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Sensorineural hearing loss

MedGen UID:
9164
Concept ID:
C0018784
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Sensorineural deafness; Sensorineural hearing impairment
SNOMED CT: Sensorineural hearing loss (60700002); Sensorineural deafness (60700002); Neurosensory deafness (60700002); Perceptive hearing loss (60700002); Perceptive deafness (60700002); SND - Sensorineural deafness (60700002); Sensory-neural deafness (60700002); Sensory-neural hearing loss (60700002); SNHL - Sensorineural hearing loss (60700002); PD - Perceptive deafness (60700002)
 
HPO: HP:0000407

Definition

A type of hearing impairment in one or both ears related to an abnormal functionality of the cochlear nerve. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Progressive myositis ossificans
MedGen UID:
4698
Concept ID:
C0016037
Disease or Syndrome
Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva is a rare autosomal dominant disease with complete penetrance involving progressive ossification of skeletal muscle, fascia, tendons, and ligaments. FOP has a prevalence of approximately 1 in 2 million worldwide, and shows no geographic, ethnic, racial, or gender preference. Individuals with FOP appear normal at birth except for great toe abnormalities: the great toes are short, deviated, and monophalangic. Ossification occurs progressively over the course of a lifetime in an inevitable and unpredictable episodic manner, with most patients being confined to a wheelchair by the third decade of life and requiring lifelong care (summary by Petrie et al., 2009).
Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome
MedGen UID:
42458
Concept ID:
C0019562
Disease or Syndrome
Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome is characterized by hemangioblastomas of the brain, spinal cord, and retina; renal cysts and clear cell renal cell carcinoma; pheochromocytoma, pancreatic cysts, and neuroendocrine tumors; endolymphatic sac tumors; and epididymal and broad ligament cysts. Cerebellar hemangioblastomas may be associated with headache, vomiting, gait disturbances, or ataxia. Spinal hemangioblastomas and related syrinx usually present with pain. Sensory and motor loss may develop with cord compression. Retinal hemangioblastomas may be the initial manifestation of VHL syndrome and can cause vision loss. Renal cell carcinoma occurs in about 70% of individuals with VHL and is the leading cause of mortality. Pheochromocytomas can be asymptomatic but may cause sustained or episodic hypertension. Pancreatic lesions often remain asymptomatic and rarely cause endocrine or exocrine insufficiency. Endolymphatic sac tumors can cause hearing loss of varying severity, which can be a presenting symptom. Cystadenomas of the epididymis are relatively common. They rarely cause problems, unless bilateral, in which case they may result in infertility.
Neuropathy hereditary sensory and autonomic type 1
MedGen UID:
5645
Concept ID:
C0020071
Disease or Syndrome
SPTLC1-related hereditary sensory neuropathy (HSN) is an axonal form of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy distinguished by prominent early sensory loss and later positive sensory phenomena including dysesthesia and characteristic "lightning" or "shooting" pains. Loss of sensation can lead to painless injuries, which, if unrecognized, result in slow wound healing and subsequent osteomyelitis requiring distal amputations. Motor involvement is present in all advanced cases and can be severe. After age 20 years, the distal wasting and weakness may involve proximal muscles, possibly leading to wheelchair dependency by the seventh or eighth decade. Sensorineural hearing loss is variable.
Kearns Sayre syndrome
MedGen UID:
9618
Concept ID:
C0022541
Disease or Syndrome
A mitochondrial disorder featuring the triad of chronic progressive EXTERNAL OPHTHALMOPLEGIA, cardiomyopathy (CARDIOMYOPATHIES) with conduction block (HEART BLOCK), and RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA. Disease onset is in the first or second decade. Elevated CSF protein, sensorineural deafness, seizures, and pyramidal signs may also be present. Ragged-red fibers are found on muscle biopsy. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p984)
Leigh syndrome
MedGen UID:
44095
Concept ID:
C0023264
Disease or Syndrome
Leigh syndrome is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder resulting from defective mitochondrial energy generation. It most commonly presents as a progressive and severe neurodegenerative disorder with onset within the first months or years of life, and may result in early death. Affected individuals usually show global developmental delay or developmental regression, hypotonia, ataxia, dystonia, and ophthalmologic abnormalities, such as nystagmus or optic atrophy. The neurologic features are associated with the classic findings of T2-weighted hyperintensities in the basal ganglia and/or brainstem on brain imaging. Leigh syndrome can also have detrimental multisystemic affects on the cardiac, hepatic, gastrointestinal, and renal organs. Biochemical studies in patients with Leigh syndrome tend to show increased lactate and abnormalities of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Thus, Leigh syndrome may be a clinical feature of a primary deficiency of any of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes: complex I deficiency (see 252010), complex II deficiency (see 252011), complex III deficiency (see 124000), complex IV deficiency (cytochrome c oxidase; see 220110), or complex V deficiency (see 604273) (summary by Lake et al., 2015). Genetic Heterogeneity of Leigh Syndrome Mutations in complex I genes include mitochondrial-encoded MTND2 (516001), MTND3 (516002), MTND5 (516005), and MTND6 (516006), the nuclear-encoded NDUFS1 (157655), NDUFS3 (603846), NDUFS4 (602694), NDUFS7 (601825), NDUFS8 (602141), NDUFA2 (602137), NDUFA9 (603834), NDUFA10 (603835), NDUFA12 (614530), NDUFAF6 (612392), and NDUFAF5 (612360). Mutation in the MTFMT gene (611766), which is involved in mitochondrial translation, has also been reported with complex I deficiency. A mutation has been found in a complex III gene: BCS1L (603647), which is involved in the assembly of complex III. Mutations in complex IV genes include mitochondrial-encoded MTCO3 (516050) and nuclear-encoded COX10 (602125), COX15 (603646), SCO2 (604272), SURF1 (185620), which is involved in the assembly of complex IV, TACO1 (612958), and PET100 (614770). A mutation has been found in a complex V gene: the mitochondrial-encoded MTATP6 (516060). Mutations in genes encoding mitochondrial tRNA proteins have also been identified in patients with Leigh syndrome: see MTTV (590105), MTTK (590060), MTTW (590095), and MTTL1 (590050). Leigh syndrome may also be caused by mutations in components of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (e.g., DLD, 238331 and PDHA1, 300502). The French Canadian (or Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean) type of Leigh syndrome with COX deficiency (LSFC; 220111) is caused by mutation in the LRPPRC gene (607544). Deficiency of coenzyme Q10 (607426) can present as Leigh syndrome.
Deficiency of alpha-mannosidase
MedGen UID:
7467
Concept ID:
C0024748
Disease or Syndrome
Alpha-mannosidosis encompasses a continuum of clinical findings from mild to severe. Three major clinical subtypes have been suggested: A mild form recognized after age ten years with absence of skeletal abnormalities, myopathy, and slow progression (type 1). A moderate form recognized before age ten years with presence of skeletal abnormalities, myopathy, and slow progression (type 2). A severe form manifested as prenatal loss or early death from progressive central nervous system involvement or infection (type 3). Individuals with a milder phenotype have mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, impaired hearing, characteristic coarse features, clinical or radiographic skeletal abnormalities, immunodeficiency, and primary central nervous system disease – mainly cerebellar involvement causing ataxia. Periods of psychiatric symptoms are common. Associated medical problems can include corneal opacities, hepatosplenomegaly, aseptic destructive arthritis, and metabolic myopathy. Alpha-mannosidosis is insidiously progressive; some individuals may live into the sixth decade.
Nail-patella syndrome
MedGen UID:
10257
Concept ID:
C0027341
Disease or Syndrome
Nail-patella syndrome (NPS) involves a classic clinical tetrad of changes in the nails, knees, and elbows, and the presence of iliac horns. Nail changes are the most constant feature of NPS. Nails may be absent, hypoplastic, or dystrophic; ridged longitudinally or horizontally; pitted; discolored; separated into two halves by a longitudinal cleft or ridge of skin; and thin or (less often) thickened. The patellae may be small, irregularly shaped, or absent. Elbow abnormalities may include limitation of extension, pronation, and supination; cubitus valgus; and antecubital pterygia. Iliac horns are bilateral, conical, bony processes that project posteriorly and laterally from the central part of the iliac bones of the pelvis. Renal involvement, first manifest as proteinuria with or without hematuria, occurs in 30%-50% of affected individuals; end-stage renal disease (ESRD) occurs in about 5% of affected individuals. Primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension occur at increased frequency and at a younger age than in the general population.
Phytanic acid storage disease
MedGen UID:
11161
Concept ID:
C0034960
Disease or Syndrome
Refsum disease is characterized by anosmia and early-onset retinitis pigmentosa, which are both universal findings with variable combinations of neuropathy, deafness, ataxia, and ichthyosis. Onset of symptoms ranges from age seven months to older than age 50 years. Cardiac arrhythmia and heart failure caused by cardiomyopathy are potentially severe health problems which develop later in life.
Male Turner Syndrome
MedGen UID:
22527
Concept ID:
C0041409
Disease or Syndrome
Wolfram syndrome
MedGen UID:
21923
Concept ID:
C0043207
Disease or Syndrome
WFS1-related disorders range from Wolfram syndrome (WFS) to WFS1-related low-frequency sensory hearing loss (also known as DFNA6/14/38 low-frequency sensorineural hearing loss [LFSNHL]). WFS is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset of diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy before age 16 years, and typically associated with sensorineural hearing loss, progressive neurologic abnormalities (cerebellar ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, dementia, psychiatric illness, and urinary tract atony), and other endocrine abnormalities. Median age at death is 30 years. WFS-like disease is characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, diabetes mellitus, psychiatric illness, and variable optic atrophy. WFS1-related LFSNHL is characterized by congenital, nonsyndromic, slowly progressive, low-frequency (<2000 Hz) sensorineural hearing loss.
Zellweger syndrome
MedGen UID:
21958
Concept ID:
C0043459
Disease or Syndrome
Zellweger spectrum disorder (ZSD) is a phenotypic continuum ranging from severe to mild. While individual phenotypes (e.g., Zellweger syndrome [ZS], neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy [NALD], and infantile Refsum disease [IRD]) were described in the past before the biochemical and molecular bases of this spectrum were fully determined, the term "ZSD" is now used to refer to all individuals with a PEX gene defect regardless of phenotype. Individuals with ZSD usually come to clinical attention in the newborn period or later in childhood. Affected newborns are hypotonic and feed poorly. They have distinctive facies, congenital malformations (neuronal migration defects associated with neonatal-onset seizures, renal cysts, and bony stippling [chondrodysplasia punctata] of the patella[e] and other long bones), and liver disease that can be severe. Infants with severe ZSD are significantly impaired and typically die during the first year of life, usually having made no developmental progress. Individuals with intermediate/milder ZSD do not have congenital malformations, but rather progressive peroxisome dysfunction variably manifest as sensory loss (secondary to retinal dystrophy and sensorineural hearing loss); neurologic involvement (ataxia, polyneuropathy, and leukodystrophy); liver dysfunction; adrenal insufficiency; and renal oxalate stones. While hypotonia and developmental delays are typical, intellect can be normal. Some have osteopenia; almost all have ameleogenesis imperfecta in the secondary teeth.
Myoclonus with epilepsy with ragged red fibers
MedGen UID:
56486
Concept ID:
C0162672
Disease or Syndrome
A condition that can be caused by mutation(s) in more than one mitochondrial gene. It is characterized by myoclonic epilepsy and ragged-red fibers present on muscle biopsy.
Johanson-Blizzard syndrome
MedGen UID:
59798
Concept ID:
C0175692
Disease or Syndrome
Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas that progresses from acute (sudden onset; duration <6 months) to recurrent acute (>1 episode of acute pancreatitis) to chronic (duration >6 months). The range of symptoms and disease course vary from person to person. Familial pancreatitis, defined as pancreatitis from any cause that occurs in a family with an incidence that is greater than would be expected by chance alone, can be non-genetic or genetic, the latter including autosomal dominant hereditary pancreatitis and pancreatitis syndromes characterized by pancreatitis or pancreatic insufficiency. The majority of familial pancreatitis appears to have a complex, multigenic, or gene-environmental etiology with a variable number of germline pathogenic variants in genes that affect trypsin regulation, including CASR, CTRC, and CLDN2. Hereditary pancreatitis (HP) is defined as either two or more individuals with pancreatitis in two or more generations of a family (i.e., an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance) or pancreatitis associated with a germline PRSS1 disease-causing gain-of-function variant. The phenotype of hereditary pancreatitis is increased susceptibility to acute pancreatitis, with complications such as chronic inflammation, fibrosis, and chronic pain in some affected individuals. Heterozygous pathogenic variants in PRSS1 are found in 60%-100% of families with hereditary pancreatitis, and most large families with pancreatitis spanning multiple generations; biallelic pathogenic variants in SPINK1 or biallelic pathogenic variants in CFTR result in autosomal recessive pancreatitis. Syndromes in which pancreatitis is a finding include: Pearson marrow pancreas syndrome, CEL maturity-onset diabetes of the young (CEL-MODY), and Johanson-Blizzard syndrome. Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, an autosomal recessive disorder, includes pancreatic exocrine insufficiency as well as other features. Idiopathic sporadic pancreatitis is a single occurrence of pancreatitis in a family for which no etiology is identified.
