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Alzheimer disease(AD)

MedGen UID:
1853
Concept ID:
C0002395
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: AD; ALZHEIMER DISEASE, FAMILIAL, 1, AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE; Alzheimer's disease; Presenile and senile dementia
SNOMED CT: AD - Alzheimer's disease (26929004); Alzheimer disease (26929004); Alzheimer dementia (26929004); Alzheimer's disease (26929004)
Modes of inheritance:
Heterogeneous
MedGen UID:
67020
Concept ID:
C0242960
Organism Attribute
Source: HPO
The presence of apparently similar characters for which the genetic evidence indicates that different genes or different genetic mechanisms are involved in different pedigrees. In clinical settings genetic heterogeneity refers to the presence of a variety of genetic defects which cause the same disease, often due to mutations at different loci on the same gene, a finding common to many human diseases including ALZHEIMER DISEASE; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY, FAMILIAL; and POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Sources: HPO, OMIM
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in heterozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, an autosomal dominant disorder is caused when a single copy of the mutant allele is present. Males and females are affected equally, and can both transmit the disorder with a risk of 50% for each child of inheriting the mutant allele.
 
Genes (locations): A2M (12p13.31); APP (21q21.3); HFE (6p22.2); MPO (17q22); NOS3 (7q36.1); PLAU (10q22.2)
Related genes: ABCA7, PSEN2, PSEN1, APOE
 
HPO: HP:0002511
OMIM®: 104300

Definition

Alzheimer disease is the most common form of progressive dementia in the elderly. It is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the neuropathologic findings of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and extracellular amyloid plaques that accumulate in vulnerable brain regions (Sennvik et al., 2000). Terry and Davies (1980) pointed out that the 'presenile' form, with onset before age 65, is identical to the most common form of late-onset or 'senile' dementia, and suggested the term 'senile dementia of the Alzheimer type' (SDAT). Haines (1991) reviewed the genetics of AD. Selkoe (1996) reviewed the pathophysiology, chromosomal loci, and pathogenetic mechanisms of Alzheimer disease. Theuns and Van Broeckhoven (2000) reviewed the transcriptional regulation of the genes involved in Alzheimer disease. Genetic Heterogeneity of Alzheimer Disease Alzheimer disease is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. See also AD2 (104310), associated with the APOE*4 allele (107741) on chromosome 19; AD3 (607822), caused by mutation in the presenilin-1 gene (PSEN1; 104311) on 14q; and AD4 (606889), caused by mutation in the PSEN2 gene (600759) on 1q31. There is evidence for additional AD loci on other chromosomes; see AD5 (602096) on 12p11; AD6 (605526) on 10q24; AD7 (606187) on 10p13; AD8 (607116) on 20p; AD9 (608907), associated with variation in the ABCA7 gene (605414) on 19p13; AD10 (609636) on 7q36; AD11 (609790) on 9q22; AD12 (611073) on 8p12-q22; AD13 (611152) on 1q21; AD14 (611154) on 1q25; AD15 (604154) on 3q22-q24; AD16 (300756) on Xq21.3; AD17 (615080) on 6p21.2; and AD18 (615590), associated with variation in the ADAM10 gene (602192) on 15q21. Evidence also suggests that mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms may be risk factors in Alzheimer disease (502500). Finally, there have been associations between AD and various polymorphisms in other genes, including alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M; 103950.0005), low density lipoprotein-related protein-1 (LRP1; 107770), the transferrin gene (TF; 190000), the hemochromatosis gene (HFE; 613609), the NOS3 gene (163729), the vascular endothelial growth factor gene (VEGF; 192240), the ABCA2 gene (600047), and the TNF gene (191160) (see MOLECULAR GENETICS). [from OMIM]

