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Malignant tumor of colon

MedGen UID:
2839
Concept ID:
C0007102
Neoplastic Process
Synonyms: Cancer of Colon; Cancer of the Colon; Cancer, Colon; Cancer, Colonic; Cancers, Colon; Cancers, Colonic; Colon Cancer; Colon Cancers; Colonic Cancer; Colonic Cancers
SNOMED CT: CA - Cancer of colon (363406005); Cancer of colon (363406005); Malignant neoplasm of colon (363406005); Malignant tumor of colon (363406005)
 
HPO: HP:0003003
OMIM®: 114500; 191170

Definition

A primary or metastatic malignant neoplasm that affects the colon. Representative examples include carcinoma, lymphoma, and sarcoma. [from NCI]

Term Hierarchy

Conditions with this feature

Familial multiple polyposis syndrome
MedGen UID:
46010
Concept ID:
C0032580
Neoplastic Process
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an inherited disorder characterized by cancer of the large intestine (colon) and rectum. People with the classic type of familial adenomatous polyposis may begin to develop multiple noncancerous (benign) growths (polyps) in the colon as early as their teenage years. Unless the colon is removed, these polyps will become malignant (cancerous). The average age at which an individual develops colon cancer in classic familial adenomatous polyposis is 39 years. Some people have a variant of the disorder, called attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis, in which polyp growth is delayed. The average age of colorectal cancer onset for attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis is 55 years.\n\nIn people with classic familial adenomatous polyposis, the number of polyps increases with age, and hundreds to thousands of polyps can develop in the colon. Also of particular significance are noncancerous growths called desmoid tumors. These fibrous tumors usually occur in the tissue covering the intestines and may be provoked by surgery to remove the colon. Desmoid tumors tend to recur after they are surgically removed. In both classic familial adenomatous polyposis and its attenuated variant, benign and malignant tumors are sometimes found in other places in the body, including the duodenum (a section of the small intestine), stomach, bones, skin, and other tissues. People who have colon polyps as well as growths outside the colon are sometimes described as having Gardner syndrome.\n\nA milder type of familial adenomatous polyposis, called autosomal recessive familial adenomatous polyposis, has also been identified. People with the autosomal recessive type of this disorder have fewer polyps than those with the classic type. Fewer than 100 polyps typically develop, rather than hundreds or thousands. The autosomal recessive type of this disorder is caused by mutations in a different gene than the classic and attenuated types of familial adenomatous polyposis.
Multiple fibrofolliculomas
MedGen UID:
91070
Concept ID:
C0346010
Neoplastic Process
The clinical characteristics of Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHDS) include cutaneous manifestations (fibrofolliculomas, acrochordons, angiofibromas, oral papules, cutaneous collagenomas, and epidermal cysts), pulmonary cysts/history of pneumothorax, and various types of renal tumors. Disease severity can vary significantly even within the same family. Skin lesions typically appear between the second and fourth decades of life and typically increase in size and number with age. Lung cysts are often bilateral and multifocal; most individuals are asymptomatic but at high risk for spontaneous pneumothorax. Individuals with BHDS are at a sevenfold increased risk for renal tumors that can be bilateral and multifocal; median age of renal tumor diagnosis is 48 years. The most common renal tumors are a hybrid of oncocytoma and chromophobe histologic cell types (oncocytic hybrid tumor) and chromophobe histologic cell types. Some families have renal tumor(s) and/or spontaneous pneumothorax without cutaneous manifestations.
Diamond-Blackfan anemia
MedGen UID:
266045
Concept ID:
C1260899
Disease or Syndrome
Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is characterized by a profound normochromic and usually macrocytic anemia with normal leukocytes and platelets, congenital malformations in up to 50%, and growth deficiency in 30% of affected individuals. The hematologic complications occur in 90% of affected individuals during the first year of life. The phenotypic spectrum ranges from a mild form (e.g., mild anemia or no anemia with only subtle erythroid abnormalities, physical malformations without anemia) to a severe form of fetal anemia resulting in nonimmune hydrops fetalis. DBA is associated with an increased risk for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and solid tumors including osteogenic sarcoma.
Muir-Torré syndrome
MedGen UID:
231157
Concept ID:
C1321489
Neoplastic Process