Williams syndrome
MedGen UID:
59799
Concept ID:
C0175702
Disease or Syndrome
Williams syndrome (WS) is characterized by cardiovascular disease (elastin arteriopathy, peripheral pulmonary stenosis, supravalvar aortic stenosis, hypertension), distinctive facies, connective tissue abnormalities, intellectual disability (usually mild), a specific cognitive profile, unique personality characteristics, growth abnormalities, and endocrine abnormalities (hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, hypothyroidism, and early puberty). Feeding difficulties often lead to poor weight gain in infancy. Hypotonia and hyperextensible joints can result in delayed attainment of motor milestones.
Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines
MedGen UID:
104494
Concept ID:
C0175704
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML) is a condition in which the cardinal features consist of lentigines, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, short stature, pectus deformity, and dysmorphic facial features, including widely spaced eyes and ptosis. Multiple lentigines present as dispersed flat, black-brown macules, mostly on the face, neck and upper part of the trunk with sparing of the mucosa. In general, lentigines do not appear until age four to five years but then increase to the thousands by puberty. Some individuals with NSML do not exhibit lentigines. Approximately 85% of affected individuals have heart defects, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) (typically appearing during infancy and sometimes progressive) and pulmonary valve stenosis. Postnatal growth retardation resulting in short stature occurs in fewer than 50% of affected persons, although most affected individuals have a height that is less than the 25th percentile for age. Sensorineural hearing deficits, present in approximately 20%, are poorly characterized. Intellectual disability, typically mild, is observed in approximately 30% of persons with NSML.
Cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal syndrome
MedGen UID:
66320
Concept ID:
C0220722
Congenital Abnormality
Cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome is an autosomal recessive progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by microcephaly, congenital cataracts, severe mental retardation, facial dysmorphism, and arthrogryposis (summary by Jaakkola et al., 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Cerebrooculofacioskeletal Syndrome See also COFS2 (610756), caused by mutation in the ERCC2 gene (126340); COFS3 (616570), caused by mutation in the ERCC5 gene (133530); and COFS4 (610758), caused by mutation in the ERCC1 gene (126380).
Biotinidase deficiency
MedGen UID:
66323
Concept ID:
C0220754
Disease or Syndrome
If untreated, young children with profound biotinidase deficiency usually exhibit neurologic abnormalities including seizures, hypotonia, ataxia, developmental delay, vision problems, hearing loss, and cutaneous abnormalities (e.g., alopecia, skin rash, candidiasis). Older children and adolescents with profound biotinidase deficiency often exhibit motor limb weakness, spastic paresis, and decreased visual acuity. Once vision problems, hearing loss, and developmental delay occur, they are usually irreversible, even with biotin therapy. Individuals with partial biotinidase deficiency may have hypotonia, skin rash, and hair loss, particularly during times of stress.
FG syndrome
MedGen UID:
113106
Concept ID:
C0220769
Disease or Syndrome
The phenotypic spectrum of MED12-related disorders, which is still being defined, includes at a minimum the phenotypes of FG syndrome type 1 (FGS1), Lujan syndrome (LS), and X-linked Ohdo syndrome. FGS1 and LS share the clinical findings of cognitive impairment, hypotonia, and abnormalities of the corpus callosum. FGS1 is further characterized by absolute or relative macrocephaly, tall forehead, downslanted palpebral fissures, small and simple ears, constipation and/or anal anomalies, broad thumbs and halluces, and characteristic behavior. LS is further characterized by large head, tall thin body habitus, long thin face, prominent nasal bridge, high narrow palate, and short philtrum. Carrier females in families with FGS1 and LS are typically unaffected. X-linked Ohdo syndrome (referred to as XLOS in this GeneReview) is characterized by intellectual disability, blepharophimosis, and facial coarsening. A number of individuals with nonsyndromic intellectual disability – including some affected females – have been described.
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy
MedGen UID:
65956
Concept ID:
C0238288
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal dominant degenerative muscle disease characterized by slowly progressive weakness of the muscles of the face, upper-arm, and shoulder girdle. The onset of symptoms usually occurs in the first or second decade of life. Affected individuals usually present with impairment of upper extremity elevation. This tends to be followed by facial weakness, primarily involving the orbicularis oris and orbicularis oculi muscles. (Neuromuscul Disord 1997;7(1):55-62; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1420)
DE SANCTIS-CACCHIONE SYNDROME
MedGen UID:
75550
Concept ID:
C0265201
Disease or Syndrome
A rare autosomal recessive inherited syndrome. It is characterized by xeroderma pigmentosum, mental retardation, dwarfism, hypogonadism, and neurologic abnormalities.
Marshall syndrome
MedGen UID:
82694
Concept ID:
C0265235
Disease or Syndrome
Stickler syndrome is a group of hereditary conditions characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, eye abnormalities, hearing loss, and joint problems. These signs and symptoms vary widely among affected individuals.A characteristic feature of Stickler syndrome is a somewhat flattened facial appearance. This appearance results from underdeveloped bones in the middle of the face, including the cheekbones and the bridge of the nose. A particular group of physical features called Pierre Robin sequence is also common in people with Stickler syndrome. Pierre Robin sequence includes an opening in the roof of the mouth (a cleft palate), a tongue that is placed further back than normal (glossoptosis), and a small lower jaw (micrognathia). This combination of features can lead to feeding problems and difficulty breathing.Many people with Stickler syndrome have severe nearsightedness (high myopia). In some cases, the clear gel that fills the eyeball (the vitreous) has an abnormal appearance, which is noticeable during an eye examination. Other eye problems are also common, including increased pressure within the eye (glaucoma), clouding of the lens of the eyes (cataracts), and tearing of the lining of the eye (retinal detachment). These eye abnormalities cause impaired vision or blindness in some cases.In people with Stickler syndrome, hearing loss varies in degree and may become more severe over time. The hearing loss may be sensorineural, meaning that it results from changes in the inner ear, or conductive, meaning that it is caused by abnormalities of the middle ear.Most people with Stickler syndrome have skeletal abnormalities that affect the joints. The joints of affected children and young adults may be loose and very flexible (hypermobile), though joints become less flexible with age. Arthritis often appears early in life and may cause joint pain or stiffness. Problems with the bones of the spine (vertebrae) can also occur, including abnormal curvature of the spine (scoliosis or kyphosis) and flattened vertebrae (platyspondyly). These spinal abnormalities may cause back pain.Researchers have described several types of Stickler syndrome, which are distinguished by their genetic causes and their patterns of signs and symptoms. In particular, the eye abnormalities and severity of hearing loss differ among the types. Type I has the highest risk of retinal detachment. Type II also includes eye abnormalities, but type III does not (and is often called non-ocular Stickler syndrome). Types II and III are more likely than type I to have significant hearing loss. Types IV, V, and VI are very rare and have each been diagnosed in only a few individuals.A condition similar to Stickler syndrome, called Marshall syndrome, is characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, eye abnormalities, hearing loss, and early-onset arthritis. Marshall syndrome can also include short stature. Some researchers have classified Marshall syndrome as a variant of Stickler syndrome, while others consider it to be a separate disorder.
Goldenhar syndrome
MedGen UID:
75554
Concept ID:
C0265240
Disease or Syndrome
A congenital birth defect characterized by incomplete development or absence of face structures, usually affecting one side of the face. The defects include partially formed or absent ear, nose, lip, mandible, and/or soft palate.
Townes syndrome
MedGen UID:
75555
Concept ID:
C0265246
Disease or Syndrome
Townes-Brocks syndrome is a genetic condition that affects several parts of the body. The most common features of this condition are an obstruction of the anal opening (imperforate anus), abnormally shaped ears, and hand malformations that most often affect the thumb. Most people with this condition have at least two of these three major features.Other possible signs and symptoms of Townes-Brocks syndrome include kidney abnormalities, mild to profound hearing loss, heart defects, and genital malformations. These features vary among affected individuals, even within the same family. Intellectual disability or learning problems have also been reported in about 10 percent of people with Townes-Brocks syndrome.
Coffin-Lowry syndrome
MedGen UID:
75556
Concept ID:
C0265252
Disease or Syndrome
Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is usually characterized by severe-to-profound intellectual disability in males; less severely impaired individuals have been reported. Neuropsychiatric concerns can include behavioral problems, loss of strength, progressive spasticity or paraplegia, sleep apnea, or stroke. Stimulus-induced drop attacks (SIDAs) in which unexpected tactile or auditory stimuli or excitement triggers a brief collapse but no loss of consciousness are present in approximately 20% of affected individuals. Typically SIDAs begin between mid-childhood and the teens. Characteristic facial features may be more apparent with age. Upper-extremity differences may be subtle and include short, soft, fleshy hands with tapered fingers as well as fleshy forearms. Progressive kyphoscoliosis is one of the most difficult aspects of long-term care. Affected females tend to have intellectual disability in the mild to moderate range and may also have the typical facial, hand, and skeletal findings noted in males.
Frontometaphyseal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
82703
Concept ID:
C0265293
Congenital Abnormality
Pili torti-deafness syndrome
MedGen UID:
82728
Concept ID:
C0266006
Disease or Syndrome
Bjornstad syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and pili torti. The hearing loss is congenital and of variable severity. Pili torti (twisted hairs), a condition in which the hair shafts are flattened at irregular intervals and twisted 180 degrees from the normal axis, making the hair very brittle, is usually recognized early in childhood (Selvaag, 2000).
Atrophia bulborum hereditaria
MedGen UID:
75615
Concept ID:
C0266526
Congenital Abnormality
NDP-related retinopathies are characterized by a spectrum of fibrous and vascular changes of the retina at birth that progress through childhood or adolescence to cause varying degrees of visual impairment. The most severe phenotype is described as Norrie disease (ND), characterized by grayish-yellow fibrovascular masses (pseudogliomas) secondary to retinal vascular dysgenesis and detachment. Congenital blindness is almost always present. Approximately 30%-50% of males with ND have developmental delay/intellectual disability, behavioral abnormalities, or psychotic-like features. The majority of males with ND develop sensorineural hearing loss. Less severe phenotypes include: persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV), characterized by a fibrotic white stalk from the optic disk to the lens; X-linked familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (XL-FEVR), characterized by peripheral retinal vascular anomalies with or without fibrotic changes and retinal detachment; retinopathy of prematurity (ROP); and Coats disease, an exudative proliferative vasculopathy. Phenotypes can vary within families.
Xeroderma pigmentosum, type 1
MedGen UID:
82775
Concept ID:
C0268135
Disease or Syndrome
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is characterized by: Sun sensitivity (severe sunburn with blistering, persistent erythema on minimal sun exposure in ~60% of affected individuals), with marked freckle-like pigmentation of the face before age two years in most affected individuals; Sunlight-induced ocular involvement (photophobia, keratitis, atrophy of the skin of the lids); Greatly increased risk of sunlight-induced cutaneous neoplasms (basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma). Approximately 25% of affected individuals have neurologic manifestations (acquired microcephaly, diminished or absent deep tendon stretch reflexes, progressive sensorineural hearing loss, and progressive cognitive impairment). The most common causes of death are skin cancer, neurologic degeneration, and internal cancer. The median age at death in persons with XP with neurodegeneration (29 years) was found to be younger than that in persons with XP without neurodegeneration (37 years).
Xeroderma pigmentosum, group D
MedGen UID:
75656
Concept ID:
C0268138
Disease or Syndrome
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is characterized by: Sun sensitivity (severe sunburn with blistering, persistent erythema on minimal sun exposure in ~60% of affected individuals), with marked freckle-like pigmentation of the face before age two years in most affected individuals; Sunlight-induced ocular involvement (photophobia, keratitis, atrophy of the skin of the lids); Greatly increased risk of sunlight-induced cutaneous neoplasms (basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma). Approximately 25% of affected individuals have neurologic manifestations (acquired microcephaly, diminished or absent deep tendon stretch reflexes, progressive sensorineural hearing loss, and progressive cognitive impairment). The most common causes of death are skin cancer, neurologic degeneration, and internal cancer. The median age at death in persons with XP with neurodegeneration (29 years) was found to be younger than that in persons with XP without neurodegeneration (37 years).
Sialidosis
MedGen UID:
120621
Concept ID:
C0268226
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal recessive inherited lysosomal storage disease characterized by excessive intracellular accumulation and urinary excretion of sialic acid associated with neuraminidase deficiency.
Hepatic failure, early-onset, and neurologic disorder due to cytochrome C oxidase deficiency
MedGen UID:
75662
Concept ID:
C0268237
Congenital Abnormality
Leigh syndrome (or subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy) is characterized by decompensation (often with elevated lactate levels in blood and/or CSF) during an intercurrent illness. It is typically associated with psychomotor retardation or regression, often followed by transient or prolonged stabilization or even improvement, but inevitably resulting in eventual progressive neurologic decline, typically occurring in stepwise decrements. Neurologic manifestations include hypotonia, spasticity, movement disorders (including chorea), cerebellar ataxia, and peripheral neuropathy. Extraneurologic manifestations may include hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, hypertrichosis, anemia, renal tubulopathy, liver involvement, ptosis, and muscle weakness. Onset is typically between ages three and 12 months; about 50% of affected individuals die by age three years, most often as a result of respiratory or cardiac failure. Later onset (including in adulthood) and long-term survival may occasionally occur.
