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Alzheimer disease(AD)

MedGen UID:
1853
Concept ID:
C0002395
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Alzheimer's disease; Presenile and senile dementia
SNOMED CT: AD - Alzheimer's disease (26929004); Alzheimer disease (26929004); Alzheimer dementia (26929004); Alzheimer's disease (26929004)
 
Gene (location): APP (21q21.3)
Related genes: ABCA7, PSEN2, PSEN1, PLAU, NOS3, MPO, HFE, APOE
 
HPO: HP:0002511
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0004975
OMIM®: 104300; 516000

Definition

Alzheimer disease is the most common form of progressive dementia in the elderly. It is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the neuropathologic findings of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and extracellular amyloid plaques that accumulate in vulnerable brain regions (Sennvik et al., 2000). Terry and Davies (1980) pointed out that the 'presenile' form, with onset before age 65, is identical to the most common form of late-onset or 'senile' dementia, and suggested the term 'senile dementia of the Alzheimer type' (SDAT). Haines (1991) reviewed the genetics of AD. Selkoe (1996) reviewed the pathophysiology, chromosomal loci, and pathogenetic mechanisms of Alzheimer disease. Theuns and Van Broeckhoven (2000) reviewed the transcriptional regulation of the genes involved in Alzheimer disease. Genetic Heterogeneity of Alzheimer Disease Alzheimer disease is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. See also AD2 (104310), associated with the APOE*4 allele (107741) on chromosome 19; AD3 (607822), caused by mutation in the presenilin-1 gene (PSEN1; 104311) on 14q; and AD4 (606889), caused by mutation in the PSEN2 gene (600759) on 1q31. There is evidence for additional AD loci on other chromosomes; see AD5 (602096) on 12p11; AD6 (605526) on 10q24; AD7 (606187) on 10p13; AD8 (607116) on 20p; AD9 (608907), associated with variation in the ABCA7 gene (605414) on 19p13; AD10 (609636) on 7q36; AD11 (609790) on 9q22; AD12 (611073) on 8p12-q22; AD13 (611152) on 1q21; AD14 (611154) on 1q25; AD15 (604154) on 3q22-q24; AD16 (300756) on Xq21.3; AD17 (615080) on 6p21.2; and AD18 (615590), associated with variation in the ADAM10 gene (602192) on 15q21. Evidence also suggests that mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms may be risk factors in Alzheimer disease (502500). Finally, there have been associations between AD and various polymorphisms in other genes, including alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M; 103950.0005), low density lipoprotein-related protein-1 (LRP1; 107770), the transferrin gene (TF; 190000), the hemochromatosis gene (HFE; 613609), the NOS3 gene (163729), the vascular endothelial growth factor gene (VEGF; 192240), the ABCA2 gene (600047), and the TNF gene (191160) (see MOLECULAR GENETICS). [from OMIM]

Additional description

From MedlinePlus Genetics
Alzheimer disease is a degenerative disease of the brain that causes dementia, which is a gradual loss of memory, judgment, and ability to function. This disorder usually appears in people older than age 65, but less common forms of the disease appear earlier in adulthood.\n\nMemory loss is the most common sign of Alzheimer disease. Forgetfulness may be subtle at first, but the loss of memory worsens over time until it interferes with most aspects of daily living. Even in familiar settings, a person with Alzheimer disease may get lost or become confused. Routine tasks such as preparing meals, doing laundry, and performing other household chores can be challenging. Additionally, it may become difficult to recognize people and name objects. Affected people increasingly require help with dressing, eating, and personal care.\n\nAs the disorder progresses, some people with Alzheimer disease experience personality and behavioral changes and have trouble interacting in a socially appropriate manner. Other common symptoms include agitation, restlessness, withdrawal, and loss of language skills. People with this disease usually require total care during the advanced stages of the disease.\n\nAffected individuals usually survive 8 to 10 years after the appearance of symptoms, but the course of the disease can range from 1 to 25 years. Survival is usually shorter in individuals diagnosed after age 80 than in those diagnosed at a younger age. Death usually results from pneumonia, malnutrition, or general body wasting (inanition).\n\nAlzheimer disease can be classified as early-onset or late-onset. The signs and symptoms of the early-onset form appear between a person's thirties and mid-sixties, while the late-onset form appears during or after a person's mid-sixties. The early-onset form is much less common than the late-onset form, accounting for less than 10 percent of all cases of Alzheimer disease.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/alzheimer-disease

