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Colon cancer

MedGen UID:
2839
Concept ID:
C0007102
Neoplastic Process
Synonym: Malignant tumor of colon
SNOMED CT: CA - Cancer of colon (363406005); Cancer of colon (363406005); Malignant neoplasm of colon (363406005); Malignant tumor of colon (363406005)
 
HPO: HP:0003003
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0021063
OMIM®: 114500; 191170

Definition

A primary or metastatic malignant neoplasm that affects the colon. Representative examples include carcinoma, lymphoma, and sarcoma. [from NCI]

Term Hierarchy

Conditions with this feature

Juvenile polyposis syndrome
MedGen UID:
87518
Concept ID:
C0345893
Neoplastic Process
Juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) is characterized by predisposition to hamartomatous polyps in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, specifically in the stomach, small intestine, colon, and rectum. The term "juvenile" refers to the type of polyp rather than to the age of onset of polyps. Most individuals with JPS have some polyps by age 20 years; some may have only four or five polyps over their lifetime, whereas others in the same family may have more than 100. If the polyps are left untreated, they may cause bleeding and anemia. Most juvenile polyps are benign; however, malignant transformation can occur. Risk for GI cancers ranges from 11% to 86%. Most of this increased risk is attributed to colon cancer, but cancers of the stomach, upper GI tract, and pancreas have also been reported. A combined syndrome of JPS and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is present in most individuals with an SMAD4 pathogenic variant.
Multiple fibrofolliculomas
MedGen UID:
91070
Concept ID:
C0346010
Neoplastic Process
The clinical characteristics of Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHDS) include cutaneous manifestations (fibrofolliculomas, acrochordons, angiofibromas, oral papules, cutaneous collagenomas, and epidermal cysts), pulmonary cysts/history of pneumothorax, and various types of renal tumors. Disease severity can vary significantly even within the same family. Skin lesions typically appear between the second and fourth decades of life and typically increase in size and number with age. Lung cysts are often bilateral and multifocal; most individuals are asymptomatic but at high risk for spontaneous pneumothorax. Individuals with BHDS are at a sevenfold increased risk for renal tumors that can be bilateral and multifocal; median age of renal tumor diagnosis is 48 years. The most common renal tumors are a hybrid of oncocytoma and chromophobe histologic cell types (oncocytic hybrid tumor) and chromophobe histologic cell types. Some families have renal tumor(s) and/or spontaneous pneumothorax without cutaneous manifestations.
Muir-Torré syndrome
MedGen UID:
231157
Concept ID:
C1321489
Neoplastic Process
Lynch syndrome is characterized by an increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) and cancers of the endometrium, ovary, stomach, small bowel, urinary tract, biliary tract, brain (usually glioblastoma), skin (sebaceous adenomas, sebaceous carcinomas, and keratoacanthomas), pancreas, and prostate. Cancer risks and age of onset vary depending on the associated gene. Several other cancer types have been reported to occur in individuals with Lynch syndrome (e.g., breast, sarcomas, adrenocortical carcinoma). However, the data are not sufficient to demonstrate that the risk of developing these cancers is increased in individuals with Lynch syndrome.
Colorectal cancer, hereditary nonpolyposis, type 2
MedGen UID:
232603
Concept ID:
C1333991
Neoplastic Process
Lynch syndrome is characterized by an increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) and cancers of the endometrium, ovary, stomach, small bowel, urinary tract, biliary tract, brain (usually glioblastoma), skin (sebaceous adenomas, sebaceous carcinomas, and keratoacanthomas), pancreas, and prostate. Cancer risks and age of onset vary depending on the associated gene. Several other cancer types have been reported to occur in individuals with Lynch syndrome (e.g., breast, sarcomas, adrenocortical carcinoma). However, the data are not sufficient to demonstrate that the risk of developing these cancers is increased in individuals with Lynch syndrome.
Li-Fraumeni syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
322656
Concept ID:
C1835398
Disease or Syndrome
Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a cancer predisposition syndrome associated with high risks for a diverse spectrum of childhood- and adult-onset malignancies. The lifetime risk of cancer in individuals with LFS is =70% for men and =90% for women. Five cancer types account for the majority of LFS tumors: adrenocortical carcinomas, breast cancer, central nervous system tumors, osteosarcomas, and soft-tissue sarcomas. LFS is associated with an increased risk of several additional cancers including leukemia, lymphoma, gastrointestinal cancers, cancers of head and neck, kidney, larynx, lung, skin (e.g., melanoma), ovary, pancreas, prostate, testis, and thyroid. Individuals with LFS are at increased risk for cancer in childhood and young adulthood; survivors are at increased risk for multiple primary cancers.
