID:
1632232
Concept ID:
C4706555
Disease or Syndrome
Hypermethioninemia due to adenosine kinase deficiency is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism characterized by global developmental delay, early-onset seizures, mild dysmorphic features, and characteristic biochemical anomalies, including persistent hypermethioninemia with increased levels of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy); homocysteine is typically normal (summary by Bjursell et al., 2011).
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 1A (Zellweger)
MedGen UID:
1648474
Concept ID:
C4721541
Disease or Syndrome
Zellweger spectrum disorder (ZSD) is a phenotypic continuum ranging from severe to mild. While individual phenotypes (e.g., Zellweger syndrome [ZS], neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy [NALD], and infantile Refsum disease [IRD]) were described in the past before the biochemical and molecular bases of this spectrum were fully determined, the term "ZSD" is now used to refer to all individuals with a defect in one of the ZSD-PEX genes regardless of phenotype. Individuals with ZSD usually come to clinical attention in the newborn period or later in childhood. Affected newborns are hypotonic and feed poorly. They have distinctive facies, congenital malformations (neuronal migration defects associated with neonatal-onset seizures, renal cysts, and bony stippling [chondrodysplasia punctata] of the patella[e] and the long bones), and liver disease that can be severe. Infants with severe ZSD are significantly impaired and typically die during the first year of life, usually having made no developmental progress. Individuals with intermediate/milder ZSD do not have congenital malformations, but rather progressive peroxisome dysfunction variably manifest as sensory loss (secondary to retinal dystrophy and sensorineural hearing loss), neurologic involvement (ataxia, polyneuropathy, and leukodystrophy), liver dysfunction, adrenal insufficiency, and renal oxalate stones. While hypotonia and developmental delays are typical, intellect can be normal. Some have osteopenia; almost all have ameleogenesis imperfecta in the secondary teeth.
Alport syndrome 3, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
1648326
Concept ID:
C4746547
Disease or Syndrome
In Alport syndrome (AS) a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from progressive renal disease with extrarenal abnormalities to isolated hematuria with a non-progressive or very slowly progressive course is observed. Approximately two thirds of AS is X-linked (XLAS); approximately 15% is autosomal recessive (ARAS), and approximately 20% is autosomal dominant (ADAS). In the absence of treatment, renal disease progresses from microscopic hematuria (microhematuria) to proteinuria, progressive renal insufficiency, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in all males with XLAS, and in all males and females with ARAS. Progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is usually present by late childhood or early adolescence. Ocular findings include anterior lenticonus (which is virtually pathognomonic), maculopathy (whitish or yellowish flecks or granulations in the perimacular region), corneal endothelial vesicles (posterior polymorphous dystrophy), and recurrent corneal erosion. In individuals with ADAS, ESRD is frequently delayed until later adulthood, SNHL is relatively late in onset, and ocular involvement is rare.
Alport syndrome 1, X-linked recessive
MedGen UID:
1648433
Concept ID:
C4746986
Disease or Syndrome
In Alport syndrome (AS) a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from progressive renal disease with extrarenal abnormalities to isolated hematuria with a non-progressive or very slowly progressive course is observed. Approximately two thirds of AS is X-linked (XLAS); approximately 15% is autosomal recessive (ARAS), and approximately 20% is autosomal dominant (ADAS). In the absence of treatment, renal disease progresses from microscopic hematuria (microhematuria) to proteinuria, progressive renal insufficiency, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in all males with XLAS, and in all males and females with ARAS. Progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is usually present by late childhood or early adolescence. Ocular findings include anterior lenticonus (which is virtually pathognomonic), maculopathy (whitish or yellowish flecks or granulations in the perimacular region), corneal endothelial vesicles (posterior polymorphous dystrophy), and recurrent corneal erosion. In individuals with ADAS, ESRD is frequently delayed until later adulthood, SNHL is relatively late in onset, and ocular involvement is rare.