Conditions with this feature

Complete trisomy 21 syndrome
MedGen UID:
4385
Concept ID:
C0013080
Disease or Syndrome
Down syndrome, the most frequent form of mental retardation caused by a microscopically demonstrable chromosomal aberration, is characterized by well-defined and distinctive phenotypic features and natural history. It is caused by triplicate state (trisomy) of all or a critical portion of chromosome 21.
Alzheimer disease 3
MedGen UID:
334304
Concept ID:
C1843013
Disease or Syndrome
Alzheimer disease can be classified as early-onset or late-onset. The signs and symptoms of the early-onset form appear between a person's thirties and mid-sixties, while the late-onset form appears during or after a person's mid-sixties. The early-onset form is much less common than the late-onset form, accounting for less than 10 percent of all cases of Alzheimer disease.\n\nAffected individuals usually survive 8 to 10 years after the appearance of symptoms, but the course of the disease can range from 1 to 25 years. Survival is usually shorter in individuals diagnosed after age 80 than in those diagnosed at a younger age. Death usually results from pneumonia, malnutrition, or general body wasting (inanition).\n\nAs the disorder progresses, some people with Alzheimer disease experience personality and behavioral changes and have trouble interacting in a socially appropriate manner. Other common symptoms include agitation, restlessness, withdrawal, and loss of language skills. People with this disease usually require total care during the advanced stages of the disease.\n\nMemory loss is the most common sign of Alzheimer disease. Forgetfulness may be subtle at first, but the loss of memory worsens over time until it interferes with most aspects of daily living. Even in familiar settings, a person with Alzheimer disease may get lost or become confused. Routine tasks such as preparing meals, doing laundry, and performing other household chores can be challenging. Additionally, it may become difficult to recognize people and name objects. Affected people increasingly require help with dressing, eating, and personal care.\n\nAlzheimer disease is a degenerative disease of the brain that causes dementia, which is a gradual loss of memory, judgment, and ability to function. This disorder usually appears in people older than age 65, but less common forms of the disease appear earlier in adulthood.
Alzheimer disease 4
MedGen UID:
376072
Concept ID:
C1847200
Disease or Syndrome
Alzheimer disease is a degenerative disease of the brain that causes dementia, which is a gradual loss of memory, judgment, and ability to function. This disorder usually appears in people older than age 65, but less common forms of the disease appear earlier in adulthood.\n\nMemory loss is the most common sign of Alzheimer disease. Forgetfulness may be subtle at first, but the loss of memory worsens over time until it interferes with most aspects of daily living. Even in familiar settings, a person with Alzheimer disease may get lost or become confused. Routine tasks such as preparing meals, doing laundry, and performing other household chores can be challenging. Additionally, it may become difficult to recognize people and name objects. Affected people increasingly require help with dressing, eating, and personal care.\n\nAffected individuals usually survive 8 to 10 years after the appearance of symptoms, but the course of the disease can range from 1 to 25 years. Survival is usually shorter in individuals diagnosed after age 80 than in those diagnosed at a younger age. Death usually results from pneumonia, malnutrition, or general body wasting (inanition).\n\nAlzheimer disease can be classified as early-onset or late-onset. The signs and symptoms of the early-onset form appear between a person's thirties and mid-sixties, while the late-onset form appears during or after a person's mid-sixties. The early-onset form is much less common than the late-onset form, accounting for less than 10 percent of all cases of Alzheimer disease.\n\nAs the disorder progresses, some people with Alzheimer disease experience personality and behavioral changes and have trouble interacting in a socially appropriate manner. Other common symptoms include agitation, restlessness, withdrawal, and loss of language skills. People with this disease usually require total care during the advanced stages of the disease.
Alzheimer disease, familial early-onset, with coexisting amyloid and prion pathology
MedGen UID:
341884
Concept ID:
C1857933
Disease or Syndrome
Alzheimer disease 2
MedGen UID:
400197
Concept ID:
C1863051
Disease or Syndrome
As the disorder progresses, some people with Alzheimer disease experience personality and behavioral changes and have trouble interacting in a socially appropriate manner. Other common symptoms include agitation, restlessness, withdrawal, and loss of language skills. People with this disease usually require total care during the advanced stages of the disease.\n\nAlzheimer disease can be classified as early-onset or late-onset. The signs and symptoms of the early-onset form appear between a person's thirties and mid-sixties, while the late-onset form appears during or after a person's mid-sixties. The early-onset form is much less common than the late-onset form, accounting for less than 10 percent of all cases of Alzheimer disease.\n\nAffected individuals usually survive 8 to 10 years after the appearance of symptoms, but the course of the disease can range from 1 to 25 years. Survival is usually shorter in individuals diagnosed after age 80 than in those diagnosed at a younger age. Death usually results from pneumonia, malnutrition, or general body wasting (inanition).\n\nMemory loss is the most common sign of Alzheimer disease. Forgetfulness may be subtle at first, but the loss of memory worsens over time until it interferes with most aspects of daily living. Even in familiar settings, a person with Alzheimer disease may get lost or become confused. Routine tasks such as preparing meals, doing laundry, and performing other household chores can be challenging. Additionally, it may become difficult to recognize people and name objects. Affected people increasingly require help with dressing, eating, and personal care.\n\nAlzheimer disease is a degenerative disease of the brain that causes dementia, which is a gradual loss of memory, judgment, and ability to function. This disorder usually appears in people older than age 65, but less common forms of the disease appear earlier in adulthood.
Alzheimer disease 10
MedGen UID:
351228
Concept ID:
C1864828
Disease or Syndrome
An Alzheimer's disease that is characterized by an associated with variation in the region 7q36.
Alzheimer disease 5
MedGen UID:
356103
Concept ID:
C1865868
Disease or Syndrome
Alzheimer disease type 1
MedGen UID:
444014
Concept ID:
C2931257
Disease or Syndrome
Alzheimer disease 9
MedGen UID:
924255
Concept ID:
C4282179
Finding