Triglyceride storage disease with ichthyosis
MedGen UID:
82780
Concept ID:
C0268238
Disease or Syndrome
Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome is a condition in which fats (lipids) are stored abnormally in the body. Affected individuals cannot break down certain fats called triglycerides, and these fats accumulate in organs and tissues, including skin, liver, muscles, intestine, eyes, and ears. People with this condition also have dry, scaly skin (ichthyosis), which is usually present at birth. Additional features of this condition include an enlarged liver (hepatomegaly), clouding of the lens of the eyes (cataracts), difficulty with coordinating movements (ataxia), hearing loss, short stature, muscle weakness (myopathy), involuntary movement of the eyes (nystagmus), and mild intellectual disability.The signs and symptoms vary greatly among individuals with Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome. Some people may have ichthyosis only, while others may have problems affecting many areas of the body.
Hyperphosphatasemia with bone disease
MedGen UID:
75678
Concept ID:
C0268414
Disease or Syndrome
Paget disease of bone-5 is an autosomal recessive, juvenile-onset form of Paget disease, a disorder of the skeleton resulting from abnormal bone resorption and formation. Clinical manifestations include short stature, progressive long bone deformities, fractures, vertebral collapse, skull enlargement, and hyperostosis with progressive deafness. There is phenotypic variability, with some patients presenting in infancy, while others present later in childhood (summary by Naot et al., 2014). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Paget disease of bone, see 167250.
Hyperleucine-isoleucinemia
MedGen UID:
82821
Concept ID:
C0268574
Disease or Syndrome
Histidine transport defect
MedGen UID:
82825
Concept ID:
C0268642
Disease or Syndrome
An increased concentration of histidine in the urine.
De Lange syndrome
MedGen UID:
78752
Concept ID:
C0270972
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is characterized by distinctive facial features, growth retardation (prenatal onset; <5th centile throughout life), hirsutism, and upper-limb reduction defects that range from subtle phalangeal abnormalities to oligodactyly (missing digits). Craniofacial features include synophrys, highly arched eyebrows, long eyelashes, short nose with anteverted nares, small widely spaced teeth, and microcephaly. IQ ranges from below 30 to 102 (mean: 53). Many individuals demonstrate autistic and self-destructive tendencies. Frequent findings include cardiac septal defects, gastrointestinal dysfunction, hearing loss, myopia, and cryptorchidism or hypoplastic genitalia. Individuals with a milder phenotype have less severe growth, cognitive, and limb involvement, but often have facial features consistent with CdLS.
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 1B
MedGen UID:
79470
Concept ID:
C0282527
Disease or Syndrome
Zellweger spectrum disorder (ZSD) is a phenotypic continuum ranging from severe to mild. While individual phenotypes (e.g., Zellweger syndrome [ZS], neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy [NALD], and infantile Refsum disease [IRD]) were described in the past before the biochemical and molecular bases of this spectrum were fully determined, the term "ZSD" is now used to refer to all individuals with a PEX gene defect regardless of phenotype. Individuals with ZSD usually come to clinical attention in the newborn period or later in childhood. Affected newborns are hypotonic and feed poorly. They have distinctive facies, congenital malformations (neuronal migration defects associated with neonatal-onset seizures, renal cysts, and bony stippling [chondrodysplasia punctata] of the patella[e] and other long bones), and liver disease that can be severe. Infants with severe ZSD are significantly impaired and typically die during the first year of life, usually having made no developmental progress. Individuals with intermediate/milder ZSD do not have congenital malformations, but rather progressive peroxisome dysfunction variably manifest as sensory loss (secondary to retinal dystrophy and sensorineural hearing loss); neurologic involvement (ataxia, polyneuropathy, and leukodystrophy); liver dysfunction; adrenal insufficiency; and renal oxalate stones. While hypotonia and developmental delays are typical, intellect can be normal. Some have osteopenia; almost all have ameleogenesis imperfecta in the secondary teeth.
Hennekam lymphangiectasia-lymphedema syndrome
MedGen UID:
137946
Concept ID:
C0340834
Disease or Syndrome
Hypogonadism, diabetes mellitus, alopecia, mental retardation and electrocardiographic abnormalities
MedGen UID:
83337
Concept ID:
C0342286
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) is a group of inherited neurologic disorders in which iron accumulates in the basal ganglia resulting in progressive dystonia, spasticity, parkinsonism, neuropsychiatric abnormalities, and optic atrophy or retinal degeneration. Ten types and their associated genes are recognized. The age of onset ranges from infancy to late adulthood; the rate of progression varies. Cognitive decline occurs in some subtypes, but more often cognition is relatively spared. Cerebellar atrophy is a frequent finding in some subtypes.
Megaloblastic anemia, thiamine-responsive, with diabetes mellitus and sensorineural deafness
MedGen UID:
83338
Concept ID:
C0342287
Congenital Abnormality
Thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome (TRMA) is characterized by megaloblastic anemia, progressive sensorineural hearing loss, and diabetes mellitus. Onset of megaloblastic anemia occurs between infancy and adolescence. The anemia is corrected with thiamine treatment, but the red cells remain macrocytic, and anemia can recur when treatment is withdrawn. Progressive sensorineural hearing loss has generally been early and can be detected in toddlers; hearing loss is irreversible and may not be prevented by thiamine treatment. The diabetes mellitus is non-type I in nature, with age of onset from infancy to adolescence. Thiamine treatment may delay onset of diabetes in some individuals.
Diabetes-deafness syndrome maternally transmitted
MedGen UID:
90979
Concept ID:
C0342289
Disease or Syndrome
Maternally inherited diabetes-deafness syndrome (MIDD) is a mitochondrial disorder characterized by onset of sensorineural hearing loss and diabetes in adulthood. Some patients may have additional features observed in mitochondrial disorders, including pigmentary retinopathy, ptosis, cardiomyopathy, myopathy, renal problems, and neuropsychiatric symptoms (Ballinger et al., 1992; Reardon et al., 1992; Guillausseau et al., 2001). The association of diabetes and deafness is observed with Wolfram syndrome (see 222300), Rogers syndrome (249270), and Herrmann syndrome (172500), but all 3 of these disorders have other clinical manifestations.
Autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets
MedGen UID:
137975
Concept ID:
C0342643
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal recessive renal phosphate wasting disorder that results in rickets.
Klein-Waardenberg syndrome
MedGen UID:
449531
Concept ID:
C0342680
Disease or Syndrome
Branchiooculofacial syndrome
MedGen UID:
91261
Concept ID:
C0376524
Disease or Syndrome
The branchiooculofacial syndrome (BOFS) is characterized by: branchial (cervical or infra- or supra-auricular) skin defects that range from barely perceptible thin skin or hair patch to erythematous "hemangiomatous" lesions to large weeping erosions; ocular anomalies that can include microphthalmia, anophthalmia, coloboma, and nasolacrimal duct stenosis/atresia; and facial anomalies that can include ocular hypertelorism or telecanthus, broad nasal tip, upslanted palpebral fissures, cleft lip or prominent philtral pillars that give the appearance of a repaired cleft lip (formerly called "pseudocleft lip") with or without cleft palate, upper lip pits, and lower facial weakness (asymmetric crying face or partial 7th cranial nerve weakness). Malformed and prominent pinnae and hearing loss from inner ear and/or petrous bone anomalies are common. Intellect is usually normal.
X-linked hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy
MedGen UID:
98290
Concept ID:
C0393808
Disease or Syndrome
Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy X type 1 (CMTX1) is characterized by a moderate to severe motor and sensory neuropathy in affected males and usually mild to no symptoms in carrier females. Sensorineural deafness and central nervous system symptoms also occur in some families.
Prune belly syndrome with pulmonic stenosis, mental retardation and deafness
MedGen UID:
96043
Concept ID:
C0403551
Disease or Syndrome
Renal tubular acidosis with progressive nerve deafness
MedGen UID:
98336
Concept ID:
C0403554
Disease or Syndrome
Renal tubular acidosis with deafness is a disorder characterized by kidney (renal) problems and hearing loss. The kidneys normally filter fluid and waste products from the body and remove them in urine; however, in people with this disorder, the kidneys do not remove enough acidic compounds from the body. Instead, the acids are absorbed back into the bloodstream, and the blood becomes too acidic. This chemical imbalance, called metabolic acidosis, can result in a range of signs and symptoms that vary in severity. Metabolic acidosis often causes nausea, vomiting, and dehydration; affected infants tend to have problems feeding and gaining weight (failure to thrive). Most children and adults with renal tubular acidosis with deafness have short stature, and many develop kidney stones.The metabolic acidosis that occurs in renal tubular acidosis with deafness may also lead to softening and weakening of the bones, called rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. This bone disorder is characterized by bone pain, bowed legs, and difficulty walking. Rarely, people with renal tubular acidosis with deafness have episodes of hypokalemic paralysis, a condition that causes extreme muscle weakness associated with low levels of potassium in the blood (hypokalemia).In people with renal tubular acidosis with deafness, hearing loss caused by changes in the inner ear (sensorineural hearing loss) usually begins between childhood and young adulthood, and gradually gets worse. An inner ear abnormality affecting both ears occurs in most people with this disorder. This feature, which is called enlarged vestibular aqueduct, can be seen with medical imaging. The vestibular aqueduct is a bony canal that runs from the inner ear into the temporal bone of the skull and toward the brain. The relationship between enlarged vestibular aqueduct and hearing loss is unclear. In renal tubular acidosis with deafness, enlarged vestibular aqueduct typically occurs in individuals whose hearing loss begins in childhood.
Familial cutaneous collagenoma
MedGen UID:
96073
Concept ID:
C0406817
Neoplastic Process
Lenz-Majewski hyperostosis syndrome
MedGen UID:
98483
Concept ID:
C0432269
Congenital Abnormality
Lenz-Majewski hyperostotic dwarfism is a rare condition characterized by intellectual disability, sclerosing bone dysplasia, distinct craniofacial and dental anomalies, loose skin, and distal limb anomalies, particularly brachydactyly and symphalangism. Patients have multiple radiographic abnormalities due to progressive generalized hyperostosis that affects the cranium, vertebrae, and diaphyses of tubular bones, leading to severe growth retardation (summary by Sousa et al., 2014).
Worth disease
MedGen UID:
140932
Concept ID:
C0432273
Disease or Syndrome
Deletion of long arm of chromosome 18
MedGen UID:
96605
Concept ID:
C0432443
Disease or Syndrome
A condition in which some or all of the cells of the body contain extra genetic material from chromosome 18. Clinical features of this condition may include the following: spina bifida, hearing loss, cleft lip, cleft palate, undescended testes, rocker bottom feet, micrognathia, low set ears, cardiac anomalies (ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, tetralogy of Fallot), intellectual disability, holoprosencephaly, pituitary dysplasia, seizures, autoimmune disorders, hip dysplasia, and/or congenital cataracts.
Perrault syndrome
MedGen UID:
151934
Concept ID:
C0685838
Congenital Abnormality
Perrault syndrome is a rare condition that causes different patterns of signs and symptoms in affected males and females. A key feature of this condition is hearing loss, which occurs in both males and females. Affected females also have abnormalities of the ovaries. Neurological problems occur in some affected males and females.In Perrault syndrome, the problems with hearing are caused by changes in the inner ear, which is known as sensorineural hearing loss. The impairment usually affects both ears and can be present at birth or begin in early childhood. Unless hearing is completely impaired at birth, the hearing problems worsen over time.Females with Perrault syndrome have abnormal or missing ovaries (ovarian dysgenesis), although their external genitalia are normal. Severely affected girls do not begin menstruation by age 16 (primary amenorrhea), and most never have a menstrual period. Less severely affected women have an early loss of ovarian function (primary ovarian insufficiency); their menstrual periods begin in adolescence, but they become less frequent and eventually stop before age 40. Women with Perrault syndrome may have difficulty conceiving or be unable to have biological children (infertile).Neurological problems in individuals with Perrault syndrome can include intellectual disability, difficulty with balance and coordinating movements (ataxia), and loss of sensation and weakness in the limbs (peripheral neuropathy). However, not everyone with this condition has neurological problems.
Cockayne syndrome B
MedGen UID:
155487
Concept ID:
C0751038
Disease or Syndrome
Cockayne syndrome (referred to as CS in this GeneReview) spans a phenotypic spectrum that includes: CS type I, the "classic" or "moderate" form; CS type II, a more severe form with symptoms present at birth; this form overlaps with cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome (COFS) or Pena-Shokeir syndrome type II; CS type III, a milder form; Xeroderma pigmentosum-Cockayne syndrome (XP-CS). CS type I (moderate CS) is characterized by normal prenatal growth with the onset of growth and developmental abnormalities in the first two years. By the time the disease has become fully manifest, height, weight, and head circumference are far below the fifth percentile. Progressive impairment of vision, hearing, and central and peripheral nervous system function leads to severe disability; death typically occurs in the first or second decade. CS type II (severe CS or early-onset CS) is characterized by growth failure at birth, with little or no postnatal neurologic development. Congenital cataracts or other structural anomalies of the eye may be present. Affected children have early postnatal contractures of the spine (kyphosis, scoliosis) and joints. Death usually occurs by age seven years. CS type III (mild CS or late-onset CS) is characterized by essentially normal growth and cognitive development or by late onset. Xeroderma pigmentosum-Cockayne syndrome (XP-CS) includes facial freckling and early skin cancers typical of XP and some features typical of CS, including intellectual disability, spasticity, short stature, and hypogonadism. XP-CS does not include skeletal involvement, the facial phenotype of CS, or CNS dysmyelination and calcifications.