Deafness, autosomal recessive 110
MedGen UID:
1648377
Concept ID:
C4748162
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, autosomal recessive 5
MedGen UID:
1648331
Concept ID:
C4748184
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 31
MedGen UID:
1648395
Concept ID:
C4748838
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal recessive 67
MedGen UID:
1648350
Concept ID:
C4749019
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked intellectual disability-hypotonic face syndrome
MedGen UID:
1676827
Concept ID:
C4759781
Disease or Syndrome
Alpha-thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability (ATR-X) syndrome is characterized by distinctive craniofacial features, genital anomalies, hypotonia, and mild-to-profound developmental delay / intellectual disability (DD/ID). Craniofacial abnormalities include small head circumference, telecanthus or widely spaced eyes, short triangular nose, tented upper lip, and thick or everted lower lip with coarsening of the facial features over time. While all affected individuals have a normal 46,XY karyotype, genital anomalies comprise a range from hypospadias and undescended testicles, to severe hypospadias and ambiguous genitalia, to normal-appearing female external genitalia. Alpha-thalassemia, observed in about 75% of affected individuals, is mild and typically does not require treatment. Osteosarcoma has been reported in a few males with germline pathogenic variants.
Deafness, autosomal dominant 37
MedGen UID:
1676950
Concept ID:
C4760307
Disease or Syndrome
DFNA37 is an autosomal dominant form of early-onset postlingual progressive hearing impairment (Booth et al., 2019).
Deafness, autosomal recessive 99
MedGen UID:
1678930
Concept ID:
C4760579
Disease or Syndrome
DFNB99 is characterized by prelingual, severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss without vestibular dysfunction (Cheng et al., 2003).
Mullegama-Klein-Martinez syndrome
MedGen UID:
1683985
Concept ID:
C5193008
Disease or Syndrome
Deafness, Y-linked 2
MedGen UID:
1677048
Concept ID:
C5193013
Disease or Syndrome
Y-linked deafness-2 (DFNY2) is characterized by male-limited bilateral progressive sensorineural hearing loss of variable severity, with onset in the third to fifth decades of life (Di Stazio et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Y-linked deafness, see DFNY1 (400043).
Cone-rod dystrophy and hearing loss 1
MedGen UID:
1682048
Concept ID:
C5193018
Disease or Syndrome
CRDHL1 is characterized by cone-rod dystrophy and sensorineural hearing loss, with relatively late onset of both ocular and hearing impairment. The funduscopic findings are characteristic, showing ring-shaped atrophy along the major vascular arcades that manifests on fundus autofluorescence as a hypoautofluorescent band along the vascular arcades surrounded by hyperautofluorescent borders (Namburi et al., 2016). Genetic Heterogeneity of Cone-Rod Dystrophy and Hearing Loss CRDHL2 (618358) is caused by mutation in the CEP250 gene (609689) on chromosome 20q11.
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 37
MedGen UID:
1675208
Concept ID:
C5193031
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-37 is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder apparent at birth or in the first months of life. Affected individuals have hypotonia, failure to thrive, and neurodegeneration with loss of developmental milestones, as well as liver dysfunction. Some patients may have hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, loss of vision and hearing, and/or seizures. Mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction is apparent in liver and skeletal muscle tissue. Most patients die in childhood (summary by Zeharia et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Intellectual developmental disorder with abnormal behavior, microcephaly, and short stature
MedGen UID:
1675423
Concept ID:
C5193039
Disease or Syndrome
Cone-rod dystrophy and hearing loss 2
MedGen UID:
1675017
Concept ID:
C5193051
Disease or Syndrome
Cone-rod dystrophy and hearing loss-2 (CRDHL2) is characterized by retinal dystrophy, with photophobia and progressive reduction in visual acuity, associated with sensorineural hearing loss (Kubota et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of cone-rod dystrophy and hearing loss, see CRDHL1 (617236).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 73
MedGen UID:
1681654
Concept ID:
C5193065
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-73 (DEE73) is a neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of refractory seizures in the first months of life. Affected individuals meet almost no developmental milestones: they have hypotonia and are unable to walk, speak, or feed properly. They have poor overall growth with small head circumference and dysmorphic facial features. Additional manifestations include cortical visual impairment with roving eye movements and variable hearing loss (summary by Edvardson et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Deafness, autosomal recessive 113
MedGen UID:
1674289
Concept ID:
C5193079
Disease or Syndrome
DFNB113 is characterized by postlingual progressive hearing impairment (Booth et al., 2018).
