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Alzheimer disease(AD)

MedGen UID:
1853
Concept ID:
C0002395
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: AD; ALZHEIMER DISEASE, FAMILIAL, 1, AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE; Alzheimer's disease; Late-onset form of familial Alzheimer disease
Modes of inheritance:
Heterogeneous
MedGen UID:
67020
Concept ID:
C0242960
Organism Attribute
Source: HPO
The presence of apparently similar characters for which the genetic evidence indicates that different genes or different genetic mechanisms are involved in different pedigrees. In clinical settings genetic heterogeneity refers to the presence of a variety of genetic defects which cause the same disease, often due to mutations at different loci on the same gene, a finding common to many human diseases including ALZHEIMER DISEASE; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY, FAMILIAL; and POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Sources: HPO, OMIM, Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in heterozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, an autosomal dominant disorder is caused when a single copy of the mutant allele is present. Males and females are affected equally, and can both transmit the disorder with a risk of 50% for each child of inheriting the mutant allele.
Autosomal dominant inheritance (HPO, OMIM, Orphanet)
SNOMED CT: AD - Alzheimer's disease (26929004); Alzheimer disease (26929004); Alzheimer dementia (26929004); Alzheimer's disease (26929004)
 
Genes (locations): A2M (12p13.31); APP (21q21.3); HFE (6p22.2); MPO (17q22); NOS3 (7q36.1); PLAU (10q22.2)
Related genes: ABCA7, PSEN2, PSEN1, APOE
OMIM®: 104300
HPO: HP:0002511

Definition

Alzheimer disease is the most common form of progressive dementia in the elderly. It is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the neuropathologic findings of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and extracellular amyloid plaques that accumulate in vulnerable brain regions (Sennvik et al., 2000). Terry and Davies (1980) pointed out that the 'presenile' form, with onset before age 65, is identical to the most common form of late-onset or 'senile' dementia, and suggested the term 'senile dementia of the Alzheimer type' (SDAT). Haines (1991) reviewed the genetics of AD. Selkoe (1996) reviewed the pathophysiology, chromosomal loci, and pathogenetic mechanisms of Alzheimer disease. Theuns and Van Broeckhoven (2000) reviewed the transcriptional regulation of the genes involved in Alzheimer disease. Genetic Heterogeneity of Alzheimer Disease Alzheimer disease is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. See also AD2 (104310), associated with the APOE*4 allele (107741) on chromosome 19; AD3 (607822), caused by mutation in the presenilin-1 gene (PSEN1; 104311) on 14q; and AD4 (606889), caused by mutation in the PSEN2 gene (600759) on 1q31. There is evidence for additional AD loci on other chromosomes; see AD5 (602096) on 12p11, AD6 (605526) on 10q24, AD7 (606187) on 10p13, AD8 (607116) on 20p, AD9 (608907), associated with variation in the ABCA7 gene (605414) on 19p13, AD10 (609636) on 7q36, AD11 (609790) on 9q22, AD12 (611073) on 8p12-q22, AD13 (611152) on 1q21, AD14 (611154) on 1q25, AD15 (611155) on 3q22-q24, AD16 (300756) on Xq21.3, AD17 (615080) on 6p21.2, and AD18 (615590), associated with variation in the ADAM10 gene (602192) on 15q21. Evidence also suggests that mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms may be risk factors in Alzheimer disease (502500). Finally, there have been associations between AD and various polymorphisms in other genes, including alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M; 103950.0005), low density lipoprotein-related protein-1 (LRP1; 107770), the transferrin gene (TF; 190000), the hemochromatosis gene (HFE; 613609), the NOS3 gene (163729), the vascular endothelial growth factor gene (VEGF; 192240), the ABCA2 gene (600047), and the TNF gene (191160) (see MOLECULAR GENETICS). [from OMIM]