Cockayne syndrome type A
MedGen UID:
155488
Concept ID:
C0751039
Disease or Syndrome
Cockayne syndrome (referred to as CS in this GeneReview) spans a phenotypic spectrum that includes: CS type I, the "classic" or "moderate" form; CS type II, a more severe form with symptoms present at birth; this form overlaps with cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome (COFS) or Pena-Shokeir syndrome type II; CS type III, a milder form; Xeroderma pigmentosum-Cockayne syndrome (XP-CS). CS type I (moderate CS) is characterized by normal prenatal growth with the onset of growth and developmental abnormalities in the first two years. By the time the disease has become fully manifest, height, weight, and head circumference are far below the fifth percentile. Progressive impairment of vision, hearing, and central and peripheral nervous system function leads to severe disability; death typically occurs in the first or second decade. CS type II (severe CS or early-onset CS) is characterized by growth failure at birth, with little or no postnatal neurologic development. Congenital cataracts or other structural anomalies of the eye may be present. Affected children have early postnatal contractures of the spine (kyphosis, scoliosis) and joints. Death usually occurs by age seven years. CS type III (mild CS or late-onset CS) is characterized by essentially normal growth and cognitive development or by late onset. Xeroderma pigmentosum-Cockayne syndrome (XP-CS) includes facial freckling and early skin cancers typical of XP and some features typical of CS, including intellectual disability, spasticity, short stature, and hypogonadism. XP-CS does not include skeletal involvement, the facial phenotype of CS, or CNS dysmyelination and calcifications.
UDPglucose-4-epimerase deficiency
MedGen UID:
199598
Concept ID:
C0751161
Disease or Syndrome
Epimerase deficiency galactosemia (GALE deficiency galactosemia) is a continuum comprising three forms: Generalized. Enzyme activity is profoundly decreased in all tissues tested. Peripheral. Enzyme activity is deficient in red blood cells (RBC) and circulating white blood cells, but normal or near normal in all other tissues. Intermediate. Enzyme activity is deficient in red blood cells and circulating white blood cells and less than 50% of normal levels in other cells tested. Infants with generalized epimerase deficiency galactosemia develop clinical findings on a regular milk diet (which contains lactose, a disaccharide of galactose and glucose); manifestations include hypotonia, poor feeding, vomiting, weight loss, jaundice, hepatomegaly, liver dysfunction, aminoaciduria, and cataracts. Prompt removal of galactose/lactose from their diet resolves or prevents these acute symptoms. In contrast, neonates with the peripheral or intermediate form generally remain clinically well even on a regular milk diet and are usually only identified by biochemical testing, often in newborn screening programs.
Cowchock syndrome
MedGen UID:
162891
Concept ID:
C0795910
Disease or Syndrome
Cowchock syndrome (COWCK) is an X-linked recessive neuromuscular disorder characterized by early childhood onset of a slowly progressive axonal sensorimotor neuropathy associated in some patients with sensorineural deafness and cognitive impairment (summary by Rinaldi et al., 2012).
Fountain syndrome
MedGen UID:
208650
Concept ID:
C0795944
Disease or Syndrome
An extremely rare multi-systemic genetic disorder with characteristics of intellectual disability, deafness, skeletal abnormalities and coarse facial features.The syndrome is exceedingly rare and has been reported in only a few patients to date. Male and female patients have been described. The main clinical features include moderate to severe intellectual deficit, congenital sensorineural hearing impairment and broad, stubby hands and feet. A coarse face with full lips and cheeks is also found. These signs are reported to become more prominent with age. The pattern of inheritance appears to be autosomal recessive.
Mental retardation-hypotonic facies syndrome X-linked, 1
MedGen UID:
167093
Concept ID:
C0796003
Disease or Syndrome
The term 'X-linked mental retardation-hypotonic facies syndrome' comprises several syndromes previously reported separately. These include Juberg-Marsidi, Carpenter-Waziri, Holmes-Gang, and Smith-Fineman-Myers syndromes as well as 1 family with X-linked mental retardation with spastic paraplegia. All these syndromes were found to be caused by mutation in the XH2 gene and are characterized primarily by severe mental retardation, dysmorphic facies, and a highly skewed X-inactivation pattern in carrier women (Abidi et al., 2005). Other more variable features include hypogonadism, deafness, renal anomalies, and mild skeletal defects. X-linked alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome (ATR-X; 301040) is an allelic disorder with a similar phenotype with the addition of alpha-thalassemia and Hb H inclusion bodies in erythrocytes.
Richards-Rundle syndrome
MedGen UID:
163219
Concept ID:
C0796136
Disease or Syndrome
An extremely rare neurodegenerative disorder characterised by progressive spinocerebellar ataxia, sensorineural hearing loss, and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism associated with additional neurological manifestations (such as peripheral muscle wasting, nystagmus, intellectual disability or dementia) and ketoaciduria.
Spondyloperipheral dysplasia
MedGen UID:
163223
Concept ID:
C0796173
Disease or Syndrome
Spondyloperipheral dysplasia is a disorder that impairs bone growth. This condition is characterized by flattened bones of the spine (platyspondyly) and unusually short fingers and toes (brachydactyly), with the exception of the first (big) toes. Other skeletal abnormalities associated with spondyloperipheral dysplasia include short stature, shortened long bones of the arms and legs, exaggerated curvature of the lower back (lordosis), and an inward- and upward-turning foot (clubfoot). Additionally, some affected individuals have nearsightedness (myopia), hearing loss, and intellectual disability.
Pettigrew syndrome
MedGen UID:
162924
Concept ID:
C0796254
Disease or Syndrome
Pettigrew syndrome is characterized by mental retardation and highly variable additional features, including choreoathetosis, hydrocephalus, Dandy-Walker malformation, seizures, and iron or calcium deposition in the brain, both between and within families (summary by Cacciagli et al., 2014). See 311510 for another X-linked mental retardation syndrome associated with basal ganglia disease (Waisman syndrome). See 220219 for another mental retardation syndrome with Dandy-Walker malformation.
Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome
MedGen UID:
163239
Concept ID:
C0796274
Disease or Syndrome
Riboflavin transporter deficiency neuronopathy is a disorder that affects nerve cells (neurons). Affected individuals typically have hearing loss caused by nerve damage in the inner ear (sensorineural hearing loss) and signs of damage to other nerves.In addition to nerves in the inner ear, riboflavin transporter deficiency neuronopathy involves nerves found in the part of the brain that is connected to the spinal cord (the brainstem), specifically in a region of the brainstem known as the pontobulbar region. Damage to these nerves causes paralysis of the muscles controlled by them, a condition called pontobulbar palsy. Nerves in the pontobulbar region help control several voluntary muscle activities, including breathing, speaking, and moving the limbs. As a result of pontobulbar palsy, people with riboflavin transporter deficiency neuronopathy can have breathing problems; slurred speech; and muscle weakness in the face, neck, shoulders, and limbs. Affected individuals can also have muscle stiffness (spasticity) and exaggerated reflexes.The age at which riboflavin transporter deficiency neuronopathy begins varies from infancy to young adulthood. When the condition begins in infancy, the first symptom is often breathing problems caused by nerve damage, which can be life-threatening. When the condition begins in children or young adults, sensorineural hearing loss usually occurs first, followed by signs of pontobulbar palsy.If not treated, the signs and symptoms of riboflavin transporter deficiency neuronopathy worsen over time. Severe breathing problems and respiratory infections are the usual cause of death in people with this condition. Without treatment, affected infants typically survive less than one year. However, those who develop the condition after age 4 often survive more than 10 years.Riboflavin transporter deficiency neuronopathy encompasses two conditions that were once considered distinct disorders: Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome (BVVLS) and Fazio-Londe disease. The two conditions have similar signs and symptoms, but Fazio-Londe disease does not include sensorineural hearing loss. Because these two conditions share a genetic cause and have overlapping features, researchers determined that they are forms of a single disorder.
Oculogastrointestinal muscular dystrophy
MedGen UID:
167876
Concept ID:
C0872218
Disease or Syndrome
An extremely rare autosomal recessively inherited neuromuscular disease characterised by ocular manifestations such as ptosis and diplopia followed by chronic diarrhoea, malnutrition and intestinal pseudo-obstruction.
SHORT syndrome
MedGen UID:
164212
Concept ID:
C0878684
Disease or Syndrome
SHORT syndrome is a mnemonic for short stature, hyperextensibility, ocular depression (deeply set eyes), Rieger anomaly, and teething delay. It is now recognized that the features most consistently observed in SHORT syndrome are mild intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR); mild short stature; partial lipodystrophy (evident at birth in the face, and later in the chest and upper extremities, often sparing the buttocks and legs); and a characteristic facial gestalt. Other frequent features include: Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly or related ocular anterior chamber dysgenesis; delayed dentition and a variety of dental abnormalities; insulin resistance (typically in mid-childhood to adolescence) and/or diabetes mellitus in early adulthood; and sensorineural hearing loss. To date the diagnosis has been molecularly confirmed in individuals from 16 families; thus, the current understanding of the phenotypic spectrum and natural history are likely to evolve over time.
Progeroid short stature with pigmented nevi
MedGen UID:
224702
Concept ID:
C1261128
Disease or Syndrome
Mulvihill-Smith syndrome is characterized by premature aging, multiple pigmented nevi, lack of facial subcutaneous fat, microcephaly, short stature, sensorineural hearing loss, and mental retardation. Immunodeficiency may also be a feature. Adult manifestations include the development of tumors, a sleep disorder with severe insomnia, and cognitive decline (summary by Yagihashi et al., 2009).
Carpenter syndrome
MedGen UID:
226897
Concept ID:
C1275078
Disease or Syndrome
Carpenter syndrome is a condition characterized by the premature fusion of certain skull bones (craniosynostosis), abnormalities of the fingers and toes, and other developmental problems.Craniosynostosis prevents the skull from growing normally, frequently giving the head a pointed appearance (acrocephaly). In severely affected individuals, the abnormal fusion of the skull bones results in a deformity called a cloverleaf skull. Craniosynostosis can cause differences between the two sides of the head and face (craniofacial asymmetry). Early fusion of the skull bones can affect the development of the brain and lead to increased pressure within the skull (intracranial pressure). Premature fusion of the skull bones can cause several characteristic facial features in people with Carpenter syndrome. Distinctive facial features may include a flat nasal bridge, outside corners of the eyes that point downward (down-slanting palpebral fissures), low-set and abnormally shaped ears, underdeveloped upper and lower jaws, and abnormal eye shape. Some affected individuals also have dental abnormalities including small primary (baby) teeth. Vision problems also frequently occur.Abnormalities of the fingers and toes include fusion of the skin between two or more fingers or toes (cutaneous syndactyly), unusually short fingers or toes (brachydactyly), or extra fingers or toes (polydactyly). In Carpenter syndrome, cutaneous syndactyly is most common between the third (middle) and fourth (ring) fingers, and polydactyly frequently occurs next to the big or second toe or the fifth (pinky) finger.People with Carpenter syndrome often have intellectual disability, which can range from mild to profound. However, some individuals with this condition have normal intelligence. The cause of intellectual disability is unknown, as the severity of craniosynostosis does not appear to be related to the severity of intellectual disability.Other features of Carpenter syndrome include obesity that begins in childhood, a soft out-pouching around the belly-button (umbilical hernia), hearing loss, and heart defects. Additional skeletal abnormalities such as deformed hips, a rounded upper back that also curves to the side (kyphoscoliosis), and knees that are angled inward (genu valgum) frequently occur. Nearly all affected males have genital abnormalities, most frequently undescended testes (cryptorchidism).A few people with Carpenter syndrome have organs or tissues within their chest and abdomen that are in mirror-image reversed positions. This abnormal placement may affect several internal organs (situs inversus); just the heart (dextrocardia), placing the heart on the right side of the body instead of on the left; or only the major (great) arteries of the heart, altering blood flow.The signs and symptoms of this disorder vary considerably, even within the same family. The life expectancy for individuals with Carpenter syndrome is shortened but extremely variable.The signs and symptoms of Carpenter syndrome are similar to another genetic condition called Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome. The overlapping features, which include craniosynostosis, polydactyly, and heart abnormalities, can cause these two conditions to be misdiagnosed; genetic testing is often required for an accurate diagnosis.
