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Squamous cell carcinoma

MedGen UID:
2874
Concept ID:
C0007137
Neoplastic Process
Synonyms: Epidermoid carcinoma; Squamous cell cancer
SNOMED CT: SCC - Squamous cell carcinoma (28899001); Squamous cell carcinoma (402815007); Squamous cell carcinoma, no ICD-O subtype (28899001); Squamous cell carcinoma, no International Classification of Diseases for Oncology subtype (28899001); Squamous cell carcinoma (28899001); Squamous carcinoma (28899001); Squamous cell epithelioma (28899001); Epidermoid carcinoma (28899001)
 
HPO: HP:0002860

Definition

The presence of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVSquamous cell carcinoma

Conditions with this feature

Bloom syndrome
MedGen UID:
2685
Concept ID:
C0005859
Disease or Syndrome
Bloom syndrome (BSyn) is characterized by severe pre- and postnatal growth deficiency, immune abnormalities, sensitivity to sunlight, insulin resistance, and a high risk for many cancers that occur at an early age. Despite their very small head circumference, most affected individuals have normal intellectual ability. Women may be fertile but often have early menopause, and men tend to be infertile, with only one confirmed case of paternity. Serious medical complications that are more common than in the general population and that also appear at unusually early ages include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus as a result of insulin resistance, and cancer of a wide variety of types and anatomic sites.
Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus
MedGen UID:
7338
Concept ID:
C0023652
Disease or Syndrome
A chronic inflammatory process affecting the skin. It is characterized by the presence of white, indurated plaques, epidermal atrophy, and fibrosis of the upper dermis. It usually appears in the vulva and penis.
Rothmund-Thomson syndrome
MedGen UID:
10819
Concept ID:
C0032339
Disease or Syndrome
Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS) is characterized by a rash that progresses to poikiloderma; sparse hair, eyelashes, and/or eyebrows; small size; skeletal and dental abnormalities; juvenile cataracts; and an increased risk for cancer, especially osteosarcoma. A variety of benign and malignant hematologic abnormalities have been reported in affected individuals. The rash of RTS typically develops between ages three and six months (occasionally as late as age two years) as erythema, swelling, and blistering on the face, subsequently spreading to the buttocks and extremities. The rash evolves over months to years into the chronic pattern of reticulated hypo- and hyperpigmentation, telangiectasias, and punctate atrophy (collectively known as poikiloderma) that persist throughout life. Hyperkeratotic lesions occur in approximately one third of individuals. Skeletal abnormalities can include radial ray defects, ulnar defects, absent or hypoplastic patella, and osteopenia.
Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa
MedGen UID:
36311
Concept ID:
C0079474
Disease or Syndrome
Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB) is a genetic skin disorder affecting skin and nails that usually presents at birth. DEB is divided into two major types depending on inheritance pattern: recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) and dominant dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DDEB). Each type is further divided into multiple clinical subtypes. Absence of a known family history of DEB does not preclude the diagnosis. Clinical findings in severe generalized RDEB include skin fragility manifest by blistering with minimal trauma that heals with milia and scarring. Blistering and erosions affecting the whole body may be present in the neonatal period. Oral involvement may lead to mouth blistering, fusion of the tongue to the floor of the mouth, and progressive diminution of the size of the oral cavity. Esophageal erosions can lead to webs and strictures that can cause severe dysphagia. Consequently, malnutrition and vitamin and mineral deficiency may lead to growth restriction in young children. Corneal erosions can lead to scarring and loss of vision. Blistering of the hands and feet followed by scarring fuses the digits into "mitten" hands and feet, with contractures and pseudosyndactyly. The lifetime risk of aggressive squamous cell carcinoma is higher than 90%. In contrast, the blistering in the less severe forms of RDEB may be localized to hands, feet, knees, and elbows with or without involvement of flexural areas and the trunk, and without the mutilating scarring seen in severe generalized RDEB. In DDEB, blistering is often mild and limited to hands, feet, knees, and elbows, but nonetheless heals with scarring. Dystrophic nails, especially toenails, are common and may be the only manifestation of DDEB.
Keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness syndrome, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
120536
Concept ID:
C0265336
Disease or Syndrome
Keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness (KID) syndrome is a rare ectodermal dysplasia characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, photophobia and corneal vascularization, hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles, erythrokeratoderma, follicular hyperkeratosis, and recurrent bacterial and fungal infections. A subset of patients with KID may develop multiple cystic pilar tumors, which are prone to malignant transformation and metastasis (Nyquist et al., 2007). Vohwinkel syndrome (124500) is an allelic disorder involving congenital deafness with keratopachydermia and constrictions of fingers and toes. Another similar disorder caused by mutation in GJB2 is palmoplantar keratoderma with deafness (148350). Genetic Heterogeneity of Keratitis-Ichthyosis-Deafness Syndrome An autosomal recessive form of KID syndrome (KIDAR; 242150) is caused by mutation in the AP1B1 gene (600157) on chromosome 22q12.
Cheilitis glandularis
MedGen UID:
75626
Concept ID:
C0267034
Disease or Syndrome
Cheilitis glandularis (CG) is an uncommon chronic inflammatory disease of unknown origin characterized by macrocheilia and secretions of thick saliva from swollen labial minor salivary glands.
Malignant tumor of esophagus
MedGen UID:
107792
Concept ID:
C0546837
Neoplastic Process
Esophageal cancer, particularly esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Both environmental and genetic risk factors play a role in the pathogenesis of the disorder. In Europe and North America, heavy smoking, alcohol consumption, and increased body mass index (BMI) are the main environmental risk factors. In contrast, the particularly high incidence of ESCC in some areas of China, central Asia, and southern Africa is associated with nutritional deficiencies, high intake of nitrosamine-rich or pickled vegetables, and low socioeconomic status; smoking, alcohol consumption, and BMI play a lesser role in these populations. There is a tendency for familial aggregation of ESCC in high-risk geographic areas, suggesting a genetic component to increased susceptibility. Gastric cardia adenocarcinoma is another common type of cancer in China that shows similarities to ESCC in terms of geographic distribution and environmental risk factors (summary by Wang et al., 2010 and Abnet et al., 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Susceptibility to Esophageal Cancer See a variant in the ADH1B gene (103720.0001) for discussion of a possible genetic association with protection against squamous cell aerodigestive tract cancer, including esophageal cancer, in alcohol drinkers. See a variant in the ALDH2 gene (100650.0001) for discussion of a possible genetic association with increased risk for esophageal cancer in alcohol drinkers due to interaction between variants in the ADH1B and ALDH2 genes. See the S100A14 gene (607986) on chromosome 1q21 for a discussion of a possible association between variation in that gene and susceptibility to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma among smokers. Genetic Heterogeneity of Somatic Mutations in Esophageal Cancer Somatic mutations in several different genes have been found in esophageal cancer tissue. These genes include TP53 (191170), CDKN2A (600160), DEC1 (604767), DCC (120470), DLEC1 (604050), TGFBR2 (190182), LZTS1 (606551), RNF6 (604242), WWOX (605131), APC (611731), and RUNX3 (600210).
Dyskeratosis congenita, X-linked
MedGen UID:
216941
Concept ID:
C1148551
Disease or Syndrome
Dyskeratosis congenita (DC), a telomere biology disorder, is characterized by a classic triad of dysplastic nails, lacy reticular pigmentation of the upper chest and/or neck, and oral leukoplakia. The classic triad may not be present in all individuals. People with DC are at increased risk for progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), solid tumors (usually squamous cell carcinoma of the head/neck or anogenital cancer), and pulmonary fibrosis. Other findings can include: abnormal pigmentation changes not restricted to the upper chest and neck, eye abnormalities (epiphora, blepharitis, sparse eyelashes, ectropion, entropion, trichiasis), and dental abnormalities (caries, periodontal disease, taurodauntism). Although most persons with DC have normal psychomotor development and normal neurologic function, significant developmental delay is present in the two variants in which additional findings include cerebellar hypoplasia (Hoyeraal Hreidarsson syndrome) and bilateral exudative retinopathy and intracranial calcifications (Revesz syndrome). Onset and progression of manifestations of DC vary: at the mild end of the spectrum are those who have only minimal physical findings with normal bone marrow function, and at the severe end are those who have the diagnostic triad and early-onset BMF.
Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck
MedGen UID:
257911
Concept ID:
C1168401
Neoplastic Process