Additional description

From MedlinePlus Genetics
Alzheimer disease is a degenerative disease of the brain that causes dementia, which is a gradual loss of memory, judgment, and ability to function. This disorder usually appears in people older than age 65, but less common forms of the disease appear earlier in adulthood.\n\nMemory loss is the most common sign of Alzheimer disease. Forgetfulness may be subtle at first, but the loss of memory worsens over time until it interferes with most aspects of daily living. Even in familiar settings, a person with Alzheimer disease may get lost or become confused. Routine tasks such as preparing meals, doing laundry, and performing other household chores can be challenging. Additionally, it may become difficult to recognize people and name objects. Affected people increasingly require help with dressing, eating, and personal care.\n\nAs the disorder progresses, some people with Alzheimer disease experience personality and behavioral changes and have trouble interacting in a socially appropriate manner. Other common symptoms include agitation, restlessness, withdrawal, and loss of language skills. People with this disease usually require total care during the advanced stages of the disease.\n\nAffected individuals usually survive 8 to 10 years after the appearance of symptoms, but the course of the disease can range from 1 to 25 years. Survival is usually shorter in individuals diagnosed after age 80 than in those diagnosed at a younger age. Death usually results from pneumonia, malnutrition, or general body wasting (inanition).\n\nAlzheimer disease can be classified as early-onset or late-onset. The signs and symptoms of the early-onset form appear between a person's thirties and mid-sixties, while the late-onset form appears during or after a person's mid-sixties. The early-onset form is much less common than the late-onset form, accounting for less than 10 percent of all cases of Alzheimer disease.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/alzheimer-disease

Clinical features

From HPO
Alzheimer disease
MedGen UID:
1853
Concept ID:
C0002395
Disease or Syndrome
Alzheimer disease is the most common form of progressive dementia in the elderly. It is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the neuropathologic findings of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and extracellular amyloid plaques that accumulate in vulnerable brain regions (Sennvik et al., 2000). Terry and Davies (1980) pointed out that the 'presenile' form, with onset before age 65, is identical to the most common form of late-onset or 'senile' dementia, and suggested the term 'senile dementia of the Alzheimer type' (SDAT). Haines (1991) reviewed the genetics of AD. Selkoe (1996) reviewed the pathophysiology, chromosomal loci, and pathogenetic mechanisms of Alzheimer disease. Theuns and Van Broeckhoven (2000) reviewed the transcriptional regulation of the genes involved in Alzheimer disease. Genetic Heterogeneity of Alzheimer Disease Alzheimer disease is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. See also AD2 (104310), associated with the APOE*4 allele (107741) on chromosome 19; AD3 (607822), caused by mutation in the presenilin-1 gene (PSEN1; 104311) on 14q; and AD4 (606889), caused by mutation in the PSEN2 gene (600759) on 1q31. There is evidence for additional AD loci on other chromosomes; see AD5 (602096) on 12p11; AD6 (605526) on 10q24; AD7 (606187) on 10p13; AD8 (607116) on 20p; AD9 (608907), associated with variation in the ABCA7 gene (605414) on 19p13; AD10 (609636) on 7q36; AD11 (609790) on 9q22; AD12 (611073) on 8p12-q22; AD13 (611152) on 1q21; AD14 (611154) on 1q25; AD15 (604154) on 3q22-q24; AD16 (300756) on Xq21.3; AD17 (615080) on 6p21.2; and AD18 (615590), associated with variation in the ADAM10 gene (602192) on 15q21. Evidence also suggests that mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms may be risk factors in Alzheimer disease (502500). Finally, there have been associations between AD and various polymorphisms in other genes, including alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M; 103950.0005), low density lipoprotein-related protein-1 (LRP1; 107770), the transferrin gene (TF; 190000), the hemochromatosis gene (HFE; 613609), the NOS3 gene (163729), the vascular endothelial growth factor gene (VEGF; 192240), the ABCA2 gene (600047), and the TNF gene (191160) (see MOLECULAR GENETICS).
Neurofibrillary tangles
MedGen UID:
39273
Concept ID:
C0085400
Finding
Abnormal structures located in various parts of the brain and composed of dense arrays of paired helical filaments (neurofilaments and microtubules). These double helical stacks of transverse subunits are twisted into left-handed ribbon-like filaments that likely incorporate the following proteins: (1) the intermediate filaments: medium- and high-molecular-weight neurofilaments; (2) the microtubule-associated proteins map-2 and tau; (3) actin; and (4) UBIQUITINS. As one of the hallmarks of ALZHEIMER DISEASE, the neurofibrillary tangles eventually occupy the whole of the cytoplasm in certain classes of cell in the neocortex, hippocampus, brain stem, and diencephalon. The number of these tangles, as seen in post mortem histology, correlates with the degree of dementia during life. Some studies suggest that tangle antigens leak into the systemic circulation both in the course of normal aging and in cases of Alzheimer disease.
Parkinsonism
MedGen UID:
66079
Concept ID:
C0242422
Disease or Syndrome
Characteristic neurologic anomaly resulting form degeneration of dopamine-generating cells in the substantia nigra, a region of the midbrain, characterized clinically by shaking, rigidity, slowness of movement and difficulty with walking and gait.
Dementia
MedGen UID:
99229
Concept ID:
C0497327
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
A loss of global cognitive ability of sufficient amount to interfere with normal social or occupational function. Dementia represents a loss of previously present cognitive abilities, generally in adults, and can affect memory, thinking, language, judgment, and behavior.
Long-tract signs
MedGen UID:
356397
Concept ID:
C1865903
Finding
Decreased level of GABA in serum
MedGen UID:
1647139
Concept ID:
C4703620
Finding
A decrease in the level of GABA in the serum. [PMID:1485027]