Autosomal recessive keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness syndrome
MedGen UID:
224809
Concept ID:
C1275089
Disease or Syndrome
Keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness (KID) syndrome is characterized by eye problems, skin abnormalities, and hearing loss.People with KID syndrome usually have keratitis, which is inflammation of the front surface of the eye (the cornea). The keratitis may cause pain, increased sensitivity to light (photophobia), abnormal blood vessel growth over the cornea (neovascularization), and scarring. Over time, affected individuals experience a loss of sharp vision (reduced visual acuity); in severe cases the keratitis can lead to blindness.Most people with KID syndrome have thick, hard skin on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet (palmoplantar keratoderma). Affected individuals also have thick, reddened patches of skin (erythrokeratoderma) that are dry and scaly (ichthyosis). These dry patches can occur anywhere on the body, although they most commonly affect the neck, groin, and armpits. Breaks in the skin often occur and may lead to infections. In severe cases these infections can be life-threatening, especially in infancy. Approximately 12 percent of people with KID syndrome develop a type of skin cancer called squamous cell carcinoma, which may also affect mucous membranes such as the lining of the mouth.Partial hair loss is a common feature of KID syndrome, and often affects the eyebrows and eyelashes. Affected individuals may also have small, abnormally formed nails.Hearing loss in this condition is usually profound, but occasionally is less severe.
Deficiency of glycerate kinase
MedGen UID:
226941
Concept ID:
C1291386
Disease or Syndrome
D-glyceric aciduria is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Some patients have an encephalopathic presentation, with severe mental retardation, seizures, microcephaly, and sometimes early death, whereas others have a mild phenotype with only mild speech delay or even normal development (summary by Sass et al., 2010).
WT limb blood syndrome
MedGen UID:
231231
Concept ID:
C1327917
Disease or Syndrome
Syndrome is characterised by haematological anomalies (Fanconi anaemia, leukaemia and lymphoma) often appearing during childhood. Anomalies of the limbs and hands are also present: bifid or hypoplastic thumbs, cutaneous syndactyly and ulnar and radial defects. The syndrome has been described in several families. Transmission is autosomal dominant.
Kallmann syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
289648
Concept ID:
C1563720
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt.
Alport syndrome 1, X-linked recessive
MedGen UID:
292688
Concept ID:
C1567742
Disease or Syndrome
In Alport syndrome (AS) a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from progressive renal disease with extrarenal abnormalities to isolated hematuria with a non-progressive or very slowly progressive course is observed. Approximately two thirds of AS is X-linked (XLAS); approximately 15% is autosomal recessive (ARAS), and approximately 20% is autosomal dominant (ADAS). In the absence of treatment, renal disease progresses from microscopic hematuria (microhematuria) to proteinuria, progressive renal insufficiency, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in all males with XLAS, and in all males and females with ARAS. Progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is usually present by late childhood or early adolescence. Ocular findings include anterior lenticonus (which is virtually pathognomonic), maculopathy (whitish or yellowish flecks or granulations in the perimacular region), corneal endothelial vesicles (posterior polymorphous dystrophy), and recurrent corneal erosion. In individuals with ADAS, ESRD is frequently delayed until later adulthood, SNHL is relatively late in onset, and ocular involvement is rare.
Alport syndrome 3, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
339210
Concept ID:
C1567743
Disease or Syndrome
In Alport syndrome (AS) a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from progressive renal disease with extrarenal abnormalities to isolated hematuria with a non-progressive or very slowly progressive course is observed. Approximately two thirds of AS is X-linked (XLAS); approximately 15% is autosomal recessive (ARAS), and approximately 20% is autosomal dominant (ADAS). In the absence of treatment, renal disease progresses from microscopic hematuria (microhematuria) to proteinuria, progressive renal insufficiency, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in all males with XLAS, and in all males and females with ARAS. Progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is usually present by late childhood or early adolescence. Ocular findings include anterior lenticonus (which is virtually pathognomonic), maculopathy (whitish or yellowish flecks or granulations in the perimacular region), corneal endothelial vesicles (posterior polymorphous dystrophy), and recurrent corneal erosion. In individuals with ADAS, ESRD is frequently delayed until later adulthood, SNHL is relatively late in onset, and ocular involvement is rare.
Usher syndrome, type 1
MedGen UID:
292820
Concept ID:
C1568247
Disease or Syndrome
Usher syndrome type I is characterized by congenital, bilateral, profound sensorineural hearing loss, vestibular areflexia, and adolescent-onset retinitis pigmentosa. Unless fitted with a cochlear implant, individuals do not typically develop speech. Retinitis pigmentosa (RP), a progressive, bilateral, symmetric degeneration of rod and cone functions of the retina, develops in adolescence, resulting in progressively constricted visual fields and impaired visual acuity.
Usher syndrome, type 3A
MedGen UID:
339336
Concept ID:
C1568248
Disease or Syndrome
Usher syndrome type III is characterized by postlingual, progressive hearing loss, variable vestibular dysfunction, and onset of retinitis pigmentosa symptoms, including nyctalopia, constriction of the visual fields, and loss of central visual acuity, usually by the second decade of life (Karjalainen et al., 1985; Pakarinen et al., 1995). For a discussion of phenotypic heterogeneity of Usher syndrome, see USH1 (276900). Genetic Heterogeneity of Usher syndrome Type III Usher syndrome type IIIB (614504) is caused by mutation in the HARS gene (142810) on chromosome 5q31.3.
Duane-radial ray syndrome
MedGen UID:
301647
Concept ID:
C1623209
Disease or Syndrome
SALL4-related disorders include Duane-radial ray syndrome (DRRS, Okihiro syndrome), acro-renal-ocular syndrome (AROS), and SALL4-related Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS), three phenotypes previously thought to be distinct entities: DRRS is characterized by uni- or bilateral Duane anomaly and radial ray malformation that can include thenar hypoplasia and/or hypoplasia or aplasia of the thumbs, hypoplasia or aplasia of the radii, shortening and radial deviation of the forearms, triphalangeal thumbs, and duplication of the thumb (preaxial polydactyly). AROS is characterized by radial ray malformations, renal abnormalities (mild malrotation, ectopia, horseshoe kidney, renal hypoplasia, vesico-ureteral reflux, bladder diverticula), ocular coloboma, and Duane anomaly. Rarely, pathogenic variants in SALL4 may cause clinically typical HOS (i.e., radial ray malformations and cardiac malformations without additional features).
Deafness, autosomal dominant 12
MedGen UID:
321902
Concept ID:
C1832187
Disease or Syndrome
Peroxisome biogenesis disorders, Zellweger syndrome spectrum
MedGen UID:
330407
Concept ID:
C1832200
Disease or Syndrome
Zellweger spectrum disorder (ZSD) is a phenotypic continuum ranging from severe to mild. While individual phenotypes (e.g., Zellweger syndrome [ZS], neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy [NALD], and infantile Refsum disease [IRD]) were described in the past before the biochemical and molecular bases of this spectrum were fully determined, the term "ZSD" is now used to refer to all individuals with a PEX gene defect regardless of phenotype. Individuals with ZSD usually come to clinical attention in the newborn period or later in childhood. Affected newborns are hypotonic and feed poorly. They have distinctive facies, congenital malformations (neuronal migration defects associated with neonatal-onset seizures, renal cysts, and bony stippling [chondrodysplasia punctata] of the patella[e] and other long bones), and liver disease that can be severe. Infants with severe ZSD are significantly impaired and typically die during the first year of life, usually having made no developmental progress. Individuals with intermediate/milder ZSD do not have congenital malformations, but rather progressive peroxisome dysfunction variably manifest as sensory loss (secondary to retinal dystrophy and sensorineural hearing loss); neurologic involvement (ataxia, polyneuropathy, and leukodystrophy); liver dysfunction; adrenal insufficiency; and renal oxalate stones. While hypotonia and developmental delays are typical, intellect can be normal. Some have osteopenia; almost all have ameleogenesis imperfecta in the secondary teeth.
Athabaskan brainstem dysgenesis
MedGen UID:
330410
Concept ID:
C1832215
Disease or Syndrome
Syndrome with characteristics of deafness, central hypoventilation, congenital ocular paralysis and developmental retardation. Cardiac anomalies and paralysis of the vocal chords may also be present. Six cases have been reported so far. Transmission is thought to be autosomal recessive.
Cerebrofacioarticular syndrome
MedGen UID:
318616
Concept ID:
C1832390
Disease or Syndrome
A rare multiple congenital anomalies syndrome with mild to severe intellectual disability, a distinctive facial gestalt (blepharophimosis, maxillary hypoplasia, telecanthus, microtia and atresia of the external auditory meatus) as well as skeletal and articular abnormalities (e.g. camptodactyly of the fingers, cutaneous syndactyly, talipes equinovarus, flexion contractures of the proximal interphalangeal joints, hip or elbow subluxation, joint laxity). May also present with neonatal hypotonia, variable respiratory manifestations, chronic feeding difficulties and gray matter heterotopia.
Chitty Hall Baraitser syndrome
MedGen UID:
371330
Concept ID:
C1832438
Disease or Syndrome
This syndrome has characteristics of sensorineural deafness, short stature, femoral epiphyseal dysplasia, umbilical and inguinal hernias and developmental delay (growth retardation and mild intellectual deficit). It has been described in two brothers born to consanguineous parents. They also have dysmorphic features (triangular face, pointed chin) and bilateral obstruction of lacrimal ducts. This syndrome is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait.
Cerebellar ataxia, areflexia, pes cavus, optic atrophy and sensorinural hearing loss
MedGen UID:
318633
Concept ID:
C1832466
Disease or Syndrome
ATP1A3-related neurologic disorders represent a clinical continuum in which at least three distinct phenotypes have been delineated: rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (RDP); alternating hemiplegia of childhood (ACH); and cerebellar ataxia, areflexia, pes cavus, optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss (CAPOS). However, some affected individuals have intermediate phenotypes or only a few features that do not fit well into one of these major phenotypes. RDP has been characterized by: abrupt onset of dystonia over days to weeks with parkinsonism (primarily bradykinesia and postural instability); common bulbar involvement; and absence or minimal response to an adequate trial of L-dopa therapy, with few exceptions. Often fever, physiologic stress, or alcoholic binges trigger the onset of symptoms. After their initial appearance, symptoms often stabilize with little improvement; occasionally second episodes occur with abrupt worsening of symptoms. Rarely, affected individuals have reported a more gradual onset of symptoms over weeks to months. Anxiety, depression, and seizures have been reported. Age of onset ranges from four to 55 years, although a childhood variation of RDP with onset between ages nine and 14 months has been reported. AHC is a complex neurodevelopmental syndrome most frequently manifesting in infancy or early childhood with paroxysmal episodic neurologic dysfunction including alternating hemiparesis or dystonia, quadriparesis, seizure-like episodes, and oculomotor abnormalities. Episodes can last for minutes, hours, days, or even weeks. Remission of symptoms occurs with sleep and immediately after awakening. Over time, persistent neurologic deficits including oculomotor apraxia, ataxia, choreoathetosis, dystonia, parkinsonism, and cognitive and behavioral dysfunction develop in the majority of those affected; more than 50% develop epilepsy in addition to their episodic movement disorder phenotype. CAPOS (cerebellar ataxia, areflexia, pes cavus, optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss) syndrome is characterized by episodes of ataxic encephalopathy and/or weakness during and after a febrile illness. Onset is between ages six months and four years. Some acute symptoms resolve; progression of sensory losses and severity vary.
Deafness, autosomal dominant 10
MedGen UID:
321966
Concept ID:
C1832476
Disease or Syndrome
Ayme-gripp syndrome
MedGen UID:
371416
Concept ID:
C1832812
Disease or Syndrome
Ayme-Gripp syndrome is a clinically homogeneous phenotype characterized by congenital cataracts, sensorineural hearing loss, intellectual disability, seizures, brachycephaly, a distinctive flat facial appearance, and reduced growth (Niceta et al., 2015).
Deafness, autosomal recessive 8
MedGen UID:
322046
Concept ID:
C1832827
Disease or Syndrome
Deafness, autosomal recessive 9
MedGen UID:
331376
Concept ID:
C1832828
Disease or Syndrome
OTOF-related deafness (DFNB9 nonsyndromic hearing loss) is characterized by two phenotypes: prelingual nonsyndromic hearing loss and, less frequently, temperature-sensitive nonsyndromic auditory neuropathy (TS-NSAN). The nonsyndromic hearing loss is bilateral severe-to-profound congenital deafness. In the first one or two years of life, OTOF-related deafness can appear to be an auditory neuropathy based on electrophysiologic testing in which auditory brain stem responses (ABRs) are absent and otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are present. However, with time OAEs disappear and electrophysiologic testing is more consistent with a cochlear defect. The distinction between auditory neuropathy and a cochlear defect is important as cochlear implants may be of marginal value in persons with auditory neuropathy but have been shown to be effective for individuals with OTOF-related deafness. TS-NSAN is characterized by normal-to-mild hearing loss in the absence of fever and significant hearing loss ranging from severe to profound in the presence of fever. When the fever resolves, hearing returns to normal.
Deafness, autosomal recessive 7
MedGen UID:
322084
Concept ID:
C1832978
Disease or Syndrome
Deafness, autosomal recessive 5
MedGen UID:
331485
Concept ID:
C1833319
Disease or Syndrome
Otodental dysplasia
MedGen UID:
318937
Concept ID:
C1833693
Disease or Syndrome
Otodental syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition characterized by grossly enlarged canine and molar teeth (globodontia), associated with sensorineural hearing loss. Ocular coloboma segregating with otodental syndrome has been reported (summary by Gregory-Evans et al., 2007).