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Moore A, Patterson C, Lee L, Vedel I, Bergman H; Canadian Consensus Conference on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Dementia.
Can Fam Physician 2014 May;60(5):433-8. PMID: 24829003Free PMC Article
Goldman JS, Hahn SE, Catania JW, LaRusse-Eckert S, Butson MB, Rumbaugh M, Strecker MN, Roberts JS, Burke W, Mayeux R, Bird T; American College of Medical Genetics and the National Society of Genetic Counselors.
Genet Med 2011 Jun;13(6):597-605. doi: 10.1097/GIM.0b013e31821d69b8. PMID: 21577118Free PMC Article
Williams JW, Plassman BL, Burke J, Benjamin S
Evid Rep Technol Assess (Full Rep) 2010 Apr;(193):1-727. PMID: 21500874Free PMC Article
Hort J, O'Brien JT, Gainotti G, Pirttila T, Popescu BO, Rektorova I, Sorbi S, Scheltens P; EFNS Scientist Panel on Dementia.
Eur J Neurol 2010 Oct;17(10):1236-48. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2010.03040.x. PMID: 20831773

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Iulita MF, Garzón Chavez D, Klitgaard Christensen M, Valle Tamayo N, Plana-Ripoll O, Rasmussen SA, Roqué Figuls M, Alcolea D, Videla L, Barroeta I, Benejam B, Altuna M, Padilla C, Pegueroles J, Fernandez S, Belbin O, Carmona-Iragui M, Blesa R, Lleó A, Bejanin A, Fortea J
JAMA Netw Open 2022 May 2;5(5):e2212910. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.12910. PMID: 35604690
Zhu B, Chen X, Li W, Zhou D
Med Sci Monit 2022 Apr 21;28:e935397. doi: 10.12659/MSM.935397. PMID: 35444158Free PMC Article
Salloway S, Chalkias S, Barkhof F, Burkett P, Barakos J, Purcell D, Suhy J, Forrestal F, Tian Y, Umans K, Wang G, Singhal P, Budd Haeberlein S, Smirnakis K
JAMA Neurol 2022 Jan 1;79(1):13-21. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.4161. PMID: 34807243Free PMC Article
Kunkle BW, Schmidt M, Klein HU, Naj AC, Hamilton-Nelson KL, Larson EB, Evans DA, De Jager PL, Crane PK, Buxbaum JD, Ertekin-Taner N, Barnes LL, Fallin MD, Manly JJ, Go RCP, Obisesan TO, Kamboh MI, Bennett DA, Hall KS, Goate AM, Foroud TM, Martin ER, Wang LS, Byrd GS, Farrer LA, Haines JL, Schellenberg GD, Mayeux R, Pericak-Vance MA, Reitz C; Writing Group for the Alzheimer’s Disease Genetics Consortium (ADGC)., Graff-Radford NR, Martinez I, Ayodele T, Logue MW, Cantwell LB, Jean-Francois M, Kuzma AB, Adams LD, Vance JM, Cuccaro ML, Chung J, Mez J, Lunetta KL, Jun GR, Lopez OL, Hendrie HC, Reiman EM, Kowall NW, Leverenz JB, Small SA, Levey AI, Golde TE, Saykin AJ, Starks TD, Albert MS, Hyman BT, Petersen RC, Sano M, Wisniewski T, Vassar R, Kaye JA, Henderson VW, DeCarli C, LaFerla FM, Brewer JB, Miller BL, Swerdlow RH, Van Eldik LJ, Paulson HL, Trojanowski JQ, Chui HC, Rosenberg RN, Craft S, Grabowski TJ, Asthana S, Morris JC, Strittmatter SM, Kukull WA