Additional description

From GHR
Alzheimer disease is a degenerative disease of the brain that causes dementia, which is a gradual loss of memory, judgment, and ability to function. This disorder usually appears in people older than age 65, but less common forms of the disease appear earlier in adulthood.Memory loss is the most common sign of Alzheimer disease. Forgetfulness may be subtle at first, but the loss of memory worsens over time until it interferes with most aspects of daily living. Even in familiar settings, a person with Alzheimer disease may get lost or become confused. Routine tasks such as preparing meals, doing laundry, and performing other household chores can be challenging. Additionally, it may become difficult to recognize people and name objects. Affected people increasingly require help with dressing, eating, and personal care.As the disorder progresses, some people with Alzheimer disease experience personality and behavioral changes and have trouble interacting in a socially appropriate manner. Other common symptoms include agitation, restlessness, withdrawal, and loss of language skills. People with this disease usually require total care during the advanced stages of the disease.Affected individuals usually survive 8 to 10 years after the appearance of symptoms, but the course of the disease can range from 1 to 25 years. Survival is usually shorter in individuals diagnosed after age 80 than in those diagnosed at a younger age. Death usually results from pneumonia, malnutrition, or general body wasting (inanition).Alzheimer disease can be classified as early-onset or late-onset. The signs and symptoms of the early-onset form appear between a person's thirties and mid-sixties, while the late-onset form appears during or after a person's mid-sixties. The early-onset form is much less common than the late-onset form, accounting for less than 10 percent of all cases of Alzheimer disease.  https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/alzheimer-disease

Clinical features

From HPO
Alzheimer disease
MedGen UID:
1853
Concept ID:
C0002395
Disease or Syndrome
Alzheimer disease is the most common form of progressive dementia in the elderly. It is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the neuropathologic findings of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and extracellular amyloid plaques that accumulate in vulnerable brain regions (Sennvik et al., 2000). Terry and Davies (1980) pointed out that the 'presenile' form, with onset before age 65, is identical to the most common form of late-onset or 'senile' dementia, and suggested the term 'senile dementia of the Alzheimer type' (SDAT). Haines (1991) reviewed the genetics of AD. Selkoe (1996) reviewed the pathophysiology, chromosomal loci, and pathogenetic mechanisms of Alzheimer disease. Theuns and Van Broeckhoven (2000) reviewed the transcriptional regulation of the genes involved in Alzheimer disease. Genetic Heterogeneity of Alzheimer Disease Alzheimer disease is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. See also AD2 (104310), associated with the APOE*4 allele (107741) on chromosome 19; AD3 (607822), caused by mutation in the presenilin-1 gene (PSEN1; 104311) on 14q; and AD4 (606889), caused by mutation in the PSEN2 gene (600759) on 1q31. There is evidence for additional AD loci on other chromosomes; see AD5 (602096) on 12p11, AD6 (605526) on 10q24, AD7 (606187) on 10p13, AD8 (607116) on 20p, AD9 (608907), associated with variation in the ABCA7 gene (605414) on 19p13, AD10 (609636) on 7q36, AD11 (609790) on 9q22, AD12 (611073) on 8p12-q22, AD13 (611152) on 1q21, AD14 (611154) on 1q25, AD15 (611155) on 3q22-q24, AD16 (300756) on Xq21.3, AD17 (615080) on 6p21.2, and AD18 (615590), associated with variation in the ADAM10 gene (602192) on 15q21. Evidence also suggests that mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms may be risk factors in Alzheimer disease (502500). Finally, there have been associations between AD and various polymorphisms in other genes, including alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M; 103950.0005), low density lipoprotein-related protein-1 (LRP1; 107770), the transferrin gene (TF; 190000), the hemochromatosis gene (HFE; 613609), the NOS3 gene (163729), the vascular endothelial growth factor gene (VEGF; 192240), the ABCA2 gene (600047), and the TNF gene (191160) (see MOLECULAR GENETICS).
Neurofibrillary tangles
MedGen UID:
39273
Concept ID:
C0085400
Finding
Abnormal structures located in various parts of the brain and composed of dense arrays of paired helical filaments (neurofilaments and microtubules). These double helical stacks of transverse subunits are twisted into left-handed ribbon-like filaments that likely incorporate the following proteins: (1) the intermediate filaments: medium- and high-molecular-weight neurofilaments; (2) the microtubule-associated proteins map-2 and tau; (3) actin; and (4) UBIQUITINS. As one of the hallmarks of ALZHEIMER DISEASE, the neurofibrillary tangles eventually occupy the whole of the cytoplasm in certain classes of cell in the neocortex, hippocampus, brain stem, and diencephalon. The number of these tangles, as seen in post mortem histology, correlates with the degree of dementia during life. Some studies suggest that tangle antigens leak into the systemic circulation both in the course of normal aging and in cases of Alzheimer disease.
Parkinsonism
MedGen UID:
66079
Concept ID:
C0242422
Disease or Syndrome
A group of disorders which feature impaired motor control characterized by bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; and postural instability. Parkinsonian diseases are generally divided into primary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE), secondary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY) and inherited forms. These conditions are associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic or closely related motor integration neuronal pathways in the BASAL GANGLIA.
Dementia
MedGen UID:
99229
Concept ID:
C0497327
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
A loss of global cognitive ability of sufficient amount to interfere with normal social or occupational function. Dementia represents a loss of previously present cognitive abilities, generally in adults, and can affect memory, thinking, language, judgment, and behavior.
Long-tract signs
MedGen UID:
356397
Concept ID:
C1865903
Finding
Decreased level of GABA in serum
MedGen UID:
1647139
Concept ID:
C4703620
Finding
A decrease in the level of GABA in the serum.