Oculopharyngodistal myopathy
MedGen UID:
320250
Concept ID:
C1834014
Disease or Syndrome
Oculopharyngodistal myopathy (OPDM) is characterized by adult-onset of eye and facial muscle weakness, distal muscle weakness and atrophy, and pharyngeal involvement, resulting in dysphagia and dysarthria. There are variable manifestations of the disorder regarding muscle involvement and severity. Both autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant inheritance have been reported. OPDM is considered distinct from oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD; 164300), which is caused by mutation in the PABPN1 gene (602279) (summary by Durmus et al., 2011).
Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions 1
MedGen UID:
371919
Concept ID:
C1834846
Disease or Syndrome
POLG-related disorders comprise a continuum of overlapping phenotypes that were clinically defined long before their molecular basis was known. Most affected individuals have some, but not all, of the features of a given phenotype; nonetheless, the following nomenclature can assist the clinician in diagnosis and management. Onset of the POLG-related disorders ranges from infancy to late adulthood. Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (AHS), one of the most severe phenotypes, is characterized by childhood-onset progressive and ultimately severe encephalopathy with intractable epilepsy and hepatic failure. Childhood myocerebrohepatopathy spectrum (MCHS) presents between the first few months of life and about age three years with developmental delay or dementia, lactic acidosis, and a myopathy with failure to thrive. Other findings can include liver failure, renal tubular acidosis, pancreatitis, cyclic vomiting, and hearing loss. Myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia (MEMSA) now describes the spectrum of disorders with epilepsy, myopathy, and ataxia without ophthalmoplegia. MEMSA now includes the disorders previously described as spinocerebellar ataxia with epilepsy (SCAE). The ataxia neuropathy spectrum (ANS) includes the phenotypes previously referred to as mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome (MIRAS) and sensory ataxia neuropathy dysarthria and ophthalmoplegia (SANDO). About 90% of persons in the ANS have ataxia and neuropathy as core features. Approximately two thirds develop seizures and almost one half develop ophthalmoplegia; clinical myopathy is rare. Autosomal recessive progressive external ophthalmoplegia (arPEO) is characterized by progressive weakness of the extraocular eye muscles resulting in ptosis and ophthalmoparesis (or paresis of the extraocular muscles) without associated systemic involvement; however, caution is advised because many individuals with apparently isolated arPEO at the onset develop other manifestations of POLG-related disorders over years or decades. Of note, in the ANS spectrum the neuropathy commonly precedes the onset of PEO by years to decades. Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO) typically includes a generalized myopathy and often variable degrees of sensorineural hearing loss, axonal neuropathy, ataxia, depression, parkinsonism, hypogonadism, and cataracts (in what has been called "chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia plus," or "CPEO+").
Deafness, autosomal recessive 68
MedGen UID:
324374
Concept ID:
C1835854
Disease or Syndrome
Aminoacylase 1 deficiency
MedGen UID:
324393
Concept ID:
C1835922
Disease or Syndrome
Aminoacylase-1 deficiency (ACY1D) is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism characterized by increased urinary excretion of specific N-actyl amino acids. Most patients show neurologic abnormalities such as intellectual disability, seizures, hypotonia, and motor delay (summary by Ferri et al., 2014).
Deafness, autosomal recessive 23
MedGen UID:
332110
Concept ID:
C1836027
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebral dysgenesis, neuropathy, ichthyosis, and palmoplantar keratoderma syndrome
MedGen UID:
332113
Concept ID:
C1836033
Disease or Syndrome
CEDNIK (cerebral dysgenesis, neuropathy, ichthyosis, and keratoderma) syndrome refers to a unique constellation of clinical manifestations including microcephaly, severe neurologic impairment, psychomotor retardation, failure to thrive, and facial dysmorphism, as well as palmoplantar keratoderma and late-onset ichthyosis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows various degrees of cerebral dysgenesis including absence of corpus callosum and cortical dysplasia. The syndrome has been found to be uniformly fatal between the ages of 5 and 12 years (Fuchs-Telem et al., 2011).
Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions 2
MedGen UID:
322925
Concept ID:
C1836460
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia is characterized by multiple mitochondrial DNA deletions in skeletal muscle. The most common clinical features include adult onset of weakness of the external eye muscles and exercise intolerance. Both autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance can occur; autosomal recessive inheritance is usually more severe (Filosto et al., 2003; Luoma et al., 2004). PEO caused by mutations in the POLG gene are associated with more complicated phenotypes than those forms caused by mutations in the ANT1 or C10ORF2 genes (Lamantea et al., 2002). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia, see PEOA1 (157640).
Kanzaki disease
MedGen UID:
324539
Concept ID:
C1836522
Disease or Syndrome
Alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (NAGA) deficiency is a very rare lysosomal storage disorder with atypical features. It is clinically heterogeneous with 3 main phenotypes: type I is an infantile-onset neuroaxonal dystrophy (609241); type II, also known as Kanzaki disease, is an adult-onset disorder characterized by angiokeratoma corporis diffusum and mild intellectual impairment; and type III is an intermediate disorder (see 609241) with mild to moderate neurologic manifestations (Desnick and Schindler, 2001).
Branchiogenic-deafness syndrome
MedGen UID:
322970
Concept ID:
C1836673
Disease or Syndrome
A multiple congenital anomalies syndrome, described in one family to date, with characteristics of branchial cysts or fistula, ear malformations, congenital hearing loss (conductive, sensorineural, and mixed), internal auditory canal hypoplasia, strabismus, trismus, abnormal fifth fingers, vitiliginous lesions, short stature and mild learning disability. Renal and urethral abnormalities are absent.
Peripheral demyelinating neuropathy, central dysmyelination, Waardenburg syndrome, and Hirschsprung disease
MedGen UID:
373160
Concept ID:
C1836727
Disease or Syndrome
PCWH syndrome is a complex neurocristopathy that includes features of 4 distinct syndromes: peripheral demyelinating neuropathy (see 118200), central dysmyelination, Waardenburg syndrome, and Hirschsprung disease (see 142623) (Inoue et al., 2004). Inoue et al. (2004) proposed the acronym PCWH for this disorder.
Auditory neuropathy, autosomal dominant, 1
MedGen UID:
322984
Concept ID:
C1836743
Disease or Syndrome
Auditory neuropathy is a type of hearing loss defined by the preservation of cochlear outer hair cell function and abnormal or absent auditory brainstem responses. Auditory neuropathy may accompany peripheral neuropathy in a variety of dominant syndromes such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (Satya-Murti et al., 1979) and has been observed in Friedreich ataxia (Satya-Murti et al., 1980). Auditory neuropathy unassociated with peripheral neuropathy most commonly occurs as a sporadic or recessive trait; see, for example, 601071.
Nephropathy with pretibial epidermolysis bullosa and deafness
MedGen UID:
323004
Concept ID:
C1836823
Disease or Syndrome
Deafness, autosomal recessive 36, with or without vestibular involvement
MedGen UID:
324662
Concept ID:
C1837007
Disease or Syndrome
Insulin-like growth factor I deficiency
MedGen UID:
373337
Concept ID:
C1837475
Disease or Syndrome
Insufficient circulating insulin-like growth factor-I.
Deafness, autosomal dominant 28
MedGen UID:
324846
Concept ID:
C1837640
Disease or Syndrome
Deafness, autosomal recessive 35
MedGen UID:
324897
Concept ID:
C1837857
Disease or Syndrome
CODAS syndrome
MedGen UID:
333031
Concept ID:
C1838180
Disease or Syndrome
CODAS is an acronym for cerebral, ocular, dental, auricular, and skeletal anomalies. CODAS syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by a distinctive constellation of features that includes developmental delay, craniofacial anomalies, cataracts, ptosis, median nasal groove, delayed tooth eruption, hearing loss, short stature, delayed epiphyseal ossification, metaphyseal hip dysplasia, and vertebral coronal clefts (summary by Strauss et al., 2015).
Waardenburg syndrome type 2B
MedGen UID:
373973
Concept ID:
C1838447
Disease or Syndrome
Waardenburg syndrome type II (WS2) is an auditory-pigmentary syndrome characterized by pigmentary abnormalities of the hair, skin, and eyes; congenital sensorineural hearing loss; and the absence of 'dystopia canthorum,' the lateral displacement of the inner canthus of each eye, which is seen in some other forms of WS (Hughes et al., 1994). WS type 2B (WS2B) maps to chromosome 1p. Waardenburg syndrome type 2 is genetically heterogeneous (see WS2A; 193510). For a description of other clinical variants of Waardenburg syndrome, see WS1 (193500), WS3 (148820), and WS4 (277580).
Deafness, autosomal recessive 2
MedGen UID:
325485
Concept ID:
C1838701
Disease or Syndrome
Wolfram syndrome, mitochondrial form
MedGen UID:
325511
Concept ID:
C1838782
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex I deficiency
MedGen UID:
374101
Concept ID:
C1838979
Disease or Syndrome
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, X-linked recessive, type 5
MedGen UID:
374254
Concept ID:
C1839566
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type 5 (CMTX5), part of the spectrum of PRPS1-related disorders, is characterized by peripheral neuropathy, early-onset (prelingual) bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss, and optic neuropathy. The onset of peripheral neuropathy is between ages five and 12 years. The lower extremities are affected earlier and more severely than upper extremities. Initial manifestations often include foot drop or gait disturbance. Onset of visual impairment is between ages seven and 20 years. Intellect and life span are normal. Carrier females do not have findings of CMTX5.
Barakat syndrome
MedGen UID:
374443
Concept ID:
C1840333
Disease or Syndrome
A condition characterized by hypoparathyroidism, sensorineural deafness, and renal failure. It is related to autosomal dominant inactivating mutation(s) in GATA3, encoding a transcription factor important for the embryonic development of the parathyroid gland, the auditory stem, and the kidneys.
Deafness, autosomal dominant 43
MedGen UID:
330769
Concept ID:
C1842108
Disease or Syndrome
Branchiootic syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
333995
Concept ID:
C1842124
Disease or Syndrome
Branchiootorenal spectrum disorder (BORSD) is characterized by malformations of the outer, middle, and inner ear associated with conductive, sensorineural, or mixed hearing impairment, branchial fistulae and cysts, and renal malformations ranging from mild renal hypoplasia to bilateral renal agenesis. Some individuals progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) later in life. Extreme variability can be observed in the presence, severity, and type of branchial arch, otologic, audiologic, and renal abnormality from right side to left side in an affected individual and also among individuals in the same family.
Deafness, autosomal dominant 49
MedGen UID:
331222
Concept ID:
C1842136
Disease or Syndrome
Lipodystrophy, generalized, with mental retardation, deafness, short stature, and slender bones
MedGen UID:
334166
Concept ID:
C1842465
Disease or Syndrome
Neuropathy, hereditary sensory and autonomic, type I, with cough and gastroesophageal reflux
MedGen UID:
330880
Concept ID:
C1842586
Disease or Syndrome
The hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN), which are also referred to as hereditary sensory neuropathies (HSN) in the absence of significant autonomic features, are a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of disorders associated with sensory dysfunction. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HSAN, see HSAN1A (162400).
Chromosome 1p36 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
334629
Concept ID:
C1842870
Disease or Syndrome
1p36 deletion syndrome is characterized by typical craniofacial features consisting of straight eyebrows, deeply set eyes, midface retrusion, wide and depressed nasal bridge, long philtrum, pointed chin, large, late-closing anterior fontanel (77%), microbrachycephaly (65%), epicanthal folds (50%), and posteriorly rotated, low-set, abnormal ears. Other characteristic findings include brachy/camptodactyly and short feet. Developmental delay/intellectual disability of variable degree are present in all, and hypotonia in 95%. Seizures occur in 44%-58% of affected individuals. Other findings include structural brain abnormalities (88%), congenital heart defects (71%), eye/vision problems (52%), hearing loss (47%), skeletal anomalies (41%), abnormalities of the external genitalia (25%), and renal abnormalities (22%).
Deafness, autosomal dominant 48
MedGen UID:
375052
Concept ID:
C1842939
Disease or Syndrome
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2J
MedGen UID:
375107
Concept ID:
C1843153
Disease or Syndrome
For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of axonal CMT, see CMT2A1 (118210).