Squamous cell carcinoma is a cancer that arises from particular cells called squamous cells. Squamous cells are found in the outer layer of skin and in the mucous membranes, which are the moist tissues that line body cavities such as the airways and intestines. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) develops in the mucous membranes of the mouth, nose, and throat.\n\nHNSCC is classified by its location: it can occur in the mouth (oral cavity), the middle part of the throat near the mouth (oropharynx), the space behind the nose (nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses), the upper part of the throat near the nasal cavity (nasopharynx), the voicebox (larynx), or the lower part of the throat near the larynx (hypopharynx). Depending on the location, the cancer can cause abnormal patches or open sores (ulcers) in the mouth and throat, unusual bleeding or pain in the mouth, sinus congestion that does not clear, sore throat, earache, pain when swallowing or difficulty swallowing, a hoarse voice, difficulty breathing, or enlarged lymph nodes.\n\nHNSCC can spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body, such as the lymph nodes or lungs. If it spreads, the cancer has a worse prognosis and can be fatal. About half of affected individuals survive more than five years after diagnosis.
Melanoma-pancreatic cancer syndrome
MedGen UID:
325450
Concept ID:
C1838547
Disease or Syndrome
Melanoma-pancreatic cancer syndrome is an inherited cancer predisposition syndrome in which mutation carriers have an increased risk of developing malignant melanoma and/or pancreatic cancer. Mutation carriers within families may develop either or both types of cancer (summary by Harinck et al., 2012). For background and phenotypic information on malignant melanoma and pancreatic cancer, see 155600 and 260350, respectively.
Xeroderma pigmentosum variant type
MedGen UID:
376352
Concept ID:
C1848410
Disease or Syndrome
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is characterized by: Sun sensitivity (severe sunburn with blistering, persistent erythema on minimal sun exposure in ~60% of affected individuals), with marked freckle-like pigmentation of the face before age two years in most affected individuals; Sunlight-induced ocular involvement (photophobia, keratitis, atrophy of the skin of the lids); Greatly increased risk of sunlight-induced cutaneous neoplasms (basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma). Approximately 25% of affected individuals have neurologic manifestations (acquired microcephaly, diminished or absent deep tendon stretch reflexes, progressive sensorineural hearing loss, and progressive cognitive impairment). The most common causes of death are skin cancer, neurologic degeneration, and internal cancer. The median age at death in persons with XP with neurodegeneration (29 years) was found to be younger than that in persons with XP without neurodegeneration (37 years).
Schopf-Schulz-Passarge syndrome
MedGen UID:
347366
Concept ID:
C1857069
Disease or Syndrome
Schopf-Schulz-Passarge syndrome (SSPS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a constellation of multiple eyelid cysts, hypodontia, hypotrichosis, palmoplantar hyperkeratosis, and onychodystrophy (summary by Mallaiah and Dickinson, 2001).
Hystrix-like ichthyosis with deafness
MedGen UID:
355410
Concept ID:
C1865234
Disease or Syndrome
Hystrix-like ichthyosis with deafness (HID) is a disorder characterized by dry, scaly skin (ichthyosis) and hearing loss that is usually profound. Hystrix-like means resembling a porcupine; in this type of ichthyosis, the scales may be thick and spiky, giving the appearance of porcupine quills.\n\nNewborns with HID typically develop reddened skin. The skin abnormalities worsen over time, and the ichthyosis eventually covers most of the body, although the palms of the hands and soles of the feet are usually only mildly affected. Breaks in the skin may occur and in severe cases can lead to life-threatening infections. Affected individuals have an increased risk of developing a type of skin cancer called squamous cell carcinoma, which can also affect mucous membranes such as the inner lining of the mouth. People with HID may also have patchy hair loss caused by scarring on particular areas of skin.
Trichothiodystrophy 1, photosensitive
MedGen UID:
355730
Concept ID:
C1866504
Disease or Syndrome
Trichothiodystrophy (TTD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder in which patients have brittle, sulfur-deficient hair that displays a diagnostic alternating light and dark banding pattern, called 'tiger tail banding,' under polarizing microscopy. TTD patients display a wide variety of clinical features, including cutaneous, neurologic, and growth abnormalities. Common additional clinical features are ichthyosis, intellectual/developmental disabilities, decreased fertility, abnormal characteristics at birth, ocular abnormalities, short stature, and infections. There are both photosensitive and nonphotosensitive forms of the disorder. TTD patients have not been reported to have a predisposition to cancer (summary by Faghri et al., 2008). Genetic Heterogeneity of Trichothiodystrophy Also see TTD2 (616390), caused by mutation in the ERCC3/XPB gene (133510); TTD3 (616395), caused by mutation in the GTF2H5 gene (608780); TTD4 (234050), caused by mutation in the MPLKIP gene (609188); TTD5 (300953), caused by mutation in the RNF113A gene (300951); TTD6 (616943), caused by mutation in the GTF2E2 gene (189964); and TTD7 (618546), caused by mutation in the TARS gene (187790).