Conditions with this feature

Alzheimer disease
MedGen UID:
1853
Concept ID:
C0002395
Disease or Syndrome
Alzheimer disease is the most common form of progressive dementia in the elderly. It is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the neuropathologic findings of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and extracellular amyloid plaques that accumulate in vulnerable brain regions (Sennvik et al., 2000). Terry and Davies (1980) pointed out that the 'presenile' form, with onset before age 65, is identical to the most common form of late-onset or 'senile' dementia, and suggested the term 'senile dementia of the Alzheimer type' (SDAT). Haines (1991) reviewed the genetics of AD. Selkoe (1996) reviewed the pathophysiology, chromosomal loci, and pathogenetic mechanisms of Alzheimer disease. Theuns and Van Broeckhoven (2000) reviewed the transcriptional regulation of the genes involved in Alzheimer disease. Genetic Heterogeneity of Alzheimer Disease Alzheimer disease is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. See also AD2 (104310), associated with the APOE*4 allele (107741) on chromosome 19; AD3 (607822), caused by mutation in the presenilin-1 gene (PSEN1; 104311) on 14q; and AD4 (606889), caused by mutation in the PSEN2 gene (600759) on 1q31. There is evidence for additional AD loci on other chromosomes; see AD5 (602096) on 12p11, AD6 (605526) on 10q24, AD7 (606187) on 10p13, AD8 (607116) on 20p, AD9 (608907), associated with variation in the ABCA7 gene (605414) on 19p13, AD10 (609636) on 7q36, AD11 (609790) on 9q22, AD12 (611073) on 8p12-q22, AD13 (611152) on 1q21, AD14 (611154) on 1q25, AD15 (611155) on 3q22-q24, AD16 (300756) on Xq21.3, AD17 (615080) on 6p21.2, and AD18 (615590), associated with variation in the ADAM10 gene (602192) on 15q21. Evidence also suggests that mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms may be risk factors in Alzheimer disease (502500). Finally, there have been associations between AD and various polymorphisms in other genes, including alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M; 103950.0005), low density lipoprotein-related protein-1 (LRP1; 107770), the transferrin gene (TF; 190000), the hemochromatosis gene (HFE; 613609), the NOS3 gene (163729), the vascular endothelial growth factor gene (VEGF; 192240), the ABCA2 gene (600047), and the TNF gene (191160) (see MOLECULAR GENETICS).
Complete trisomy 21 syndrome
MedGen UID:
4385
Concept ID:
C0013080
Disease or Syndrome
Down syndrome, the most frequent form of mental retardation caused by a microscopically demonstrable chromosomal aberration, is characterized by well-defined and distinctive phenotypic features and natural history. It is caused by triplicate state (trisomy) of all or a critical portion of chromosome 21.
Alzheimer disease, susceptibility to, mitochondrial
MedGen UID:
325148
Concept ID:
C1838990
Finding
Alzheimer disease, type 3
MedGen UID:
334304
Concept ID:
C1843013
Disease or Syndrome
Alzheimer disease is a degenerative disease of the brain that causes dementia, which is a gradual loss of memory, judgment, and ability to function. This disorder usually appears in people older than age 65, but less common forms of the disease appear earlier in adulthood.Memory loss is the most common sign of Alzheimer disease. Forgetfulness may be subtle at first, but the loss of memory worsens over time until it interferes with most aspects of daily living. Even in familiar settings, a person with Alzheimer disease may get lost or become confused. Routine tasks such as preparing meals, doing laundry, and performing other household chores can be challenging. Additionally, it may become difficult to recognize people and name objects. Affected people increasingly require help with dressing, eating, and personal care.As the disorder progresses, some people with Alzheimer disease experience personality and behavioral changes and have trouble interacting in a socially appropriate manner. Other common symptoms include agitation, restlessness, withdrawal, and loss of language skills. People with this disease usually require total care during the advanced stages of the disease.Affected individuals usually survive 8 to 10 years after the appearance of symptoms, but the course of the disease can range from 1 to 25 years. Survival is usually shorter in individuals diagnosed after age 80 than in those diagnosed at a younger age. Death usually results from pneumonia, malnutrition, or general body wasting (inanition).Alzheimer disease can be classified as early-onset or late-onset. The signs and symptoms of the early-onset form appear between a person's thirties and mid-sixties, while the late-onset form appears during or after a person's mid-sixties. The early-onset form is much less common than the late-onset form, accounting for less than 10 percent of all cases of Alzheimer disease.