Gonadal dysgenesis, dysmorphic facies, retinal dystrophy, and myopathy
MedGen UID:
1679397
Concept ID:
C5193085
Disease or Syndrome
GDRM is characterized by 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis in association with extragonadal anomalies, including low birth weight, typical facial gestalt, rod and cone dystrophy, sensorineural hearing loss, omphalocele, anal atresia, renal agenesis, skeletal abnormalities, dry and scaly skin, severe myopathy, and neuromotor delay (Guran et al., 2019).
Deafness, autosomal recessive 100
MedGen UID:
1682525
Concept ID:
C5193087
Disease or Syndrome
DFNB100 is characterized by prelingual onset of profound sensorineural deafness without vestibular involvement (Yousaf et al., 2018).
Deafness, autosomal recessive 114
MedGen UID:
1684024
Concept ID:
C5193107
Disease or Syndrome
DFNB114 is characterized by congenital profound sensorineural hearing loss (Li et al., 2019).
Deafness, autosomal recessive 115
MedGen UID:
1681630
Concept ID:
C5193108
Disease or Syndrome
DFNB115 is characterized by severe sensorineural hearing impairment in early childhood (Ingham et al., 2019).
Noonan syndrome 11
MedGen UID:
1681177
Concept ID:
C5193130
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome-11 is characterized by clinical characteristics of Noonan syndrome, varying impairment of intellectual development, and a consistent cardiac phenotype of cardiac hypertrophy (Higgins et al., 2017). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Noonan syndrome, see NS1 (163950).
HOLOPROSENCEPHALY 12 WITH OR WITHOUT PANCREATIC AGENESIS
MedGen UID:
1684550
Concept ID:
C5193131
Disease or Syndrome
Holoprosencephaly-12 with or without pancreatic agenesis (HPE12) is a developmental disorder characterized by abnormal separation of the embryonic forebrain (HPE) resulting in dysmorphic facial features and often, but not always, impaired neurologic development. Most patients with this form of HPE also have congenital absence of the pancreas, resulting in early-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus and requiring pancreatic enzyme replacement. Other features may include hearing loss and absence of the gallbladder (summary by De Franco et al., 2019 and Kruszka et al., 2019). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of holoprosencephaly, see HPE1 (236100).
Stargardt macular degeneration, absent or hypoplastic corpus callosum, intellectual disability, and dysmorphic features
MedGen UID:
1680314
Concept ID:
C5193232
Disease or Syndrome
Oculopharyngodistal myopathy
MedGen UID:
1684682
Concept ID:
C5231388
Disease or Syndrome
Oculopharyngodistal myopathy-1 (OPDM1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by adult-onset ptosis, external ophthalmoplegia, facial muscle weakness, distal limb muscle weakness and atrophy, and pharyngeal involvement, resulting in dysphagia and dysarthria. Skeletal muscle biopsy shows myopathic changes with rimmed vacuoles. There are variable manifestations of the disorder regarding muscle involvement and severity (summary by Ishiura et al., 2019). Genetic Heterogeneity of Oculopharyngodistal Myopathy See also OPDM2 (618940), caused by trinucleotide repeat expansion in the GIPC1 gene (605072) on chromosome 19p13, and OPDM3 (619473), caused by trinucleotide repeat expansion in the NOTCH2NLC gene (618025) on chromosome 1q21. Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD; 164300) is a similar disorder with overlapping features. It is caused by a similar heterozygous trinucleotide repeat expansion in the PABPN1 gene (602279) (summary by Durmus et al., 2011).
Siddiqi syndrome
MedGen UID:
1684813
Concept ID:
C5231435
Disease or Syndrome
Siddiqi syndrome (SIDDIS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay, early-onset progressive sensorineural hearing impairment, regression of motor skills, dystonia, poor overall growth, and low body mass index (BMI). More variable features may include ichthyosis-like skin abnormalities or sensory neuropathy (summary by Zazo Seco et al., 2017).