Oligodontia-cancer predisposition syndrome
MedGen UID:
324868
Concept ID:
C1837750
Neoplastic Process
Oligodontia-cancer predisposition syndrome is a rare, genetic, odontologic disease characterized by congenital absence of six or more permanent teeth (excluding the third molars) in association with an increased risk for malignancies, ranging from gastrointestinal polyposis to early-onset colorectal cancer and/or breast cancer. Ectodermal dysplasia (manifesting with sparse hair and/or eyebrows) may also be associated.
Immunodeficiency 61
MedGen UID:
337462
Concept ID:
C1845903
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-61 (IMD61) is an X-linked recessive primary immunodeficiency characterized by onset of recurrent infections in early childhood due to impaired antibody production. Affected individuals have normal numbers of circulating B and T cells, but B cells have an intrinsic defect in antibody production (summary by Keller et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description of X-linked agammaglobulinemia, see 300755.
Desmoid disease, hereditary
MedGen UID:
338210
Concept ID:
C1851124
Disease or Syndrome
APC-associated polyposis conditions include (classic or attenuated) familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and gastric adenocarcinoma and proximal polyposis of the stomach (GAPPS). FAP is a colorectal cancer (CRC) predisposition syndrome that can manifest in either classic or attenuated form. Classic FAP is characterized by hundreds to thousands of adenomatous colonic polyps, beginning on average at age 16 years (range 7-36 years). For those with the classic form of FAP, 95% of individuals have polyps by age 35 years; CRC is inevitable without colectomy. The mean age of CRC diagnosis in untreated individuals is 39 years (range 34-43 years). The attenuated form is characterized by multiple colonic polyps (average of 30), more proximally located polyps, and a diagnosis of CRC at a later age than in classic FAP. For those with an attenuated form, there is a 70% lifetime risk of CRC and the mean age of diagnosis is 50-55 years. Extracolonic manifestations are variably present and include polyps of the stomach and duodenum, osteomas, dental abnormalities, congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE), benign cutaneous lesions, desmoid tumors, adrenal masses, and other associated cancers. GAPPS is characterized by proximal gastric polyposis, increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma, and no duodenal or colonic involvement in most individuals reported.
Leukemia, acute myelocytic, with polyposis coli and colon cancer
MedGen UID:
383699
Concept ID:
C1855505
Neoplastic Process
Polyposis syndrome, hereditary mixed, 2
MedGen UID:
350500
Concept ID:
C1864730
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome-2 (HMPS2) is characterized by colonic polyps of mixed hyperplastic, adenomatous, and occasional juvenile types. Polyposis eventually progresses to colorectal cancer (Cao et al., 2006). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HMPS, see HMPS1 (601228).
Diamond-Blackfan anemia 1
MedGen UID:
390966
Concept ID:
C2676137
Disease or Syndrome
Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is characterized by a profound normochromic and usually macrocytic anemia with normal leukocytes and platelets, congenital malformations in up to 50%, and growth deficiency in 30% of affected individuals. The hematologic complications occur in 90% of affected individuals during the first year of life. The phenotypic spectrum ranges from a mild form (e.g., mild anemia or no anemia with only subtle erythroid abnormalities, physical malformations without anemia) to a severe form of fetal anemia resulting in nonimmune hydrops fetalis. DBA is associated with an increased risk for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and solid tumors including osteogenic sarcoma.
Colorectal cancer, susceptibility to, 3
MedGen UID:
436866
Concept ID:
C2677123
Finding
Any colorectal cancer in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the SMAD7 gene.
Familial adenomatous polyposis 1
MedGen UID:
398651
Concept ID:
C2713442
Disease or Syndrome
APC-associated polyposis conditions include (classic or attenuated) familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and gastric adenocarcinoma and proximal polyposis of the stomach (GAPPS). FAP is a colorectal cancer (CRC) predisposition syndrome that can manifest in either classic or attenuated form. Classic FAP is characterized by hundreds to thousands of adenomatous colonic polyps, beginning on average at age 16 years (range 7-36 years). For those with the classic form of FAP, 95% of individuals have polyps by age 35 years; CRC is inevitable without colectomy. The mean age of CRC diagnosis in untreated individuals is 39 years (range 34-43 years). The attenuated form is characterized by multiple colonic polyps (average of 30), more proximally located polyps, and a diagnosis of CRC at a later age than in classic FAP. For those with an attenuated form, there is a 70% lifetime risk of CRC and the mean age of diagnosis is 50-55 years. Extracolonic manifestations are variably present and include polyps of the stomach and duodenum, osteomas, dental abnormalities, congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE), benign cutaneous lesions, desmoid tumors, adrenal masses, and other associated cancers. GAPPS is characterized by proximal gastric polyposis, increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma, and no duodenal or colonic involvement in most individuals reported.