Alzheimer disease, type 4
MedGen UID:
376072
Concept ID:
C1847200
Disease or Syndrome
Alzheimer disease is a degenerative disease of the brain that causes dementia, which is a gradual loss of memory, judgment, and ability to function. This disorder usually appears in people older than age 65, but less common forms of the disease appear earlier in adulthood.Memory loss is the most common sign of Alzheimer disease. Forgetfulness may be subtle at first, but the loss of memory worsens over time until it interferes with most aspects of daily living. Even in familiar settings, a person with Alzheimer disease may get lost or become confused. Routine tasks such as preparing meals, doing laundry, and performing other household chores can be challenging. Additionally, it may become difficult to recognize people and name objects. Affected people increasingly require help with dressing, eating, and personal care.As the disorder progresses, some people with Alzheimer disease experience personality and behavioral changes and have trouble interacting in a socially appropriate manner. Other common symptoms include agitation, restlessness, withdrawal, and loss of language skills. People with this disease usually require total care during the advanced stages of the disease.Affected individuals usually survive 8 to 10 years after the appearance of symptoms, but the course of the disease can range from 1 to 25 years. Survival is usually shorter in individuals diagnosed after age 80 than in those diagnosed at a younger age. Death usually results from pneumonia, malnutrition, or general body wasting (inanition).Alzheimer disease can be classified as early-onset or late-onset. The signs and symptoms of the early-onset form appear between a person's thirties and mid-sixties, while the late-onset form appears during or after a person's mid-sixties. The early-onset form is much less common than the late-onset form, accounting for less than 10 percent of all cases of Alzheimer disease.
Alzheimer disease, familial early-onset, with coexisting amyloid and prion pathology
MedGen UID:
341884
Concept ID:
C1857933
Disease or Syndrome
Alzheimer disease 2
MedGen UID:
400197
Concept ID:
C1863051
Disease or Syndrome
Alzheimer disease is a degenerative disease of the brain that causes dementia, which is a gradual loss of memory, judgment, and ability to function. This disorder usually appears in people older than age 65, but less common forms of the disease appear earlier in adulthood.Memory loss is the most common sign of Alzheimer disease. Forgetfulness may be subtle at first, but the loss of memory worsens over time until it interferes with most aspects of daily living. Even in familiar settings, a person with Alzheimer disease may get lost or become confused. Routine tasks such as preparing meals, doing laundry, and performing other household chores can be challenging. Additionally, it may become difficult to recognize people and name objects. Affected people increasingly require help with dressing, eating, and personal care.As the disorder progresses, some people with Alzheimer disease experience personality and behavioral changes and have trouble interacting in a socially appropriate manner. Other common symptoms include agitation, restlessness, withdrawal, and loss of language skills. People with this disease usually require total care during the advanced stages of the disease.Affected individuals usually survive 8 to 10 years after the appearance of symptoms, but the course of the disease can range from 1 to 25 years. Survival is usually shorter in individuals diagnosed after age 80 than in those diagnosed at a younger age. Death usually results from pneumonia, malnutrition, or general body wasting (inanition).Alzheimer disease can be classified as early-onset or late-onset. The signs and symptoms of the early-onset form appear between a person's thirties and mid-sixties, while the late-onset form appears during or after a person's mid-sixties. The early-onset form is much less common than the late-onset form, accounting for less than 10 percent of all cases of Alzheimer disease.
Alzheimer disease, type 10
MedGen UID:
351228
Concept ID:
C1864828
Disease or Syndrome
Alzheimer disease, type 5
MedGen UID:
356103
Concept ID:
C1865868
Disease or Syndrome
Alzheimer disease, type 9
MedGen UID:
924255
Concept ID:
C4282179
Finding