Sensory ataxic neuropathy, dysarthria, and ophthalmoparesis
MedGen UID:
375302
Concept ID:
C1843851
Disease or Syndrome
POLG-related disorders comprise a continuum of overlapping phenotypes that were clinically defined long before their molecular basis was known. Most affected individuals have some, but not all, of the features of a given phenotype; nonetheless, the following nomenclature can assist the clinician in diagnosis and management. Onset of the POLG-related disorders ranges from infancy to late adulthood. Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (AHS), one of the most severe phenotypes, is characterized by childhood-onset progressive and ultimately severe encephalopathy with intractable epilepsy and hepatic failure. Childhood myocerebrohepatopathy spectrum (MCHS) presents between the first few months of life and about age three years with developmental delay or dementia, lactic acidosis, and a myopathy with failure to thrive. Other findings can include liver failure, renal tubular acidosis, pancreatitis, cyclic vomiting, and hearing loss. Myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia (MEMSA) now describes the spectrum of disorders with epilepsy, myopathy, and ataxia without ophthalmoplegia. MEMSA now includes the disorders previously described as spinocerebellar ataxia with epilepsy (SCAE). The ataxia neuropathy spectrum (ANS) includes the phenotypes previously referred to as mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome (MIRAS) and sensory ataxia neuropathy dysarthria and ophthalmoplegia (SANDO). About 90% of persons in the ANS have ataxia and neuropathy as core features. Approximately two thirds develop seizures and almost one half develop ophthalmoplegia; clinical myopathy is rare. Autosomal recessive progressive external ophthalmoplegia (arPEO) is characterized by progressive weakness of the extraocular eye muscles resulting in ptosis and ophthalmoparesis (or paresis of the extraocular muscles) without associated systemic involvement; however, caution is advised because many individuals with apparently isolated arPEO at the onset develop other manifestations of POLG-related disorders over years or decades. Of note, in the ANS spectrum the neuropathy commonly precedes the onset of PEO by years to decades. Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO) typically includes a generalized myopathy and often variable degrees of sensorineural hearing loss, axonal neuropathy, ataxia, depression, parkinsonism, hypogonadism, and cataracts (in what has been called "chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia plus," or "CPEO+").
Deafness, autosomal dominant 44
MedGen UID:
334525
Concept ID:
C1843895
Disease or Syndrome
Coenzyme Q10 deficiency
MedGen UID:
334528
Concept ID:
C1843920
Disease or Syndrome
A genetically heterogeneous condition, typically inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion, characterized by coenzyme Q10 deficiency.
Deafness, X-linked 1
MedGen UID:
336749
Concept ID:
C1844677
Disease or Syndrome
DFNX1 nonsyndromic hearing loss and deafness is part of the spectrum of PRPS1-related disorders. Hearing loss in hemizygous males is bilateral, sensorineural, and moderate to profound; prelingual or postlingual in onset; and progressive or non-progressive. The audiogram shape is variable. Hearing in female carriers can be normal or abnormal.
Spinocerebellar ataxia X-linked type 3
MedGen UID:
337124
Concept ID:
C1844936
Disease or Syndrome
This syndrome is a form of spinocerebellar degeneration with onset in infancy of hypotonia, ataxia, sensorineural deafness, developmental delay, esotropia and optic atrophy and by a progressive course leading to death in childhood. It has been described one family with at least six affected males from five different sibships (connected through carrier females). It is transmitted as an X-linked recessive trait.
ATR-X syndrome
MedGen UID:
337145
Concept ID:
C1845055
Disease or Syndrome
Alpha-thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability (ATRX) syndrome is characterized by distinctive craniofacial features, genital anomalies, severe developmental delays, hypotonia, intellectual disability, and mild-to-moderate anemia secondary to alpha-thalassemia. Craniofacial abnormalities include small head circumference, telecanthus or widely spaced eyes, short nose, tented vermilion of the upper lip, and thick or everted vermilion of the lower lip with coarsening of the facial features over time. Although all affected individuals have a normal 46,XY karyotype, genital anomalies range from hypospadias and undescended testicles to severe hypospadias and ambiguous genitalia, to normal-appearing female external genitalia. Global developmental delays are evident in infancy and some affected individuals never walk independently or develop significant speech.
Mental retardation, X-linked, syndromic, martin-probst type
MedGen UID:
375620
Concept ID:
C1845285
Disease or Syndrome
Contiguous abcd1/dxs1375e deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
336933
Concept ID:
C1845408
Disease or Syndrome
Corpus callosum, agenesis of, with mental retardation, ocular coloboma, and micrognathia
MedGen UID:
335185
Concept ID:
C1845446
Disease or Syndrome
Mental retardation 46, X-linked
MedGen UID:
337255
Concept ID:
C1845526
Disease or Syndrome
FG syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
336965
Concept ID:
C1845546
Disease or Syndrome
CASK-related disorders include a spectrum of phenotypes in both females and males. The two main types of clinical presentation are: Microcephaly with pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia (MICPCH), generally associated with pathogenic loss-of-function variants in CASK; and X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) with or without nystagmus, generally associated with hypomorphic CASK pathogenic variants. MICPCH is typically seen in females with moderate to severe intellectual disability, progressive microcephaly with or without ophthalmologic anomalies, and sensorineural hearing loss. To date a total of 53 females with MICPCH have been reported, the eldest of whom is 21 years old. Most are able to sit independently; 20%-25% attain the ability to walk; language is nearly absent in most. Neurologic features may include axial hypotonia, hypertonia/spasticity of the extremities, and dystonia or other movement disorders. Nearly 40% have seizures. Behaviors may include sleep disturbances, hand stereotypies, and self-biting. To date, only seven males have been reported with the severe phenotype. The under-representation in this cohort is likely to be a consequence of early male lethality. These males typically present with intellectual disability and MICPCH, or early-infantile epileptic encephalopathy (Ohtahara syndrome, West syndrome, or early myoclonic epilepsy). In individuals and families with milder (i.e., hypomorphic) pathogenic variants, the clinical phenotype is usually that of X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) with or without nystagmus and additional clinical features. More than 24 males and nine females have been reported. The males have mild to severe intellectual disability, with or without nystagmus and other ocular features. Females are typically normal, with some displaying mild intellectual disability with or without ocular features.
Oculofaciocardiodental syndrome
MedGen UID:
337547
Concept ID:
C1846265
Disease or Syndrome
Lenz microphthalmia syndrome (LMS) is characterized by unilateral or bilateral microphthalmia and/or clinical anophthalmia with malformations of the ears, teeth, fingers, skeleton, and/or genitourinary system. Microphthalmia is often accompanied by microcornea and glaucoma. Coloboma is present in approximately 60% of microphthalmic eyes with severity ranging from isolated iris coloboma to coloboma of the ciliary body, choroid, and optic disk. Ears may be low set, anteverted, posteriorly rotated, simple, cup shaped, or abnormally modeled. Hearing loss has been observed. Dental findings include irregularly shaped, missing, or widely spaced teeth. Duplicated thumbs, syndactyly, clinodactyly, camptodactyly, and microcephaly are common, as are narrow/sloping shoulders, underdeveloped clavicles, kyphoscoliosis, exaggerated lumbar lordosis, long cylindric thorax, and webbed neck. Genitourinary anomalies include hypospadias, cryptorchidism, renal hypoplasia/aplasia, and hydroureter. Approximately 60% of affected males have mild-to-severe intellectual disability or developmental delay.
Juvenile-onset dystonia
MedGen UID:
339494
Concept ID:
C1846331
Disease or Syndrome
Baraitser-Winter cerebrofrontofacial (BWCFF) syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by typical craniofacial features and intellectual disability (ID) that ranges from mild (usually in those with normal brain structure) to profound (typically in those with a neuronal migration defect). Many (but not all) affected individuals have iris or retinal coloboma, sensorineural deafness, and muscle wasting resulting in a peculiar stance with kyphosis, anteverted shoulders, and slightly flexed elbows and knees. Seizures, congenital heart defects, and renal malformations also are common.
Deafness, autosomal recessive 31
MedGen UID:
339621
Concept ID:
C1846839
Disease or Syndrome
Deafness, autosomal recessive 22
MedGen UID:
339636
Concept ID:
C1846896
Disease or Syndrome
Deafness, autosomal dominant 21
MedGen UID:
339643
Concept ID:
C1846922
Disease or Syndrome
Usher syndrome, type 1G
MedGen UID:
339683
Concept ID:
C1847089
Disease or Syndrome
Usher syndrome type I is characterized by congenital, bilateral, profound sensorineural hearing loss, vestibular areflexia, and adolescent-onset retinitis pigmentosa. Unless fitted with a cochlear implant, individuals do not typically develop speech. Retinitis pigmentosa (RP), a progressive, bilateral, symmetric degeneration of rod and cone functions of the retina, develops in adolescence, resulting in progressively constricted visual fields and impaired visual acuity.
Deafness, autosomal dominant 36
MedGen UID:
376173
Concept ID:
C1847626
Disease or Syndrome
Deafness, X-linked 4
MedGen UID:
376307
Concept ID:
C1848204
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked deafness-4 is a nonsyndromic form of progressive hearing loss with postlingual onset. Affected males show earlier onset of hearing loss than affected females (summary by del Castillo et al., 1996).
Waardenburg syndrome type 4A
MedGen UID:
341244
Concept ID:
C1848519
Disease or Syndrome
Waardenburg syndrome type 4 (WS4), also known as Waardenburg-Shah syndrome, is an auditory-pigmentary syndrome characterized by pigmentary abnormalities of the hair, skin, and eyes, congenital sensorineural hearing loss, and Hirschsprung disease (reviews by Read and Newton, 1997 and Pingault et al., 2010). WS type 4A is caused by mutation in the EDNRB gene (131244). Clinical Variability of Waardenburg Syndrome Types 1-4 Waardenburg syndrome has been classified into 4 main phenotypes. Type I Waardenburg syndrome (WS1; 193500) is characterized by pigmentary abnormalities of the hair, including a white forelock and premature graying; pigmentary changes of the iris, such as heterochromia iridis and brilliant blue eyes; congenital sensorineural hearing loss; and 'dystopia canthorum.' WS type II (WS2) is distinguished from type I by the absence of dystopia canthorum. WS type III (WS3; 148820) has dystopia canthorum and is distinguished by the presence of upper limb abnormalities. WS type 4 has the additional feature of Hirschsprung disease (reviews by Read and Newton, 1997 and Pingault et al., 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Waardenburg Syndrome Type 4 Waardenburg syndrome type 4 is genetically heterogeneous. WS4B (613265) is caused by mutation in the EDN3 gene (131242) on chromosome 20q13, and WS4C (613266) is caused by mutation in the SOX10 gene (602229) on chromosome 22q13.
Thyrocerebral-retinal syndrome
MedGen UID:
341311
Concept ID:
C1848813
Disease or Syndrome
Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome
MedGen UID:
341339
Concept ID:
C1848934
Disease or Syndrome
The FLNB-related disorders include a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from mild (spondylocarpotarsal synostosis [SCT] syndrome and Larsen syndrome) to severe (atelosteogenesis types I [AOI] and III [AOIII], boomerang dysplasia). SCT syndrome is characterized by disproportionate short stature, block vertebrae, scoliosis and lordosis, carpal and tarsal fusion, club feet, hearing loss, dental enamel hypoplasia, and mild facial dysmorphisms. Larsen syndrome is characterized by congenital dislocations of the hip, knee, and elbow; club feet (equinovarus or equinovalgus foot deformities); scoliosis and cervical kyphosis, which can be associated with a cervical myelopathy; short, broad, spatulate distal phalanges; and distinctive craniofacies (prominent forehead, depressed nasal bridge, malar flattening, and widely spaced eyes). Both can have midline cleft palate and conductive hearing loss. AOIII and AOI are characterized by severe short-limbed dwarfism; dislocated hips, knees, and elbows; and club feet. AOI is lethal in the perinatal period.
Spastic paraplegia 5A
MedGen UID:
376521
Concept ID:
C1849115
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia-5A is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder with a wide phenotypic spectrum. Some patients have pure spastic paraplegia affecting only gait, whereas others may have a complicated phenotype with additional manifestations, including optic atrophy or cerebellar ataxia (summary by Arnoldi et al., 2012). The hereditary spastic paraplegias (SPG) are a group of clinically and genetically diverse disorders characterized by progressive, usually severe, lower extremity spasticity; see reviews of Fink et al. (1996) and Fink (1997). Inheritance is most often autosomal dominant (see 182600), but X-linked (see 303350) and autosomal recessive forms also occur. Genetic Heterogeneity of Autosomal Recessive Spastic Paraplegia Autosomal recessive forms of SPG include SPG7 (607259), caused by mutation in the paraplegin gene (602783) on chromosome 16q24; SPG9B (616586), caused by mutation in the ALDH18A1 gene (138250) on 10q24; SPG11 (604360), caused by mutation in the spatacsin gene (610844) on 15q21; SPG15 (270700), caused by mutation in the ZFYVE26 gene (612012) on 14q24; SPG18 (611225), caused by mutation in the ERLIN2 gene (611605) on 8p11; SPG20 (275900), caused by mutation in the spartin gene (607111) on 13q12; SPG21 (248900), caused by mutation in the maspardin gene (608181) on 15q21; SPG26 (609195), caused by mutation in the B4GALNT1 gene (601873) on 12q13; SPG28 (609340), caused by mutation in the DDHD1 gene (614603) on 14q22; SPG30 (610357), caused by mutation in the KIF1A gene (601255) on 2q37; SPG35 (612319), caused by mutation in the FA2H gene (611026) on 16q23; SPG39 (612020), caused by mutation in the PNPLA6 gene (603197) on 19p13.3; SPG43 (615043), caused by mutation in the C19ORF12 gene (614297) on 19q12; SPG44 (613206), caused by mutation in the GJC2 gene (608803) on 1q42; SPG45 (613162), caused by mutation in the NT5C2 gene (600417) on 10q24; SPG46 (614409), caused by mutation in the GBA2 gene (609471) on 9p13; SPG48 (613647), caused by mutation in the KIAA0415 gene (613653) on 7p22.1; SPG49 (615031) caused by mutation in the TECPR2 gene (615000) on 14q32; SPG54 (615033), caused by mutation in the DDHD2 gene (615003) on 8p11; SPG55 (615035), caused by mutation in the C12ORF65 gene on 12q24; SPG56 (615030), caused by mutation in the CYP2U1 gene (610670) on 4q25; SPG57 (615658), caused by mutation in the TFG gene (602498) on 3q12; SPG61 (615685), caused by mutation in the ARL6IP1 gene (607669) on 1p12; SPG62 (615681), caused by mutation in the ERLIN1 gene on 10q24; SPG63 (615686), caused by mutation in the AMPD2 gene (102771) on 1p13; SPG64 (615683), caused by mutation in the ENTPD1 gene (601752) on 10q24; SPG72 (615625), caused by mutation in the REEP2 gene (609347) on 5q31; SPG74 (616451), caused by mutation in the IBA57 gene (615316) on 1q42; SPG75 (616680), caused by mutation in the MAG gene (159460) on 19q13; SPG76 (616907), caused by mutation in the CAPN1 gene (114220) on 11q13; SPG77 (617046), caused by mutation in the FARS2 gene (611592) on 6p25; SPG78, caused by mutation in the ATP13A2 gene (610513) on 1p36; and SPG79 (615491), caused by mutation in the UCHL1 gene (191342) on 4p13. Additional autosomal recessive forms of SPG have been mapped to chromosomes 3q (SPG14; 605229), 13q14 (SPG24; 607584), 6q (SPG25; 608220), and 10q22 (SPG27; 609041).