Conditions with this feature

Alzheimer disease
MedGen UID:
1853
Concept ID:
C0002395
Disease or Syndrome
Alzheimer disease is the most common form of progressive dementia in the elderly. It is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the neuropathologic findings of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and extracellular amyloid plaques that accumulate in vulnerable brain regions (Sennvik et al., 2000). Terry and Davies (1980) pointed out that the 'presenile' form, with onset before age 65, is identical to the most common form of late-onset or 'senile' dementia, and suggested the term 'senile dementia of the Alzheimer type' (SDAT). Haines (1991) reviewed the genetics of AD. Selkoe (1996) reviewed the pathophysiology, chromosomal loci, and pathogenetic mechanisms of Alzheimer disease. Theuns and Van Broeckhoven (2000) reviewed the transcriptional regulation of the genes involved in Alzheimer disease. Genetic Heterogeneity of Alzheimer Disease Alzheimer disease is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. See also AD2 (104310), associated with the APOE*4 allele (107741) on chromosome 19; AD3 (607822), caused by mutation in the presenilin-1 gene (PSEN1; 104311) on 14q; and AD4 (606889), caused by mutation in the PSEN2 gene (600759) on 1q31. There is evidence for additional AD loci on other chromosomes; see AD5 (602096) on 12p11; AD6 (605526) on 10q24; AD7 (606187) on 10p13; AD8 (607116) on 20p; AD9 (608907), associated with variation in the ABCA7 gene (605414) on 19p13; AD10 (609636) on 7q36; AD11 (609790) on 9q22; AD12 (611073) on 8p12-q22; AD13 (611152) on 1q21; AD14 (611154) on 1q25; AD15 (604154) on 3q22-q24; AD16 (300756) on Xq21.3; AD17 (615080) on 6p21.2; and AD18 (615590), associated with variation in the ADAM10 gene (602192) on 15q21. Evidence also suggests that mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms may be risk factors in Alzheimer disease (502500). Finally, there have been associations between AD and various polymorphisms in other genes, including alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M; 103950.0005), low density lipoprotein-related protein-1 (LRP1; 107770), the transferrin gene (TF; 190000), the hemochromatosis gene (HFE; 613609), the NOS3 gene (163729), the vascular endothelial growth factor gene (VEGF; 192240), the ABCA2 gene (600047), and the TNF gene (191160) (see MOLECULAR GENETICS).
Complete trisomy 21 syndrome
MedGen UID:
4385
Concept ID:
C0013080
Disease or Syndrome
Down syndrome, the most frequent form of mental retardation caused by a microscopically demonstrable chromosomal aberration, is characterized by well-defined and distinctive phenotypic features and natural history. It is caused by triplicate state (trisomy) of all or a critical portion of chromosome 21.
Alzheimer disease, type 3
MedGen UID:
334304
Concept ID:
C1843013
Disease or Syndrome
Affected individuals usually survive 8 to 10 years after the appearance of symptoms, but the course of the disease can range from 1 to 25 years. Survival is usually shorter in individuals diagnosed after age 80 than in those diagnosed at a younger age. Death usually results from pneumonia, malnutrition, or general body wasting (inanition).\n\nAlzheimer disease can be classified as early-onset or late-onset. The signs and symptoms of the early-onset form appear between a person's thirties and mid-sixties, while the late-onset form appears during or after a person's mid-sixties. The early-onset form is much less common than the late-onset form, accounting for less than 10 percent of all cases of Alzheimer disease.\n\nMemory loss is the most common sign of Alzheimer disease. Forgetfulness may be subtle at first, but the loss of memory worsens over time until it interferes with most aspects of daily living. Even in familiar settings, a person with Alzheimer disease may get lost or become confused. Routine tasks such as preparing meals, doing laundry, and performing other household chores can be challenging. Additionally, it may become difficult to recognize people and name objects. Affected people increasingly require help with dressing, eating, and personal care.\n\nAs the disorder progresses, some people with Alzheimer disease experience personality and behavioral changes and have trouble interacting in a socially appropriate manner. Other common symptoms include agitation, restlessness, withdrawal, and loss of language skills. People with this disease usually require total care during the advanced stages of the disease.\n\nAlzheimer disease is a degenerative disease of the brain that causes dementia, which is a gradual loss of memory, judgment, and ability to function. This disorder usually appears in people older than age 65, but less common forms of the disease appear earlier in adulthood.