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Moore A, Patterson C, Lee L, Vedel I, Bergman H; Canadian Consensus Conference on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Dementia.
Can Fam Physician 2014 May;60(5):433-8. PMID: 24829003Free PMC Article
Goldman JS, Hahn SE, Catania JW, LaRusse-Eckert S, Butson MB, Rumbaugh M, Strecker MN, Roberts JS, Burke W, Mayeux R, Bird T; American College of Medical Genetics and the National Society of Genetic Counselors.
Genet Med 2011 Jun;13(6):597-605. doi: 10.1097/GIM.0b013e31821d69b8. PMID: 21577118Free PMC Article
Williams JW, Plassman BL, Burke J, Benjamin S
Evid Rep Technol Assess (Full Rep) 2010 Apr;(193):1-727. PMID: 21500874Free PMC Article
Hort J, O'Brien JT, Gainotti G, Pirttila T, Popescu BO, Rektorova I, Sorbi S, Scheltens P; EFNS Scientist Panel on Dementia.
Eur J Neurol 2010 Oct;17(10):1236-48. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2010.03040.x. PMID: 20831773

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Lawlor B, Segurado R, Kennelly S, Olde Rikkert MGM, Howard R, Pasquier F, Börjesson-Hanson A, Tsolaki M, Lucca U, Molloy DW, Coen R, Riepe MW, Kálmán J, Kenny RA, Cregg F, O'Dwyer S, Walsh C, Adams J, Banzi R, Breuilh L, Daly L, Hendrix S, Aisen P, Gaynor S, Sheikhi A, Taekema DG, Verhey FR, Nemni R, Nobili F, Franceschi M, Frisoni G, Zanetti O, Konsta A, Anastasios O, Nenopoulou S, Tsolaki-Tagaraki F, Pakaski M, Dereeper O, de la Sayette V, Sénéchal O, Lavenu I, Devendeville A, Calais G, Crawford F, Mullan M; NILVAD Study Group.
PLoS Med 2018 Sep;15(9):e1002660. Epub 2018 Sep 24 doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002660. PMID: 30248105Free PMC Article
Shi Y, Holtzman DM
Nat Rev Immunol 2018 Dec;18(12):759-772. doi: 10.1038/s41577-018-0051-1. PMID: 30140051Free PMC Article
Grabher BJ
J Nucl Med Technol 2018 Dec;46(4):335-340. Epub 2018 Aug 23 doi: 10.2967/jnmt.118.218057. PMID: 30139888
Blackburn J, Zheng Q, Grabowski DC, Hirth R, Intrator O, Stevenson DG, Banaszak-Holl J
Inquiry 2018 Jan-Dec;55:46958018787992. doi: 10.1177/0046958018787992. PMID: 30047810Free PMC Article
Kuchtova B, Wurst Z, Mrzilkova J, Ibrahim I, Tintera J, Bartos A, Musil V, Kieslich K, Zach P
Curr Alzheimer Res 2018;15(6):590-599. doi: 10.2174/1567205015666171227155510. PMID: 29283048