Lynch syndrome is characterized by an increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) and cancers of the endometrium, ovary, stomach, small bowel, urinary tract, biliary tract, brain (usually glioblastoma), skin (sebaceous adenomas, sebaceous carcinomas, and keratoacanthomas), pancreas, and prostate. Cancer risks and age of onset vary depending on the associated gene. Several other cancer types have been reported to occur in individuals with Lynch syndrome (e.g., breast, sarcomas, adrenocortical carcinoma). However, the data are not sufficient to demonstrate that the risk of developing these cancers is increased in individuals with Lynch syndrome.
Lynch syndrome II
MedGen UID:
232603
Concept ID:
C1333991
Neoplastic Process
Lynch syndrome is characterized by an increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) and cancers of the endometrium, ovary, stomach, small bowel, urinary tract, biliary tract, brain (usually glioblastoma), skin (sebaceous adenomas, sebaceous carcinomas, and keratoacanthomas), pancreas, and prostate. Cancer risks and age of onset vary depending on the associated gene. Several other cancer types have been reported to occur in individuals with Lynch syndrome (e.g., breast, sarcomas, adrenocortical carcinoma). However, the data are not sufficient to demonstrate that the risk of developing these cancers is increased in individuals with Lynch syndrome.
Li-Fraumeni syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
322656
Concept ID:
C1835398
Disease or Syndrome
Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a cancer predisposition syndrome associated with high risks for a diverse spectrum of childhood- and adult-onset malignancies. The lifetime risk of cancer in individuals with LFS is =70% for men and =90% for women. Five cancer types account for the majority of LFS tumors: adrenocortical carcinomas, breast cancer, central nervous system tumors, osteosarcomas, and soft-tissue sarcomas. LFS is associated with an increased risk of several additional cancers including leukemia, lymphoma, gastrointestinal cancers, cancers of head and neck, kidney, larynx, lung, skin (e.g., melanoma), ovary, pancreas, prostate, testis, and thyroid. Individuals with LFS are at increased risk for cancer in childhood and young adulthood; survivors are at increased risk for multiple primary cancers.
Immunodeficiency 61
MedGen UID:
337462
Concept ID:
C1845903
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-61 (IMD61) is an X-linked recessive primary immunodeficiency characterized by onset of recurrent infections in early childhood due to impaired antibody production. Affected individuals have normal numbers of circulating B and T cells, but B cells have an intrinsic defect in antibody production (summary by Keller et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description of X-linked agammaglobulinemia, see 300755.
Desmoid disease, hereditary
MedGen UID:
338210
Concept ID:
C1851124
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary desmoid disease usually presents as an extraintestinal manifestation of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP; 175100), also known as Gardner syndrome, which is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by germline mutation in the APC gene. The desmoid tumors are usually intraabdominal and, although benign, can be locally aggressive and result in significant morbidity. Desmoid tumors can also arise sporadically (Couture et al., 2000).
Leukemia, acute myelocytic, with polyposis coli and colon cancer
MedGen UID:
383699
Concept ID:
C1855505
Neoplastic Process
Hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
350500
Concept ID:
C1864730
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome-2 (HMPS2) is characterized by colonic polyps of mixed hyperplastic, adenomatous, and occasional juvenile types. Polyposis eventually progresses to colorectal cancer (Cao et al., 2006). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HMPS, see HMPS1 (601228).
Generalized juvenile polyposis/juvenile polyposis coli
MedGen UID:
356898
Concept ID:
C1868081
Disease or Syndrome
Juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) is characterized by predisposition to hamartomatous polyps in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, specifically in the stomach, small intestine, colon, and rectum. The term "juvenile" refers to the type of polyp rather than to the age of onset of polyps. Most individuals with JPS have some polyps by age 20 years; some may have only four or five polyps over their lifetime, whereas others in the same family may have more than 100. If the polyps are left untreated, they may cause bleeding and anemia. Most juvenile polyps are benign; however, malignant transformation can occur. Risk for GI cancers in families with JPS ranges from 9% to 50%. Most of this increased risk is attributed to colon cancer, but cancers of the stomach, upper GI tract, and pancreas have also been reported. A combined syndrome of JPS and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (JPS/HHT) is present in most individuals with an SMAD4 pathogenic variant.