Neurooculocardiogenitourinary syndrome
MedGen UID:
1684841
Concept ID:
C5231443
Disease or Syndrome
Neurooculocardiogenitourinary syndrome (NOCGUS) is a multisystem disorder characterized by poor growth and anomalies of the ocular, craniofacial, neurologic, cardiovascular, genitourinary, skeletal, and gastrointestinal systems. Lethality before 2 years of age has been observed (Reis et al., 2019).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 81
MedGen UID:
1684681
Concept ID:
C5231450
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-81 (DEE81) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder typically characterized by onset of severe refractory seizures soon after birth or in the first months of life. Affected individuals show little developmental progress with no eye contact and no motor or cognitive development. Other features may include facial dysmorphism, such as hypotonic facies and epicanthal folds, as well as sensorineural hearing loss and peripheral neuropathy. Brain imaging shows cerebral atrophy, impaired myelination, thin corpus callosum, and progressive leukoencephalopathy (summary by Esposito et al., 2019; Maddirevula et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Intellectual developmental disorder with speech delay, autism, and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1684848
Concept ID:
C5231456
Disease or Syndrome
Neuromuscular disease and ocular or auditory anomalies with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1684689
Concept ID:
C5231483
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual developmental disorder with hypotonia and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1684709
Concept ID:
C5231489
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual developmental disorder with hypotonia and behavioral abnormalities (IDDHBA) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by onset of hypotonia and variably impaired global developmental delay in infancy. Affected individuals tend to have learning disability, usually requiring special schooling, as well as behavioral abnormalities, such as autistic features and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Additional more variable features may include nonspecific dysmorphic facial features, congenital heart defects, visual or ocular movement anomalies, and poor feeding and/or gastroesophageal reflux (summary by Calpena et al., 2019).
Joubert syndrome 36
MedGen UID:
1684786
Concept ID:
C5231493
Disease or Syndrome
Joubert syndrome-36 (JBTS36) is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by global developmental delay, ocular movement abnormalities, and mesoaxial polydactyly. Brain imaging may be normal or show the classic 'molar tooth sign.' There is some phenotypic similarity to and overlap with orofaciodigital syndrome VI (OFD6; 277170) (summary by Shaheen et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Joubert syndrome, see JBTS1 (213300).
Kostmann syndrome
MedGen UID:
1713491
Concept ID:
C5235141
Disease or Syndrome
Severe congenital neutropenia-3 is an autosomal recessive bone marrow failure disorder characterized by low numbers of neutrophils, increased susceptibility to bacterial and fungal infections, and increased risk of developing myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia. In addition, patients with HAX1 mutations affecting both isoform A and B of the gene develop neurologic abnormalities (summary by Boztug et al., 2010). The Swedish physician Rolf Kostmann (1956) described an autosomal recessive hematologic disorder, termed infantile agranulocytosis, with severe neutropenia with an absolute neutrophil count below 0.5 x 10(9)/l and early onset of severe bacterial infections. The disorder was later termed Kostmann syndrome (Skokowa et al., 2007). Lekstrom-Himes and Gallin (2000) discussed severe congenital neutropenia in a review of immunodeficiencies caused by defects in phagocytes. In addition to Kostmann agranulocytosis, recessively inherited neutropenic syndromes include congenital neutropenia with eosinophilia (257100), Chediak-Higashi syndrome (214500), and Fanconi pancytopenic syndrome (see 227650). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of severe congenital neutropenia, see SCN1 (202700).
Neuropathy, hereditary sensory and autonomic, type 1A
MedGen UID:
1716450
Concept ID:
C5235211
Disease or Syndrome
SPTLC1-related hereditary sensory neuropathy (HSN) is an axonal form of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy distinguished by prominent early sensory loss and later positive sensory phenomena including dysesthesia and characteristic "lightning" or "shooting" pains. Loss of sensation can lead to painless injuries, which, if unrecognized, result in slow wound healing and subsequent osteomyelitis requiring distal amputations. Motor involvement is present in all advanced cases and can be severe. After age 20 years, the distal wasting and weakness may involve proximal muscles, possibly leading to wheelchair dependency by the seventh or eighth decade. Sensorineural hearing loss is variable.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with epilepsy, spasticity, and brain atrophy
MedGen UID:
1717952
Concept ID:
C5394027
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with epilepsy, spasticity, and brain atrophy (NEDESBA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severely impaired global development apparent soon after birth. Affected individuals develop seizures in the first year of life and achieve almost no psychomotor progress, resulting in feeding difficulties and an inability to walk or speak. Other features include hypotonia, peripheral spasticity with contractures, cortical visual impairment, and dysmorphic features, including microcephaly. Death in childhood may occur (summary by Van Bergen et al., 2020). Van Bergen et al. (2020) noted that the molecular mechanism of this disorder can be classified into a group of similar phenotypes resulting from mutations in genes associated with transport protein particles, sometimes referred to as 'TRAPPopathies' (review by Sacher et al., 2019).