Acne inversa, familial, 2
MedGen UID:
462387
Concept ID:
C3151037
Disease or Syndrome
Acne inversa is a chronic inflammatory disease of the hair follicles whose characteristic features include draining sinuses, painful skin abscesses, and disfiguring scars. Manifestations typically appear after puberty. Familial acne inversa is genetically heterogeneous (summary by Wang et al., 2010). Some patients with PSENEN-associated acne inversa also exhibit reticulate hyperpigmentation consistent with Dowling-Degos disease (DDD; see 179850) (Zhou et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of acne inversa, see 142690.
Dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal recessive, 3
MedGen UID:
462792
Concept ID:
C3151442
Disease or Syndrome
Dyskeratosis congenita (DC), a telomere biology disorder, is characterized by a classic triad of dysplastic nails, lacy reticular pigmentation of the upper chest and/or neck, and oral leukoplakia. The classic triad may not be present in all individuals. People with DC are at increased risk for progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), solid tumors (usually squamous cell carcinoma of the head/neck or anogenital cancer), and pulmonary fibrosis. Other findings can include: abnormal pigmentation changes not restricted to the upper chest and neck, eye abnormalities (epiphora, blepharitis, sparse eyelashes, ectropion, entropion, trichiasis), and dental abnormalities (caries, periodontal disease, taurodauntism). Although most persons with DC have normal psychomotor development and normal neurologic function, significant developmental delay is present in the two variants in which additional findings include cerebellar hypoplasia (Hoyeraal Hreidarsson syndrome) and bilateral exudative retinopathy and intracranial calcifications (Revesz syndrome). Onset and progression of manifestations of DC vary: at the mild end of the spectrum are those who have only minimal physical findings with normal bone marrow function, and at the severe end are those who have the diagnostic triad and early-onset BMF.
Fanconi anemia, complementation group P
MedGen UID:
854020
Concept ID:
C3469542
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and/or lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Palmoplantar carcinoma, multiple self-healing
MedGen UID:
815206
Concept ID:
C3808876
Neoplastic Process
Multiple self-healing palmoplantar carcinoma (MSPC) is characterized by recurrent keratoacanthomas in palmoplantar skin as well as in conjunctival and corneal epithelia. In addition, patients experience a high susceptibility to malignant squamous cell carcinoma (summary by Zhong et al., 2016).
Epidermodysplasia verruciformis, susceptibility to, 3
MedGen UID:
1648390
Concept ID:
C4748876
Finding
Epidermodysplasia verruciformis-3 is characterized by onset in childhood or early adulthood of persistent disseminated flat warts and pityriasis versicolor-like lesions of the skin that are induced by cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) of the beta genus. Some patients develop nonmelanoma skin cancer, particularly on areas of the body exposed to the sun. Patients are otherwise healthy and normally resistant to other microorganisms, including other viruses and skintropic pathogens, and even all other cutaneous and mucosal HPVs (de Jong et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of susceptibility to epidermodysplasia verruciformis, see EV1 (226400).
Pigmentation defects-palmoplantar keratoderma-skin carcinoma syndrome
MedGen UID:
1678330
Concept ID:
C5193062
Disease or Syndrome
Rothmund-Thomson syndrome type 2
MedGen UID:
1684753
Concept ID:
C5203410
Disease or Syndrome
Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS) is characterized by a rash that progresses to poikiloderma; sparse hair, eyelashes, and/or eyebrows; small size; skeletal and dental abnormalities; juvenile cataracts; and an increased risk for cancer, especially osteosarcoma. A variety of benign and malignant hematologic abnormalities have been reported in affected individuals. The rash of RTS typically develops between ages three and six months (occasionally as late as age two years) as erythema, swelling, and blistering on the face, subsequently spreading to the buttocks and extremities. The rash evolves over months to years into the chronic pattern of reticulated hypo- and hyperpigmentation, telangiectasias, and punctate atrophy (collectively known as poikiloderma) that persist throughout life. Hyperkeratotic lesions occur in approximately one third of individuals. Skeletal abnormalities can include radial ray defects, ulnar defects, absent or hypoplastic patella, and osteopenia.