Alzheimer disease, type 4
MedGen UID:
376072
Concept ID:
C1847200
Disease or Syndrome
Alzheimer disease is a degenerative disease of the brain that causes dementia, which is a gradual loss of memory, judgment, and ability to function. This disorder usually appears in people older than age 65, but less common forms of the disease appear earlier in adulthood.\n\nMemory loss is the most common sign of Alzheimer disease. Forgetfulness may be subtle at first, but the loss of memory worsens over time until it interferes with most aspects of daily living. Even in familiar settings, a person with Alzheimer disease may get lost or become confused. Routine tasks such as preparing meals, doing laundry, and performing other household chores can be challenging. Additionally, it may become difficult to recognize people and name objects. Affected people increasingly require help with dressing, eating, and personal care.\n\nAlzheimer disease can be classified as early-onset or late-onset. The signs and symptoms of the early-onset form appear between a person's thirties and mid-sixties, while the late-onset form appears during or after a person's mid-sixties. The early-onset form is much less common than the late-onset form, accounting for less than 10 percent of all cases of Alzheimer disease.\n\nAffected individuals usually survive 8 to 10 years after the appearance of symptoms, but the course of the disease can range from 1 to 25 years. Survival is usually shorter in individuals diagnosed after age 80 than in those diagnosed at a younger age. Death usually results from pneumonia, malnutrition, or general body wasting (inanition).\n\nAs the disorder progresses, some people with Alzheimer disease experience personality and behavioral changes and have trouble interacting in a socially appropriate manner. Other common symptoms include agitation, restlessness, withdrawal, and loss of language skills. People with this disease usually require total care during the advanced stages of the disease.
Alzheimer disease, familial early-onset, with coexisting amyloid and prion pathology
MedGen UID:
341884
Concept ID:
C1857933
Disease or Syndrome
Alzheimer disease 2
MedGen UID:
400197
Concept ID:
C1863051
Disease or Syndrome
As the disorder progresses, some people with Alzheimer disease experience personality and behavioral changes and have trouble interacting in a socially appropriate manner. Other common symptoms include agitation, restlessness, withdrawal, and loss of language skills. People with this disease usually require total care during the advanced stages of the disease.\n\nAffected individuals usually survive 8 to 10 years after the appearance of symptoms, but the course of the disease can range from 1 to 25 years. Survival is usually shorter in individuals diagnosed after age 80 than in those diagnosed at a younger age. Death usually results from pneumonia, malnutrition, or general body wasting (inanition).\n\nAlzheimer disease can be classified as early-onset or late-onset. The signs and symptoms of the early-onset form appear between a person's thirties and mid-sixties, while the late-onset form appears during or after a person's mid-sixties. The early-onset form is much less common than the late-onset form, accounting for less than 10 percent of all cases of Alzheimer disease.\n\nMemory loss is the most common sign of Alzheimer disease. Forgetfulness may be subtle at first, but the loss of memory worsens over time until it interferes with most aspects of daily living. Even in familiar settings, a person with Alzheimer disease may get lost or become confused. Routine tasks such as preparing meals, doing laundry, and performing other household chores can be challenging. Additionally, it may become difficult to recognize people and name objects. Affected people increasingly require help with dressing, eating, and personal care.\n\nAlzheimer disease is a degenerative disease of the brain that causes dementia, which is a gradual loss of memory, judgment, and ability to function. This disorder usually appears in people older than age 65, but less common forms of the disease appear earlier in adulthood.
Alzheimer disease, type 10
MedGen UID:
351228
Concept ID:
C1864828
Disease or Syndrome
Alzheimer disease, type 5
MedGen UID:
356103
Concept ID:
C1865868
Disease or Syndrome
Alzheimer disease, type 9
MedGen UID:
924255
Concept ID:
C4282179
Finding