Spastic paraplegia 81, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1711668
Concept ID:
C5394033
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia-81 (SPG81) is a neurologic disorder with onset in infancy. Affected individuals have delayed motor development, progressive spasticity, and other neurologic impairment, including impaired intellectual development and speech delay. Some patients may have additional features, including bifid uvula, microcephaly, seizures, and variable ocular anomalies. One severely affected patient was reported to have cortical visual loss, sensorineural deafness, and achievement of almost no developmental milestones. Brain imaging shows white matter abnormalities, hypomyelination with progressive white matter loss, and sometimes cerebral atrophy. These significant additional abnormalities enable classification of this disorder as a complicated form of SPG (summary by Ahmed et al., 2017 and Horibata et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia, see SPG5A (270800).
Deafness, autosomal dominant 75
MedGen UID:
1713569
Concept ID:
C5394059
Disease or Syndrome
DFNA75 is characterized by adult onset of moderate to severe, mid to high frequency hearing loss, progressing to involvement of all frequencies (Xia et al., 2019).
Deafness, autosomal dominant 76
MedGen UID:
1710038
Concept ID:
C5394080
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant deafness-76 (DFNA76) is characterized by progressive or nonprogressive hearing loss with variable age at onset. Hearing loss is more severe at higher frequencies in most patients (Schrauwen et al., 2019; Morgan et al., 2019; Diaz-Horta et al., 2019).
Liberfarb syndrome
MedGen UID:
1709796
Concept ID:
C5394404
Disease or Syndrome
Liberfarb syndrome is a progressive disorder involving connective tissue, bone, retina, ear, and brain. Patients exhibit severe short stature and scoliosis with thoracic kyphosis and lumbar hyperlordosis. Severe joint laxity results in dislocations of elbows, hips, and knees. Eye findings are consistent with early-onset retinal degeneration, and there is moderate to severe early-onset hearing loss. Microcephaly is apparent by school age, and patients exhibit developmental delay and intellectual deficits (Peter et al., 2019). Clinical variability has been observed, with some patients presenting differences in the severity and location of skeletal dysplasia involvement as well as variation in other features of the syndrome (Girisha et al., 2019; Zhao et al., 2019).
Deafness, autosomal dominant 77
MedGen UID:
1709284
Concept ID:
C5394499
Disease or Syndrome
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy 1a
MedGen UID:
1727901
Concept ID:
C5399970
Disease or Syndrome
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) typically presents with weakness of the facial muscles, the stabilizers of the scapula, or the dorsiflexors of the foot. Severity is highly variable. Weakness is slowly progressive and approximately 20% of affected individuals eventually require a wheelchair. Life expectancy is not shortened.