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Sun Y, Jin G
J Int Med Res 2021 Jun;49(6):3000605211021275. doi: 10.1177/03000605211021275. PMID: 34139871Free PMC Article
Ishido K, Tanabe S, Katada C, Kubota Y, Furue Y, Wada T, Watanabe A, Koizumi W
Jpn J Clin Oncol 2021 May 28;51(6):895-904. doi: 10.1093/jjco/hyab030. PMID: 33738500
Hu KL, Fan X, Hu WT, Li HL, Tang QH, Sun XH
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2021 Feb 1;39(1):81-87. doi: 10.7518/hxkq.2021.01.012. PMID: 33723941Free PMC Article
Dong Z, Xu QH, Zhu YB, Wang YF, Xiong J, Dang S
Comb Chem High Throughput Screen 2021;24(1):148-154. doi: 10.2174/1386207323666200720012917. PMID: 32691705
Ji M, Zhang LJ
Clin Transl Oncol 2021 Feb;23(2):289-295. Epub 2020 Jun 23 doi: 10.1007/s12094-020-02417-4. PMID: 32577996

Diagnosis

Yamazaki M, Maruyama S, Abé T, Sumita Y, Katsumi Y, Nikkuni Y, Hayashi T, Tanuma JI
J Med Case Rep 2021 Aug 27;15(1):438. doi: 10.1186/s13256-021-03066-z. PMID: 34452644Free PMC Article
Wang X, Cao A, Hou Z, Li X, Gao B
Comput Biol Chem 2021 Aug;93:107531. Epub 2021 Jun 21 doi: 10.1016/j.compbiolchem.2021.107531. PMID: 34217008
Sun Y, Jin G
J Int Med Res 2021 Jun;49(6):3000605211021275. doi: 10.1177/03000605211021275. PMID: 34139871Free PMC Article
Näsman A, Holzhauser S, Kostopoulou ON, Zupancic M, Ährlund-Richter A, Du J, Dalianis T
Viruses 2021 May 14;13(5) doi: 10.3390/v13050910. PMID: 34069114Free PMC Article
Ishido K, Tanabe S, Katada C, Kubota Y, Furue Y, Wada T, Watanabe A, Koizumi W
Jpn J Clin Oncol 2021 May 28;51(6):895-904. doi: 10.1093/jjco/hyab030. PMID: 33738500

Therapy

Näsman A, Holzhauser S, Kostopoulou ON, Zupancic M, Ährlund-Richter A, Du J, Dalianis T
Viruses 2021 May 14;13(5) doi: 10.3390/v13050910. PMID: 34069114Free PMC Article
Ishido K, Tanabe S, Katada C, Kubota Y, Furue Y, Wada T, Watanabe A, Koizumi W
Jpn J Clin Oncol 2021 May 28;51(6):895-904. doi: 10.1093/jjco/hyab030. PMID: 33738500
Yang Y, Ge H
Future Oncol 2020 Nov;16(31):2537-2549. Epub 2020 Oct 27 doi: 10.2217/fon-2020-0222. PMID: 33108227
Yokota T, Homma A, Kiyota N, Tahara M, Hanai N, Asakage T, Matsuura K, Ogawa T, Saito Y, Sano D, Kodaira T, Motegi A, Yasuda K, Takahashi S, Tanaka K, Onoe T, Okano S, Imamura Y, Ariizumi Y, Hayashi R; Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG) Head and Neck Cancer Study Group.
Jpn J Clin Oncol 2020 Sep 28;50(10):1089-1096. doi: 10.1093/jjco/hyaa139. PMID: 32776100
Costa EFD, Lima TRP, Lopes-Aguiar L, Nogueira GAS, Visacri MB, Quintanilha JCF, Pincinato EC, Calonga L, Mariano FV, Altemani AMAM, Altemani JMC, Moriel P, Chone CT, Ramos CD, Lima CSP
Tumour Biol 2020 Jul;42(7):1010428320938494. doi: 10.1177/1010428320938494. PMID: 32628088