Diagnosis

Kork F, Jankowski J, Goswami A, Weis J, Brook G, Yamoah A, Anink J, Aronica E, Fritz S, Huck C, Schipke C, Peters O, Tepel M, Noels H, Jankowski V
Neurology 2018 Nov 6;91(19):e1799-e1808. Epub 2018 Oct 10 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000006457. PMID: 30305446
Lawlor B, Segurado R, Kennelly S, Olde Rikkert MGM, Howard R, Pasquier F, Börjesson-Hanson A, Tsolaki M, Lucca U, Molloy DW, Coen R, Riepe MW, Kálmán J, Kenny RA, Cregg F, O'Dwyer S, Walsh C, Adams J, Banzi R, Breuilh L, Daly L, Hendrix S, Aisen P, Gaynor S, Sheikhi A, Taekema DG, Verhey FR, Nemni R, Nobili F, Franceschi M, Frisoni G, Zanetti O, Konsta A, Anastasios O, Nenopoulou S, Tsolaki-Tagaraki F, Pakaski M, Dereeper O, de la Sayette V, Sénéchal O, Lavenu I, Devendeville A, Calais G, Crawford F, Mullan M; NILVAD Study Group.
PLoS Med 2018 Sep;15(9):e1002660. Epub 2018 Sep 24 doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002660. PMID: 30248105Free PMC Article
Grabher BJ
J Nucl Med Technol 2018 Dec;46(4):335-340. Epub 2018 Aug 23 doi: 10.2967/jnmt.118.218057. PMID: 30139888
Walker LC
Handb Clin Neurol 2018;153:303-319. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-63945-5.00016-7. PMID: 29887142Free PMC Article
Kuchtova B, Wurst Z, Mrzilkova J, Ibrahim I, Tintera J, Bartos A, Musil V, Kieslich K, Zach P
Curr Alzheimer Res 2018;15(6):590-599. doi: 10.2174/1567205015666171227155510. PMID: 29283048