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Moore A, Patterson C, Lee L, Vedel I, Bergman H; Canadian Consensus Conference on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Dementia.
Can Fam Physician 2014 May;60(5):433-8. PMID: 24829003Free PMC Article
Goldman JS, Hahn SE, Catania JW, LaRusse-Eckert S, Butson MB, Rumbaugh M, Strecker MN, Roberts JS, Burke W, Mayeux R, Bird T; American College of Medical Genetics and the National Society of Genetic Counselors.
Genet Med 2011 Jun;13(6):597-605. doi: 10.1097/GIM.0b013e31821d69b8. PMID: 21577118Free PMC Article
Williams JW, Plassman BL, Burke J, Benjamin S
Evid Rep Technol Assess (Full Rep) 2010 Apr;(193):1-727. PMID: 21500874Free PMC Article
Hort J, O'Brien JT, Gainotti G, Pirttila T, Popescu BO, Rektorova I, Sorbi S, Scheltens P; EFNS Scientist Panel on Dementia.
Eur J Neurol 2010 Oct;17(10):1236-48. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2010.03040.x. PMID: 20831773

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Sari Motlagh R, Quhal F, Mori K, Miura N, Aydh A, Laukhtina E, Pradere B, Karakiewicz PI, Enikeev DV, Deuker M, Shariat SF
J Urol 2021 Jan;205(1):60-67. Epub 2020 Aug 28 doi: 10.1097/JU.0000000000001341. PMID: 32856962
Suh CH, Shim WH, Kim SJ, Roh JH, Lee JH, Kim MJ, Park S, Jung W, Sung J, Jahng GH; Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Dec;41(12):2227-2234. Epub 2020 Nov 5 doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A6848. PMID: 33154073Free PMC Article
Pan Y, Wang Y, Wang Y
J Am Heart Assoc 2020 Jan 21;9(2):e014889. Epub 2020 Jan 9 doi: 10.1161/JAHA.119.014889. PMID: 31914880Free PMC Article
Román GC, Jackson RE, Reis J, Román AN, Toledo JB, Toledo E
Rev Neurol (Paris) 2019 Dec;175(10):705-723. Epub 2019 Sep 11 doi: 10.1016/j.neurol.2019.07.017. PMID: 31521394
de Heus RAA, Donders R, Santoso AMM, Olde Rikkert MGM, Lawlor BA, Claassen JAHR; Nilvad Study Group.
J Am Heart Assoc 2019 May 21;8(10):e011938. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.119.011938. PMID: 31088188Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Armstrong GW, Kim LA, Vingopoulos F, Park JY, Garg I, Kasetty M, Silverman RF, Zeng R, Douglas VP, Lopera F, Baena A, Giraldo M, Norton D, Cronin-Golomb A, Arboleda-Velasquez JF, Quiroz YT, Miller JB
JAMA Ophthalmol 2021 Jan 1;139(1):49-56. doi: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2020.4909. PMID: 33180114Free PMC Article
Suh CH, Shim WH, Kim SJ, Roh JH, Lee JH, Kim MJ, Park S, Jung W, Sung J, Jahng GH; Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Dec;41(12):2227-2234. Epub 2020 Nov 5 doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A6848. PMID: 33154073Free PMC Article
Craft S, Raman R, Chow TW, Rafii MS, Sun CK, Rissman RA, Donohue MC, Brewer JB, Jenkins C, Harless K, Gessert D, Aisen PS
JAMA Neurol 2020 Sep 1;77(9):1099-1109. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.1840. PMID: 32568367Free PMC Article
Pan Y, Wang Y, Wang Y
J Am Heart Assoc 2020 Jan 21;9(2):e014889. Epub 2020 Jan 9 doi: 10.1161/JAHA.119.014889. PMID: 31914880Free PMC Article
de Heus RAA, Donders R, Santoso AMM, Olde Rikkert MGM, Lawlor BA, Claassen JAHR; Nilvad Study Group.
J Am Heart Assoc 2019 May 21;8(10):e011938. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.119.011938. PMID: 31088188Free PMC Article