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency
MedGen UID:
1750917
Concept ID:
C5435656
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 1 (MC4DN1) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by rapidly progressive neurodegeneration and encephalopathy with loss of motor and cognitive skills between about 5 and 18 months of age after normal early development. Affected individuals show hypotonia, failure to thrive, loss of the ability to sit or walk, poor communication, and poor eye contact. Other features may include oculomotor abnormalities, including slow saccades, strabismus, ophthalmoplegia, and nystagmus, as well as deafness, apneic episodes, ataxia, tremor, and brisk tendon reflexes. Brain imaging shows bilateral symmetric lesions in the basal ganglia, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of Leigh syndrome (see 256000). Some patients may also have abnormalities in the brainstem and cerebellum. Laboratory studies usually show increased serum and CSF lactate and decreased levels and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV in patient tissues. There is phenotypic variability, but death in childhood, often due to central respiratory failure, is common (summary by Tiranti et al., 1998; Tiranti et al., 1999; Teraoka et al., 1999; Poyau et al., 2000) Genetic Heterogeneity of Mitochondrial Complex IV Deficiency Most isolated COX deficiencies are inherited as autosomal recessive disorders caused by mutations in nuclear-encoded genes; mutations in the mtDNA-encoded COX subunit genes are relatively rare (Shoubridge, 2001; Sacconi et al., 2003). Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency caused by mutation in nuclear-encoded genes, in addition to MC4DN1, include MC4DN2 (604377), caused by mutation in the SCO2 gene (604272); MC4DN3 (619046), caused by mutation in the COX10 gene (602125); MC4DN4 (619048), caused by mutation in the SCO1 gene (603664); MC4DN5 (220111), caused by mutation in the LRPPRC gene (607544); MC4DN6 (615119), caused by mutation in the COX15 gene (603646); MC4DN7 (619051), caused by mutation in the COX6B1 gene (124089); MC4DN8 (619052), caused by mutation in the TACO1 gene (612958); MC4DN9 (616500), caused by mutation in the COA5 gene (613920); MC4DN10 (619053), caused by mutation in the COX14 gene (614478); MC4DN11 (619054), caused by mutation in the COX20 gene (614698); MC4DN12 (619055), caused by mutation in the PET100 gene (614770); MC4DN13 (616501), caused by mutation in the COA6 gene (614772); MC4DN14 (619058), caused by mutation in the COA3 gene (614775); MC4DN15 (619059), caused by mutation in the COX8A gene (123870); MC4DN16 (619060), caused by mutation in the COX4I1 gene (123864); MC4DN17 (619061), caused by mutation in the APOPT1 gene (616003); MC4DN18 (619062), caused by mutation in the COX6A2 gene (602009); MC4DN19 (619063), caused by mutation in the PET117 gene (614771); MC4DN20 (619064), caused by mutation in the COX5A gene (603773); and MC4DN21 (619065), caused by mutation in the COXFA4 gene (603883). Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency has been associated with mutations in several mitochondrial genes, including MTCO1 (516030), MTCO2 (516040), MTCO3 (516050), MTTS1 (590080), MTTL1 (590050), and MTTN (590010).
VEXAS syndrome
MedGen UID:
1765785
Concept ID:
C5435753
Disease or Syndrome
VEXAS (vacuoles, E1 enzyme, X-linked, autoinflammatory, somatic) syndrome (VEXAS) is an adult-onset inflammatory disease that affects only males and is caused by somatic, not germline, mutations. The disorder is characterized by adult onset of rheumatologic symptoms at a mean age of 64 years. Features include recurrent fevers, pulmonary and dermatologic inflammatory manifestations, vasculitis, deep vein thrombosis, arthralgias, and ear and nose chondritis. Laboratory studies indicate hematologic abnormalities, including macrocytic anemia, as well as increased levels of acute-phase reactants; about half of patients have positive autoantibodies. Bone marrow biopsy shows degenerative vacuolization restricted to myeloid and erythroid precursor cells, as well as variable hematopoietic dyspoiesis and dysplasias. The condition does not respond to rheumatologic medications and the features may result in premature death (summary by Beck et al., 2020).
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 47
MedGen UID:
1775535
Concept ID:
C5436476
Disease or Syndrome
Tolchin-Le Caignec syndrome
MedGen UID:
1724999
Concept ID:
C5436509
Disease or Syndrome
Tolchin-Le Caignec syndrome (TOLCAS) is a developmental disorder characterized by mildly to moderately impaired intellectual development and behavioral problems, such as autism, ADHD, labile mood, and aggressive episodes. Many patients have bony abnormalities, including osteochondroma, craniosynostosis, dysmorphic facies, arachnodactyly, and large head circumference. Rarely, additional congenital anomalies may also be observed. These additional features and the bony defects are highly variable (summary by Tolchin et al., 2020).
Mitochondrial complex 4 deficiency, nuclear type 3
MedGen UID:
1764816
Concept ID:
C5436682
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with alopecia and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1775930
Concept ID:
C5436741
Disease or Syndrome
Bachmann-Bupp syndrome (BABS) is a neurometabolic disorder associated with global developmental delay, ectodermal abnormalities including alopecia, absolute or relative macrocephaly, dysmorphic features, and characteristic neuroimaging features (summary by Rodan et al., 2018).