Therapy

Lawlor B, Segurado R, Kennelly S, Olde Rikkert MGM, Howard R, Pasquier F, Börjesson-Hanson A, Tsolaki M, Lucca U, Molloy DW, Coen R, Riepe MW, Kálmán J, Kenny RA, Cregg F, O'Dwyer S, Walsh C, Adams J, Banzi R, Breuilh L, Daly L, Hendrix S, Aisen P, Gaynor S, Sheikhi A, Taekema DG, Verhey FR, Nemni R, Nobili F, Franceschi M, Frisoni G, Zanetti O, Konsta A, Anastasios O, Nenopoulou S, Tsolaki-Tagaraki F, Pakaski M, Dereeper O, de la Sayette V, Sénéchal O, Lavenu I, Devendeville A, Calais G, Crawford F, Mullan M; NILVAD Study Group.
PLoS Med 2018 Sep;15(9):e1002660. Epub 2018 Sep 24 doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002660. PMID: 30248105Free PMC Article
Saarelainen L, Tolppanen AM, Koponen M, Tanskanen A, Tiihonen J, Hartikainen S, Taipale H
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2018 Apr;33(4):583-590. Epub 2017 Nov 15 doi: 10.1002/gps.4821. PMID: 29143367
Epperly T, Dunay MA, Boice JL
Am Fam Physician 2017 Jun 15;95(12):771-778. PMID: 28671413
Zissimopoulos JM, Barthold D, Brinton RD, Joyce G
JAMA Neurol 2017 Feb 1;74(2):225-232. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2016.3783. PMID: 27942728Free PMC Article
Naj AC, Jun G, Reitz C, Kunkle BW, Perry W, Park YS, Beecham GW, Rajbhandary RA, Hamilton-Nelson KL, Wang LS, Kauwe JS, Huentelman MJ, Myers AJ, Bird TD, Boeve BF, Baldwin CT, Jarvik GP, Crane PK, Rogaeva E, Barmada MM, Demirci FY, Cruchaga C, Kramer PL, Ertekin-Taner N, Hardy J, Graff-Radford NR, Green RC, Larson EB, St George-Hyslop PH, Buxbaum JD, Evans DA, Schneider JA, Lunetta KL, Kamboh MI, Saykin AJ, Reiman EM, De Jager PL, Bennett DA, Morris JC, Montine TJ, Goate AM, Blacker D, Tsuang DW, Hakonarson H, Kukull WA, Foroud TM, Martin ER, Haines JL, Mayeux RP, Farrer LA, Schellenberg GD, Pericak-Vance MA; Alzheimer Disease Genetics Consortium., Albert MS, Albin RL, Apostolova LG, Arnold SE, Barber R, Barnes LL, Beach TG, Becker JT, Beekly D, Bigio EH, Bowen JD, Boxer A, Burke JR, Cairns NJ, Cantwell LB, Cao C, Carlson CS, Carney RM, Carrasquillo MM, Carroll SL, Chui HC, Clark DG, Corneveaux J, Cribbs DH, Crocco EA, DeCarli C, DeKosky ST, Dick M, Dickson DW, Duara R, Faber KM, Fallon KB, Farlow MR, Ferris S, Frosch MP, Galasko DR, Ganguli M, Gearing M, Geschwind DH, Ghetti B, Gilbert JR, Glass JD, Growdon JH, Hamilton RL, Harrell LE, Head E, Honig LS, Hulette CM, Hyman BT, Jicha GA, Jin LW, Karydas A, Kaye JA, Kim R, Koo EH, Kowall NW, Kramer JH, LaFerla FM, Lah JJ, Leverenz JB, Levey AI, Li G, Lieberman AP, Lin CF, Lopez OL, Lyketsos CG, Mack WJ, Martiniuk F, Mash DC, Masliah E, McCormick WC, McCurry SM, McDavid AN, McKee AC, Mesulam M, Miller BL, Miller CA, Miller JW, Murrell JR, Olichney JM, Pankratz VS, Parisi JE, Paulson HL, Peskind E, Petersen RC, Pierce A, Poon WW, Potter H, Quinn JF, Raj A, Raskind M, Reisberg B, Ringman JM, Roberson ED, Rosen HJ, Rosenberg RN, Sano M, Schneider LS, Seeley WW, Smith AG, Sonnen JA, Spina S, Stern RA, Tanzi RE, Thornton-Wells TA, Trojanowski JQ, Troncoso JC, Valladares O, Van Deerlin VM, Van Eldik LJ, Vardarajan BN, Vinters HV, Vonsattel JP, Weintraub S, Welsh-Bohmer KA, Williamson J, Wishnek S, Woltjer RL, Wright CB, Younkin SG, Yu CE, Yu L
JAMA Neurol 2014 Nov;71(11):1394-404. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2014.1491. PMID: 25199842Free PMC Article

Prognosis

De Carli F, Nobili F, Pagani M, Bauckneht M, Massa F, Grazzini M, Jonsson C, Peira E, Morbelli S, Arnaldi D; Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2019 Feb;46(2):334-347. Epub 2018 Oct 31 doi: 10.1007/s00259-018-4197-7. PMID: 30382303
Calderon-Garcidueñas AL, Duyckaerts C
Handb Clin Neurol 2017;145:325-337. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-802395-2.00023-7. PMID: 28987180
Gabin JM, Tambs K, Saltvedt I, Sund E, Holmen J
Alzheimers Res Ther 2017 May 31;9(1):37. doi: 10.1186/s13195-017-0262-x. PMID: 28569205Free PMC Article
Zissimopoulos JM, Barthold D, Brinton RD, Joyce G
JAMA Neurol 2017 Feb 1;74(2):225-232. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2016.3783. PMID: 27942728Free PMC Article
Cairns NJ, Perrin RJ, Franklin EE, Carter D, Vincent B, Xie M, Bateman RJ, Benzinger T, Friedrichsen K, Brooks WS, Halliday GM, McLean C, Ghetti B, Morris JC; Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative.; Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network.
Neuropathology 2015 Aug;35(4):390-400. Epub 2015 May 12 doi: 10.1111/neup.12205. PMID: 25964057Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

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Recent systematic reviews

Jalilian H, Teshnizi SH, Röösli M, Neghab M
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