JAMA Neurol 2021 Jan 1;78(1):102-113. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.3536. PMID: 33074286Free PMC Article
Sari Motlagh R, Quhal F, Mori K, Miura N, Aydh A, Laukhtina E, Pradere B, Karakiewicz PI, Enikeev DV, Deuker M, Shariat SF
J Urol 2021 Jan;205(1):60-67. Epub 2020 Aug 28 doi: 10.1097/JU.0000000000001341. PMID: 32856962

Diagnosis

Iulita MF, Garzón Chavez D, Klitgaard Christensen M, Valle Tamayo N, Plana-Ripoll O, Rasmussen SA, Roqué Figuls M, Alcolea D, Videla L, Barroeta I, Benejam B, Altuna M, Padilla C, Pegueroles J, Fernandez S, Belbin O, Carmona-Iragui M, Blesa R, Lleó A, Bejanin A, Fortea J
JAMA Netw Open 2022 May 2;5(5):e2212910. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.12910. PMID: 35604690
Koenig LN, LaMontagne P, Glasser MF, Bateman R, Holtzman D, Yakushev I, Chhatwal J, Day GS, Jack C, Mummery C, Perrin RJ, Gordon BA, Morris JC, Shimony JS, Benzinger TLS; Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN).
Neurobiol Aging 2022 Jan;109:43-51. Epub 2021 Sep 15 doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2021.09.010. PMID: 34655980Free PMC Article
Kim HJ, Cho H, Park M, Kim JW, Ahn SJ, Lyoo CH, Suh SH, Ryu YH
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2021 Jul;42(7):1231-1238. Epub 2021 May 13 doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A7155. PMID: 33985952Free PMC Article
Kunkle BW, Schmidt M, Klein HU, Naj AC, Hamilton-Nelson KL, Larson EB, Evans DA, De Jager PL, Crane PK, Buxbaum JD, Ertekin-Taner N, Barnes LL, Fallin MD, Manly JJ, Go RCP, Obisesan TO, Kamboh MI, Bennett DA, Hall KS, Goate AM, Foroud TM, Martin ER, Wang LS, Byrd GS, Farrer LA, Haines JL, Schellenberg GD, Mayeux R, Pericak-Vance MA, Reitz C; Writing Group for the Alzheimer’s Disease Genetics Consortium (ADGC)., Graff-Radford NR, Martinez I, Ayodele T, Logue MW, Cantwell LB, Jean-Francois M, Kuzma AB, Adams LD, Vance JM, Cuccaro ML, Chung J, Mez J, Lunetta KL, Jun GR, Lopez OL, Hendrie HC, Reiman EM, Kowall NW, Leverenz JB, Small SA, Levey AI, Golde TE, Saykin AJ, Starks TD, Albert MS, Hyman BT, Petersen RC, Sano M, Wisniewski T, Vassar R, Kaye JA, Henderson VW, DeCarli C, LaFerla FM, Brewer JB, Miller BL, Swerdlow RH, Van Eldik LJ, Paulson HL, Trojanowski JQ, Chui HC, Rosenberg RN, Craft S, Grabowski TJ, Asthana S, Morris JC, Strittmatter SM, Kukull WA
JAMA Neurol 2021 Jan 1;78(1):102-113. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.3536. PMID: 33074286Free PMC Article
Suh CH, Shim WH, Kim SJ, Roh JH, Lee JH, Kim MJ, Park S, Jung W, Sung J, Jahng GH; Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Dec;41(12):2227-2234. Epub 2020 Nov 5 doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A6848. PMID: 33154073Free PMC Article