Prognosis

Yang J, Rao S, Cao R, Xiao S, Cui X, Ye L
Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Jul 12;13(13):17462-17472. doi: 10.18632/aging.203235. PMID: 34253689Free PMC Article
Sun Y, Jin G
J Int Med Res 2021 Jun;49(6):3000605211021275. doi: 10.1177/03000605211021275. PMID: 34139871Free PMC Article
Näsman A, Holzhauser S, Kostopoulou ON, Zupancic M, Ährlund-Richter A, Du J, Dalianis T
Viruses 2021 May 14;13(5) doi: 10.3390/v13050910. PMID: 34069114Free PMC Article
Ishido K, Tanabe S, Katada C, Kubota Y, Furue Y, Wada T, Watanabe A, Koizumi W
Jpn J Clin Oncol 2021 May 28;51(6):895-904. doi: 10.1093/jjco/hyab030. PMID: 33738500
Ji M, Zhang LJ
Clin Transl Oncol 2021 Feb;23(2):289-295. Epub 2020 Jun 23 doi: 10.1007/s12094-020-02417-4. PMID: 32577996

Clinical prediction guides

Yamazaki M, Maruyama S, Abé T, Sumita Y, Katsumi Y, Nikkuni Y, Hayashi T, Tanuma JI
J Med Case Rep 2021 Aug 27;15(1):438. doi: 10.1186/s13256-021-03066-z. PMID: 34452644Free PMC Article
Yang J, Rao S, Cao R, Xiao S, Cui X, Ye L
Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Jul 12;13(13):17462-17472. doi: 10.18632/aging.203235. PMID: 34253689Free PMC Article
Näsman A, Holzhauser S, Kostopoulou ON, Zupancic M, Ährlund-Richter A, Du J, Dalianis T
Viruses 2021 May 14;13(5) doi: 10.3390/v13050910. PMID: 34069114Free PMC Article
Ishido K, Tanabe S, Katada C, Kubota Y, Furue Y, Wada T, Watanabe A, Koizumi W
Jpn J Clin Oncol 2021 May 28;51(6):895-904. doi: 10.1093/jjco/hyab030. PMID: 33738500
Ji M, Zhang LJ
Clin Transl Oncol 2021 Feb;23(2):289-295. Epub 2020 Jun 23 doi: 10.1007/s12094-020-02417-4. PMID: 32577996

Recent systematic reviews

Wang H, Zhao Q, Zhang Y, Zhang Q, Zheng Z, Liu S, Liu Z, Meng L, Xin Y, Jiang X
Front Immunol 2021;12:652054. Epub 2021 Jul 8 doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.652054. PMID: 34305889Free PMC Article
Keeping S, Xu Y, Chen CI, Cope S, Mojebi A, Kuznik A, Konidaris G, Ayers D, Sasane M, Allen R, Huynh TM, Popoff E, Freeman M, Andria ML, Fury MG, Singh K, Stockfleth E, Challapalli A, Schmults CD
Future Oncol 2021 Feb;17(5):611-627. Epub 2020 Oct 14 doi: 10.2217/fon-2020-0823. PMID: 33052055
Genders RE, Marsidi N, Michi M, Henny EP, Goeman JJ, van Kester MS
Acta Derm Venereol 2020 Mar 18;100(6):adv00084. doi: 10.2340/00015555-3441. PMID: 32128598
Ibrahim SA, Ahmed ANA, Elsersy HA, Darahem IMH
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2020 Jun;277(6):1741-1752. Epub 2020 Feb 25 doi: 10.1007/s00405-020-05866-3. PMID: 32100133
Elghouche AN, Pflum ZE, Schmalbach CE
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2019 Mar;160(3):439-446. Epub 2018 Oct 23 doi: 10.1177/0194599818808511. PMID: 30348055

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