Therapy

Sari Motlagh R, Quhal F, Mori K, Miura N, Aydh A, Laukhtina E, Pradere B, Karakiewicz PI, Enikeev DV, Deuker M, Shariat SF
J Urol 2021 Jan;205(1):60-67. Epub 2020 Aug 28 doi: 10.1097/JU.0000000000001341. PMID: 32856962
Craft S, Raman R, Chow TW, Rafii MS, Sun CK, Rissman RA, Donohue MC, Brewer JB, Jenkins C, Harless K, Gessert D, Aisen PS
JAMA Neurol 2020 Sep 1;77(9):1099-1109. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.1840. PMID: 32568367Free PMC Article
Pan Y, Wang Y, Wang Y
J Am Heart Assoc 2020 Jan 21;9(2):e014889. Epub 2020 Jan 9 doi: 10.1161/JAHA.119.014889. PMID: 31914880Free PMC Article
Román GC, Jackson RE, Reis J, Román AN, Toledo JB, Toledo E
Rev Neurol (Paris) 2019 Dec;175(10):705-723. Epub 2019 Sep 11 doi: 10.1016/j.neurol.2019.07.017. PMID: 31521394
de Heus RAA, Donders R, Santoso AMM, Olde Rikkert MGM, Lawlor BA, Claassen JAHR; Nilvad Study Group.
J Am Heart Assoc 2019 May 21;8(10):e011938. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.119.011938. PMID: 31088188Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Armstrong GW, Kim LA, Vingopoulos F, Park JY, Garg I, Kasetty M, Silverman RF, Zeng R, Douglas VP, Lopera F, Baena A, Giraldo M, Norton D, Cronin-Golomb A, Arboleda-Velasquez JF, Quiroz YT, Miller JB
JAMA Ophthalmol 2021 Jan 1;139(1):49-56. doi: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2020.4909. PMID: 33180114Free PMC Article
Suh CH, Shim WH, Kim SJ, Roh JH, Lee JH, Kim MJ, Park S, Jung W, Sung J, Jahng GH; Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Dec;41(12):2227-2234. Epub 2020 Nov 5 doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A6848. PMID: 33154073Free PMC Article
Pan Y, Wang Y, Wang Y
J Am Heart Assoc 2020 Jan 21;9(2):e014889. Epub 2020 Jan 9 doi: 10.1161/JAHA.119.014889. PMID: 31914880Free PMC Article
Lee S, Lee H, Kim KW; Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative.
J Psychiatry Neurosci 2020 Jan 1;45(1):7-14. doi: 10.1503/jpn.180171. PMID: 31228173Free PMC Article
Pan Y, Li H, Wang Y, Meng X, Wang Y
Stroke 2019 Dec;50(12):3532-3539. Epub 2019 Oct 10 doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.026872. PMID: 31597550

Clinical prediction guides

Suh CH, Shim WH, Kim SJ, Roh JH, Lee JH, Kim MJ, Park S, Jung W, Sung J, Jahng GH; Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Dec;41(12):2227-2234. Epub 2020 Nov 5 doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A6848. PMID: 33154073Free PMC Article
Craft S, Raman R, Chow TW, Rafii MS, Sun CK, Rissman RA, Donohue MC, Brewer JB, Jenkins C, Harless K, Gessert D, Aisen PS
JAMA Neurol 2020 Sep 1;77(9):1099-1109. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.1840. PMID: 32568367Free PMC Article
Pan Y, Wang Y, Wang Y
J Am Heart Assoc 2020 Jan 21;9(2):e014889. Epub 2020 Jan 9 doi: 10.1161/JAHA.119.014889. PMID: 31914880Free PMC Article
Román GC, Jackson RE, Reis J, Román AN, Toledo JB, Toledo E
Rev Neurol (Paris) 2019 Dec;175(10):705-723. Epub 2019 Sep 11 doi: 10.1016/j.neurol.2019.07.017. PMID: 31521394
de Heus RAA, Donders R, Santoso AMM, Olde Rikkert MGM, Lawlor BA, Claassen JAHR; Nilvad Study Group.
J Am Heart Assoc 2019 May 21;8(10):e011938. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.119.011938. PMID: 31088188Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Sari Motlagh R, Quhal F, Mori K, Miura N, Aydh A, Laukhtina E, Pradere B, Karakiewicz PI, Enikeev DV, Deuker M, Shariat SF
J Urol 2021 Jan;205(1):60-67. Epub 2020 Aug 28 doi: 10.1097/JU.0000000000001341. PMID: 32856962
Ferreira D, Nordberg A, Westman E
Neurology 2020 Mar 10;94(10):436-448. Epub 2020 Feb 11 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000009058. PMID: 32047067Free PMC Article
Piau A, Wild K, Mattek N, Kaye J
J Med Internet Res 2019 Aug 30;21(8):e12785. doi: 10.2196/12785. PMID: 31471958Free PMC Article
Wong R, Amano T, Lin SY, Zhou Y, Morrow-Howell N
Curr Alzheimer Res 2019;16(5):458-471. doi: 10.2174/1567205016666190321161901. PMID: 30907319
Kojima G, Taniguchi Y, Iliffe S, Walters K
J Am Med Dir Assoc 2016 Oct 1;17(10):881-8. Epub 2016 Jun 17 doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2016.05.013. PMID: 27324809

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