Therapy

Iulita MF, Garzón Chavez D, Klitgaard Christensen M, Valle Tamayo N, Plana-Ripoll O, Rasmussen SA, Roqué Figuls M, Alcolea D, Videla L, Barroeta I, Benejam B, Altuna M, Padilla C, Pegueroles J, Fernandez S, Belbin O, Carmona-Iragui M, Blesa R, Lleó A, Bejanin A, Fortea J
JAMA Netw Open 2022 May 2;5(5):e2212910. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.12910. PMID: 35604690
Salloway S, Chalkias S, Barkhof F, Burkett P, Barakos J, Purcell D, Suhy J, Forrestal F, Tian Y, Umans K, Wang G, Singhal P, Budd Haeberlein S, Smirnakis K
JAMA Neurol 2022 Jan 1;79(1):13-21. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.4161. PMID: 34807243Free PMC Article
Yang L, Xuan C, Yu C, Jin X, Zheng P, Yan J
Nurs Open 2022 Mar;9(2):1412-1422. Epub 2021 May 14 doi: 10.1002/nop2.917. PMID: 33988909Free PMC Article
Sari Motlagh R, Quhal F, Mori K, Miura N, Aydh A, Laukhtina E, Pradere B, Karakiewicz PI, Enikeev DV, Deuker M, Shariat SF
J Urol 2021 Jan;205(1):60-67. Epub 2020 Aug 28 doi: 10.1097/JU.0000000000001341. PMID: 32856962
Pan Y, Wang Y, Wang Y
J Am Heart Assoc 2020 Jan 21;9(2):e014889. Epub 2020 Jan 9 doi: 10.1161/JAHA.119.014889. PMID: 31914880Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Iulita MF, Garzón Chavez D, Klitgaard Christensen M, Valle Tamayo N, Plana-Ripoll O, Rasmussen SA, Roqué Figuls M, Alcolea D, Videla L, Barroeta I, Benejam B, Altuna M, Padilla C, Pegueroles J, Fernandez S, Belbin O, Carmona-Iragui M, Blesa R, Lleó A, Bejanin A, Fortea J
JAMA Netw Open 2022 May 2;5(5):e2212910. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.12910. PMID: 35604690
Zhu B, Chen X, Li W, Zhou D
Med Sci Monit 2022 Apr 21;28:e935397. doi: 10.12659/MSM.935397. PMID: 35444158Free PMC Article
Kim HJ, Cho H, Park M, Kim JW, Ahn SJ, Lyoo CH, Suh SH, Ryu YH
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2021 Jul;42(7):1231-1238. Epub 2021 May 13 doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A7155. PMID: 33985952Free PMC Article
Suh CH, Shim WH, Kim SJ, Roh JH, Lee JH, Kim MJ, Park S, Jung W, Sung J, Jahng GH; Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Dec;41(12):2227-2234. Epub 2020 Nov 5 doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A6848. PMID: 33154073Free PMC Article
Pan Y, Wang Y, Wang Y
J Am Heart Assoc 2020 Jan 21;9(2):e014889. Epub 2020 Jan 9 doi: 10.1161/JAHA.119.014889. PMID: 31914880Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Iulita MF, Garzón Chavez D, Klitgaard Christensen M, Valle Tamayo N, Plana-Ripoll O, Rasmussen SA, Roqué Figuls M, Alcolea D, Videla L, Barroeta I, Benejam B, Altuna M, Padilla C, Pegueroles J, Fernandez S, Belbin O, Carmona-Iragui M, Blesa R, Lleó A, Bejanin A, Fortea J
JAMA Netw Open 2022 May 2;5(5):e2212910. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.12910. PMID: 35604690