Lynch syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
423615
Concept ID:
C2936783
Neoplastic Process
Lynch syndrome is characterized by an increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) and cancers of the endometrium, ovary, stomach, small bowel, urinary tract, biliary tract, brain (usually glioblastoma), skin (sebaceous adenomas, sebaceous carcinomas, and keratoacanthomas), pancreas, and prostate. Cancer risks and age of onset vary depending on the associated gene. Several other cancer types have been reported to occur in individuals with Lynch syndrome (e.g., breast, sarcomas, adrenocortical carcinoma). However, the data are not sufficient to demonstrate that the risk of developing these cancers is increased in individuals with Lynch syndrome.
MUTYH-related attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis
MedGen UID:
474474
Concept ID:
C3272841
Neoplastic Process
MUTYH polyposis (also referred to as MUTYH-associated polyposis, or MAP) is characterized by a greatly increased lifetime risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Although typically associated with ten to a few hundred colonic adenomatous polyps, CRC develops in some individuals in the absence of polyposis. Serrated adenomas, hyperplastic/sessile serrated polyps, and mixed (hyperplastic and adenomatous) polyps can also occur. Duodenal adenomas are common, with an increased risk of duodenal cancer. The risk for malignancies of the ovary and bladder is also increased, and there is some evidence of an increased risk for breast and endometrial cancer. Additional reported features include thyroid nodules, benign adrenal lesions, jawbone cysts, and congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium.
Mismatch repair cancer syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1750327
Concept ID:
C5436806
Disease or Syndrome
Mismatch repair cancer syndrome-2 (MMRCS2) is an autosomal recessive childhood cancer predisposition syndrome characterized by hematologic malignancy, brain tumors, and gastrointestinal tumors. Multiple cafe-au-lait spots reminiscent of neurofibromatosis type I (NF1; 162200) may be present. Microsatellite instability may be detected in tumor samples (Muller et al., 2006). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mismatch repair cancer syndrome (MMRCS), see MMRCS1 (276300).
Mismatch repair cancer syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
1733656
Concept ID:
C5436807
Disease or Syndrome
Mismatch repair cancer syndrome-3 (MMRCS3) is an autosomal recessive childhood cancer predisposition syndrome characterized by brain tumors, hematologic malignancy, and gastrointestinal tumors. Multiple cafe-au-lait spots, axillary freckling, and, rarely, Lisch nodules reminiscent of neurofibromatosis type I (NF1; 162200) may be present (Hegde et al., 2005, Ostergaard et al., 2005). Microsatellite instability may be detected in tumor samples (Hegde et al., 2005). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mismatch repair cancer syndrome, see MMRCS1 (276300).
Mismatch repair cancer syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
1745382
Concept ID:
C5436817
Disease or Syndrome
Mismatch repair cancer syndrome-4 (MMRCS4) is an autosomal recessive childhood cancer predisposition syndrome characterized by early-onset leukemia/lymphoma, brain tumors, colorectal/gastrointestinal cancers, and other rare malignancies, including rhabdomyosarcoma (summary by Li et al., 2015). Cafe-au-lait spots are usually present (De Vos et al., 2006). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mismatch repair cancer syndrome, see MMRCS1 (276300).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

García-Alfonso P, García-Carbonero R, García-Foncillas J, Pérez-Segura P, Salazar R, Vera R, Ramón Y Cajal S, Hernández-Losa J, Landolfi S, Musulén E, Cuatrecasas M, Navarro S
Clin Transl Oncol 2020 Nov;22(11):1976-1991. Epub 2020 May 16 doi: 10.1007/s12094-020-02357-z. PMID: 32418154Free PMC Article

External

NCCN Colon Cancer, 2022

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

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Diagnosis

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Therapy

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Prognosis

Fang J, Yang J, Chen H, Sun W, Xiang L, Feng J
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Clinical prediction guides

Thomas FM, Sudi S, Muhamad Salih FA, Palasuberniam P, Suali L, Mohd Sani MH, Sunggip C
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Fang J, Yang J, Chen H, Sun W, Xiang L, Feng J
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Recent systematic reviews

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