Deafness, autosomal recessive 116
MedGen UID:
1726617
Concept ID:
C5436789
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive deafness-116 (DFNB116) is characterized by slowly progressive moderate to profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), with a steeply sloping audiogram in the high frequencies in younger patients (Sineni et al., 2019).
Deafness, autosomal recessive 117
MedGen UID:
1747842
Concept ID:
C5436937
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive deafness-117 (DFNB117) is characterized by nonsyndromic bilateral moderate-to-profound sensorineural deafness, with onset in early childhood (Vona et al., 2021).

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Zhou E, Xiao XP, Liu B, Tan ZQ, Miao GY, Liu XB, Bu MX, Cao X, Zhong JY
J Laryngol Otol 2021 Oct;135(10):926-931. Epub 2021 Aug 18 doi: 10.1017/S0022215121002206. PMID: 34404495
Shilo S, Ziv-Baran T, Oron Y, Handzel O, Cavel O, Eta RA, Muhanna N, Ungar OJ
J Laryngol Otol 2021 Sep;135(9):820-824. Epub 2021 Jul 26 doi: 10.1017/S0022215121002024. PMID: 34308808
Kurioka T, Sano H, Furuki S, Yamashita T
J Laryngol Otol 2021 Jun;135(6):508-512. Epub 2021 Apr 29 doi: 10.1017/S0022215121001079. PMID: 33910659
Ma Y, Sun Q, Zhang K, Bai L, Du L
Am J Otolaryngol 2021 Mar-Apr;42(2):102856. Epub 2021 Jan 4 doi: 10.1016/j.amjoto.2020.102856. PMID: 33429184
Huafeng Y, Hongqin W, Wenna Z, Yuan L, Peng X
Acta Otolaryngol 2019 Oct;139(10):866-869. Epub 2019 Aug 27 doi: 10.1080/00016489.2019.1641218. PMID: 31452421

Diagnosis

Zhou E, Xiao XP, Liu B, Tan ZQ, Miao GY, Liu XB, Bu MX, Cao X, Zhong JY
J Laryngol Otol 2021 Oct;135(10):926-931. Epub 2021 Aug 18 doi: 10.1017/S0022215121002206. PMID: 34404495
Shilo S, Ziv-Baran T, Oron Y, Handzel O, Cavel O, Eta RA, Muhanna N, Ungar OJ
J Laryngol Otol 2021 Sep;135(9):820-824. Epub 2021 Jul 26 doi: 10.1017/S0022215121002024. PMID: 34308808
Ma Y, Sun Q, Zhang K, Bai L, Du L
Am J Otolaryngol 2021 Mar-Apr;42(2):102856. Epub 2021 Jan 4 doi: 10.1016/j.amjoto.2020.102856. PMID: 33429184
Lippa AM, Ocwieja KE, Iglesias J, Fawaz R, Elisofon S, Lee C, Sharma TS
Transpl Infect Dis 2020 Aug;22(4):e13304. Epub 2020 May 19 doi: 10.1111/tid.13304. PMID: 32367644
Huafeng Y, Hongqin W, Wenna Z, Yuan L, Peng X
Acta Otolaryngol 2019 Oct;139(10):866-869. Epub 2019 Aug 27 doi: 10.1080/00016489.2019.1641218. PMID: 31452421

Therapy

Sajid T, Ali SM, Shah MI, Hussain A, Zaman A, Qamar Naqvi SR, Sajid Z
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2021 Apr-Jun;33(2):279-282. PMID: 34137545
Sun Y, Xing Y, Jiang X, Tao D, Hu L, Wang Y, Dong H
Am J Otolaryngol 2021 May-Jun;42(3):102922. Epub 2021 Jan 9 doi: 10.1016/j.amjoto.2021.102922. PMID: 33454456
Heilen S, Lang CP, Warnecke A, Lenarz T, Durisin M
J Laryngol Otol 2020 Jun;134(6):501-508. doi: 10.1017/S0022215120000948. PMID: 32614760