Zhu B, Chen X, Li W, Zhou D
Med Sci Monit 2022 Apr 21;28:e935397. doi: 10.12659/MSM.935397. PMID: 35444158Free PMC Article
Kim HJ, Cho H, Park M, Kim JW, Ahn SJ, Lyoo CH, Suh SH, Ryu YH
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2021 Jul;42(7):1231-1238. Epub 2021 May 13 doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A7155. PMID: 33985952Free PMC Article
Kunkle BW, Schmidt M, Klein HU, Naj AC, Hamilton-Nelson KL, Larson EB, Evans DA, De Jager PL, Crane PK, Buxbaum JD, Ertekin-Taner N, Barnes LL, Fallin MD, Manly JJ, Go RCP, Obisesan TO, Kamboh MI, Bennett DA, Hall KS, Goate AM, Foroud TM, Martin ER, Wang LS, Byrd GS, Farrer LA, Haines JL, Schellenberg GD, Mayeux R, Pericak-Vance MA, Reitz C; Writing Group for the Alzheimer’s Disease Genetics Consortium (ADGC)., Graff-Radford NR, Martinez I, Ayodele T, Logue MW, Cantwell LB, Jean-Francois M, Kuzma AB, Adams LD, Vance JM, Cuccaro ML, Chung J, Mez J, Lunetta KL, Jun GR, Lopez OL, Hendrie HC, Reiman EM, Kowall NW, Leverenz JB, Small SA, Levey AI, Golde TE, Saykin AJ, Starks TD, Albert MS, Hyman BT, Petersen RC, Sano M, Wisniewski T, Vassar R, Kaye JA, Henderson VW, DeCarli C, LaFerla FM, Brewer JB, Miller BL, Swerdlow RH, Van Eldik LJ, Paulson HL, Trojanowski JQ, Chui HC, Rosenberg RN, Craft S, Grabowski TJ, Asthana S, Morris JC, Strittmatter SM, Kukull WA
JAMA Neurol 2021 Jan 1;78(1):102-113. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.3536. PMID: 33074286Free PMC Article
Suh CH, Shim WH, Kim SJ, Roh JH, Lee JH, Kim MJ, Park S, Jung W, Sung J, Jahng GH; Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Dec;41(12):2227-2234. Epub 2020 Nov 5 doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A6848. PMID: 33154073Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Martinkova J, Quevenco FC, Karcher H, Ferrari A, Sandset EC, Szoeke C, Hort J, Schmidt R, Chadha AS, Ferretti MT
JAMA Netw Open 2021 Sep 1;4(9):e2124124. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.24124. PMID: 34515784
Liu N, Zhang T, Ma L, Wei W, Li Z, Jiang X, Sun J, Pei H, Li H
Adv Nutr 2021 Dec 1;12(6):2255-2264. doi: 10.1093/advances/nmab074. PMID: 34167149Free PMC Article
Sari Motlagh R, Quhal F, Mori K, Miura N, Aydh A, Laukhtina E, Pradere B, Karakiewicz PI, Enikeev DV, Deuker M, Shariat SF
J Urol 2021 Jan;205(1):60-67. Epub 2020 Aug 28 doi: 10.1097/JU.0000000000001341. PMID: 32856962
Piau A, Wild K, Mattek N, Kaye J
J Med Internet Res 2019 Aug 30;21(8):e12785. doi: 10.2196/12785. PMID: 31471958Free PMC Article
Wong R, Amano T, Lin SY, Zhou Y, Morrow-Howell N
Curr Alzheimer Res 2019;16(5):458-471. doi: 10.2174/1567205016666190321161901. PMID: 30907319

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