Diamond-Blackfan anemia 1
MedGen UID:
390966
Concept ID:
C2676137
Disease or Syndrome
Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is characterized by a profound normochromic and usually macrocytic anemia with normal leukocytes and platelets, congenital malformations in up to 50%, and growth deficiency in 30% of affected individuals. The hematologic complications occur in 90% of affected individuals during the first year of life. The phenotypic spectrum ranges from a mild form (e.g., mild anemia or no anemia with only subtle erythroid abnormalities, physical malformations without anemia) to a severe form of fetal anemia resulting in nonimmune hydrops fetalis. DBA is associated with an increased risk for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and solid tumors including osteogenic sarcoma.
Colorectal cancer 3
MedGen UID:
436866
Concept ID:
C2677123
Finding
Familial adenomatous polyposis 1
MedGen UID:
398651
Concept ID:
C2713442
Disease or Syndrome
APC-associated polyposis conditions include: familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), attenuated FAP, and gastric adenocarcinoma and proximal polyposis of the stomach (GAPPS). FAP is a colon cancer predisposition syndrome in which hundreds to thousands of adenomatous colonic polyps develop, beginning, on average, at age 16 years (range 7-36 years). By age 35 years, 95% of individuals with FAP have polyps; without colectomy, colon cancer is inevitable. The mean age of colon cancer diagnosis in untreated individuals is 39 years (range 34-43 years). Extracolonic manifestations are variably present and include: polyps of the gastric fundus and duodenum, osteomas, dental anomalies, congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE), soft tissue tumors, desmoid tumors, and associated cancers. Attenuated FAP is characterized by multiple colonic polyps (average of 30), more proximally located polyps, and a diagnosis of colon cancer at a later age than in FAP. Certain extracolonic manifestations, such as gastric and duodenal polyps or cancers, are variably present in attenuated FAP; risk management may be substantially different between FAP and attenuated FAP. GAPPS is characterized by gastric fundic gland polyposis, increased risk of gastric cancer, and limited colonic involvement in most individuals reported.
Lynch syndrome I
MedGen UID:
423615
Concept ID:
C2936783
Neoplastic Process
Lynch syndrome is characterized by an increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) and cancers of the endometrium, ovary, stomach, small bowel, urinary tract, biliary tract, brain (usually glioblastoma), skin (sebaceous adenomas, sebaceous carcinomas, and keratoacanthomas), pancreas, and prostate. Cancer risks and age of onset vary depending on the associated gene. Several other cancer types have been reported to occur in individuals with Lynch syndrome (e.g., breast, sarcomas, adrenocortical carcinoma). However, the data are not sufficient to demonstrate that the risk of developing these cancers is increased in individuals with Lynch syndrome.
Mismatch repair cancer syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1750327
Concept ID:
C5436806
Disease or Syndrome
Mismatch repair cancer syndrome-2 (MMRCS2) is an autosomal recessive childhood cancer predisposition syndrome characterized by hematologic malignancy, brain tumors, and gastrointestinal tumors. Multiple cafe-au-lait spots reminiscent of neurofibromatosis type I (NF1; 162200) may be present. Microsatellite instability may be detected in tumor samples (Muller et al., 2006). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mismatch repair cancer syndrome (MMRCS), see MMRCS1 (276300).
Mismatch repair cancer syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
1733656
Concept ID:
C5436807
Disease or Syndrome
Mismatch repair cancer syndrome-3 (MMRCS3) is an autosomal recessive childhood cancer predisposition syndrome characterized by brain tumors, hematologic malignancy, and gastrointestinal tumors. Multiple cafe-au-lait spots, axillary freckling, and, rarely, Lisch nodules reminiscent of neurofibromatosis type I (NF1; 162200) may be present (Hegde et al., 2005, Ostergaard et al., 2005). Microsatellite instability may be detected in tumor samples (Hegde et al., 2005). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mismatch repair cancer syndrome, see MMRCS1 (276300).
Mismatch repair cancer syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
1745382
Concept ID:
C5436817
Disease or Syndrome
Mismatch repair cancer syndrome-4 (MMRCS4) is an autosomal recessive childhood cancer predisposition syndrome characterized by early-onset leukemia/lymphoma, brain tumors, colorectal/gastrointestinal cancers, and other rare malignancies, including rhabdomyosarcoma (summary by Li et al., 2015). Cafe-au-lait spots are usually present (De Vos et al., 2006). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mismatch repair cancer syndrome, see MMRCS1 (276300).

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