Lippa AM, Ocwieja KE, Iglesias J, Fawaz R, Elisofon S, Lee C, Sharma TS
Transpl Infect Dis 2020 Aug;22(4):e13304. Epub 2020 May 19 doi: 10.1111/tid.13304. PMID: 32367644
Chen HC, Chung CH, Lu CH, Chien WC
Diab Vasc Dis Res 2019 Jul;16(4):324-327. Epub 2019 Feb 2 doi: 10.1177/1479164119826292. PMID: 30712377

Prognosis

Zhou E, Xiao XP, Liu B, Tan ZQ, Miao GY, Liu XB, Bu MX, Cao X, Zhong JY
J Laryngol Otol 2021 Oct;135(10):926-931. Epub 2021 Aug 18 doi: 10.1017/S0022215121002206. PMID: 34404495
Kurioka T, Sano H, Furuki S, Yamashita T
J Laryngol Otol 2021 Jun;135(6):508-512. Epub 2021 Apr 29 doi: 10.1017/S0022215121001079. PMID: 33910659
Ma Y, Sun Q, Zhang K, Bai L, Du L
Am J Otolaryngol 2021 Mar-Apr;42(2):102856. Epub 2021 Jan 4 doi: 10.1016/j.amjoto.2020.102856. PMID: 33429184
Lippa AM, Ocwieja KE, Iglesias J, Fawaz R, Elisofon S, Lee C, Sharma TS
Transpl Infect Dis 2020 Aug;22(4):e13304. Epub 2020 May 19 doi: 10.1111/tid.13304. PMID: 32367644
Huafeng Y, Hongqin W, Wenna Z, Yuan L, Peng X
Acta Otolaryngol 2019 Oct;139(10):866-869. Epub 2019 Aug 27 doi: 10.1080/00016489.2019.1641218. PMID: 31452421

Clinical prediction guides

Zhou E, Xiao XP, Liu B, Tan ZQ, Miao GY, Liu XB, Bu MX, Cao X, Zhong JY
J Laryngol Otol 2021 Oct;135(10):926-931. Epub 2021 Aug 18 doi: 10.1017/S0022215121002206. PMID: 34404495
Welch CM, Mannarelli G, Koehler L, Telian SA
Otol Neurotol 2021 Jul 1;42(6):e771-e778. doi: 10.1097/MAO.0000000000003085. PMID: 33606472
Kamel RM, Mehrem ES, Mounir SM, Essa MM, Fergany LA, Elbedewy MA
NeuroRehabilitation 2021;48(3):285-292. doi: 10.3233/NRE-201589. PMID: 33523031
Ma Y, Sun Q, Zhang K, Bai L, Du L
Am J Otolaryngol 2021 Mar-Apr;42(2):102856. Epub 2021 Jan 4 doi: 10.1016/j.amjoto.2020.102856. PMID: 33429184
Strum D, Kapoor E, Shim T, Kim S, Sabetrasekh P, Monfared A
Laryngoscope 2021 May;131(5):1147-1156. Epub 2020 Oct 22 doi: 10.1002/lary.29199. PMID: 33091179

Recent systematic reviews

Strum D, Kapoor E, Shim T, Kim S, Sabetrasekh P, Monfared A
Laryngoscope 2021 May;131(5):1147-1156. Epub 2020 Oct 22 doi: 10.1002/lary.29199. PMID: 33091179
Wood JW, Shaffer AD, Kitsko D, Chi DH
Laryngoscope 2021 Feb;131(2):425-434. Epub 2020 Jul 16 doi: 10.1002/lary.28829. PMID: 32673420
Lammers MJW, Young E, Fenton D, Lea J, Westerberg BD
Clin Otolaryngol 2019 Nov;44(6):1017-1025. Epub 2019 Oct 2 doi: 10.1111/coa.13432. PMID: 31532907
Mohammed SH, Shab-Bidar S, Abuzerr S, Habtewold TD, Alizadeh S, Djafarian K
BMC Res Notes 2019 May 23;12(1):283. doi: 10.1186/s13104-019-4323-z. PMID: 31122277Free PMC Article
Souza MEDCA, Costa KVTD, Vitorino PA, Bueno NB, Menezes PL
Braz J Otorhinolaryngol 2018 May - Jun;84(3):368-380. Epub 2017 Aug 26 doi: 10.1016/j.bjorl.2017.07.011. PMID: 28888754

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