Spastic ataxia
MedGen UID:
376528
Concept ID:
C1849156
Disease or Syndrome
Retinitis pigmentosa inversa with deafness
MedGen UID:
341447
Concept ID:
C1849405
Disease or Syndrome
Nephropathy deafness hyperparathyroidism
MedGen UID:
340569
Concept ID:
C1850553
Disease or Syndrome
Nasodigitoacoustic syndrome
MedGen UID:
338088
Concept ID:
C1850627
Disease or Syndrome
Keipert syndrome is characterized by brachydactyly, broad thumbs and halluces, hypertelorism and other minor facial dysmorphic features, and sensorineural deafness. Phenotypically related syndromes include Teunissen-Cremers syndrome (184460), Muenke syndrome (602849) and Keutel syndrome (245150) (Nik-Zainal et al., 2008).
Friedreich ataxia, so-called, with optic atrophy and sensorineural deafness
MedGen UID:
376920
Concept ID:
C1850982
Disease or Syndrome
Deafness, autosomal dominant 1
MedGen UID:
343767
Concept ID:
C1852282
Disease or Syndrome
DFNA1 is an autosomal dominant form of progressive hearing loss with onset in the first decade. Some patients may have mild thrombocytopenia and enlarged platelets, although most of these individuals do not have significant bleeding tendencies (summary by Neuhaus et al., 2017).
Deafness, mid-tone neural
MedGen UID:
338897
Concept ID:
C1852283
Disease or Syndrome
Craniofacial deafness hand syndrome
MedGen UID:
377694
Concept ID:
C1852510
Disease or Syndrome
Craniofacial-deafness-hand syndrome is characterized by distinctive facial features, profound hearing loss, and hand abnormalities.The distinctive facial features of people with craniofacial-deafness-hand syndrome result from a variety of developmental abnormalities involving the skull (cranium) and face. Affected individuals often have underdeveloped or absent nasal bones resulting in a small nose, thin nostrils, and a flattened mid-face with a flat nasal bridge. Individuals with this condition typically also have widely spaced eyes (ocular hypertelorism), narrowed openings of the eyes (narrowed palpebral fissures), a small upper jaw (hypoplastic maxilla), and a small mouth with pursed lips.People with this condition also have profound hearing loss that is caused by abnormalities in the inner ear (sensorineural deafness). Hearing loss in these individuals is present from birth.In affected individuals, a common abnormality of the muscles in the hand is a malformation in which all of the fingers are angled outward toward the fifth finger (ulnar deviation). People with craniofacial-deafness-hand syndrome may also have permanently bent third, fourth, and fifth fingers (camptodactyly), which can limit finger movement and lead to joint deformities called contractures. Contractures in the wrist can further impair hand movements.
Renal coloboma syndrome
MedGen UID:
339002
Concept ID:
C1852759
Disease or Syndrome
PAX2-related disorder is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with renal and eye abnormalities. The disorder was originally referred to as renal coloboma syndrome and characterized by renal hypodysplasia and abnormalities of the optic nerve; with improved access to molecular testing, a wider range of phenotypes has been recognized in association with pathogenic variants in PAX2. Abnormal renal structure or function is noted in 92% of affected individuals and ophthalmologic abnormalities in 77% of affected individuals. Renal abnormalities can be clinically silent in rare individuals. In most individuals, clinically significant renal insufficiency / renal failure is reported. End-stage renal disease requiring renal transplant is not uncommon. Uric acid nephrolithiasis has been reported. Ophthalmologic abnormalities are typically described as optic nerve coloboma or dysplasia. Iris colobomas have not been reported in any individual with PAX2–related disorder. Ophthalmologic abnormalities may significantly impair vision in some individuals, while others have subtle changes only noted after detailed ophthalmologic examination. Additional clinical findings include high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss, soft skin, and ligamentous laxity. PAX2 pathogenic variants have been identified in multiple sporadic and familial cases of nonsyndromic renal disease including renal hypodysplasia and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.
Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy
MedGen UID:
339913
Concept ID:
C1853136
Disease or Syndrome
Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy is an autosomal recessive muscle disorder characterized by adult onset of slowly progressive proximal muscle weakness affecting the upper and lower limbs and associated with increased serum creatine kinase; distal muscle weakness may also occur. About half of patients develop cardiomyopathy later in the disease course. Other variable features include diabetes mellitus, hepatic steatosis, hypertriglyceridemia, and possibly sensorineural hearing loss. Leukocytes and muscle cells show cytoplasmic accumulation of triglycerides (summary by Reilich et al., 2011). Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy belongs to a group of disorders termed neutral lipid storage disorders (NLSDs). These disorders are characterized by the presence of triglyceride-containing cytoplasmic droplets in leukocytes and in other tissues, including bone marrow, skin, and muscle. Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome (CDS; 275630) is defined as NLSD with ichthyosis (NLSDI). Patients with NLSDM present with myopathy but without ichthyosis (summary by Fischer et al., 2007).
Deafness, autosomal recessive 67
MedGen UID:
343997
Concept ID:
C1853223
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 2B
MedGen UID:
342954
Concept ID:
C1853736
Disease or Syndrome
A form of congenital disorders of N-linked glycosylation characterised by generalised hypotonia, craniofacial dysmorphism (prominent occiput, short palpebral fissures, long eyelashes, broad nose, high arched palate, retrognathia), hypoplastic genitalia, seizures, feeding difficulties, hypoventilation, severe hypogammaglobulinaemia with generalised oedema and increased resistance to particular viral infections (particularly to enveloped viruses). The disease is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene MOGS (2p13.1).
Spondylo-ocular syndrome
MedGen UID:
343011
Concept ID:
C1853925
Disease or Syndrome
Spondylo-ocular syndrome is a very rare association of spinal and ocular manifestations that is characterized by dense cataracts, and retinal detachment along with generalized osteoporosis and platyspondyly. Mild craniofacial dysphormism has been reported including short neck, large head and prominent eyebrows.
Deafness, autosomal recessive 27
MedGen UID:
381303
Concept ID:
C1853941
Disease or Syndrome
Deafness, autosomal dominant 25
MedGen UID:
344221
Concept ID:
C1854158
Disease or Syndrome
Radio-ulnar synostosis-amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia syndrome
MedGen UID:
340183
Concept ID:
C1854273
Disease or Syndrome
gene (7p15).
Deafness, autosomal recessive 26
MedGen UID:
340185
Concept ID:
C1854275
Disease or Syndrome
DFNB26 is characterized by prelingual severe to profound nonsyndromic hearing loss (Yousaf et al., 2018).
Dilated cardiomyopathy 1J
MedGen UID:
343105
Concept ID:
C1854368
Disease or Syndrome
Deafness, autosomal dominant 23
MedGen UID:
343162
Concept ID:
C1854594
Disease or Syndrome
Baraitser-Winter syndrome
MedGen UID:
340943
Concept ID:
C1855722
Disease or Syndrome
Baraitser-Winter syndrome is a condition that affects the development of many parts of the body, particularly the face and the brain.An unusual facial appearance is the most common characteristic of Baraitser-Winter syndrome. Distinctive facial features can include widely spaced eyes (hypertelorism), large eyelid openings, droopy eyelids (ptosis), high-arched eyebrows, a broad nasal bridge and tip of the nose, a long space between the nose and upper lip (philtrum), full cheeks, and a pointed chin.Structural brain abnormalities are also present in most people with Baraitser-Winter syndrome. These abnormalities are related to impaired neuronal migration, a process by which nerve cells (neurons) move to their proper positions in the developing brain. The most frequent brain abnormality associated with Baraitser-Winter syndrome is pachygyria, which is an area of the brain that has an abnormally smooth surface with fewer folds and grooves. Less commonly, affected individuals have lissencephaly, which is similar to pachygyria but involves the entire brain surface. These structural changes can cause mild to severe intellectual disability, developmental delay, and seizures.Other features of Baraitser-Winter syndrome can include short stature, ear abnormalities and hearing loss, heart defects, presence of an extra (duplicated) thumb, and abnormalities of the kidneys and urinary system. Some affected individuals have limited movement of large joints, such as the elbows and knees, which may be present at birth or develop over time. Rarely, people with Baraitser-Winter syndrome have involuntary muscle tensing (dystonia).
Vici syndrome
MedGen UID:
340962
Concept ID:
C1855772
Disease or Syndrome
Vici syndrome is a rare congenital multisystem disorder characterized by agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC), cataracts, pigmentary defects, progressive cardiomyopathy, and variable immunodeficiency. Affected individuals also have profound psychomotor retardation and hypotonia due to a myopathy (summary by Finocchi et al., 2012).
Hyperphosphatasia-intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
383800
Concept ID:
C1855923
Disease or Syndrome
Mabry syndrome is a condition characterized by intellectual disability, distinctive facial features, increased levels of an enzyme called alkaline phosphatase in the blood (hyperphosphatasia), and other signs and symptoms.People with Mabry syndrome have intellectual disability that is often moderate to severe. They typically have little to no speech development and are delayed in the development of motor skills (such as sitting, crawling, and walking). Many affected individuals have low muscle tone (hypotonia) and develop recurrent seizures (epilepsy) in early childhood. Seizures are usually the generalized tonic-clonic type, which involve muscle rigidity, convulsions, and loss of consciousness.Individuals with Mabry syndrome have distinctive facial features that include wide-set eyes (hypertelorism), long openings of the eyelids (long palpebral fissures), a nose with a broad bridge and a rounded tip, downturned corners of the mouth, and a thin upper lip. These facial features usually become less pronounced over time.Hyperphosphatasia begins within the first year of life in people with Mabry syndrome. There are many different types of alkaline phosphatase found in tissues; the type that is increased in Mabry syndrome is called the tissue non-specific type and is found throughout the body. In affected individuals, alkaline phosphatase levels in the blood are usually increased by one to two times the normal amount, but can be up to 20 times higher than normal. The elevated enzyme levels remain relatively stable over a person's lifetime. Hyperphosphatasia appears to cause no negative health effects, but this finding can help health professionals diagnose Mabry syndrome.Another common feature of Mabry syndrome is shortened bones at the ends of fingers (brachytelephalangy), which can be seen on x-ray imaging. Underdeveloped fingernails (nail hypoplasia) may also occur. Sometimes, individuals with Mabry syndrome have abnormalities of the digestive system, including narrowing or blockage of the anus (anal stenosis or anal atresia) or Hirschsprung disease, a disorder that causes severe constipation or blockage of the intestine. Rarely, affected individuals experience hearing loss.The signs and symptoms of Mabry syndrome vary among affected individuals. Those who are least severely affected have only intellectual disability and hyperphosphatasia, without distinctive facial features or the other health problems listed above.
Deafness, enamel hypoplasia, nail defect syndrome
MedGen UID:
343498
Concept ID:
C1856186
Disease or Syndrome
This syndrome is characterised by sensorineural hearing loss, generalised enamel hypoplasia of the permanent dentition with normal primary dentition and nail defects (Beau's lines and leukonychia). Less than 10 patients have been described so far. Transmission is autosomal recessive.
Ermine phenotype
MedGen UID:
346466
Concept ID:
C1856899
Disease or Syndrome
Ectodermal dysplasia and neurosensory deafness
MedGen UID:
346503
Concept ID:
C1857068
Disease or Syndrome
Disorganization, mouse, homolog of
MedGen UID:
387773
Concept ID:
C1857230
Finding
Donnai Barrow syndrome
MedGen UID:
347406
Concept ID:
C1857277
Disease or Syndrome
Donnai-Barrow syndrome (DBS) is characterized by typical craniofacial features (large anterior fontanel, wide metopic suture, widow's peak, markedly widely spaced eyes, enlarged globes, downslanted palpebral fissures, posteriorly rotated ears, depressed nasal bridge, and short nose. Ocular complications include high myopia, retinal detachment, retinal dystrophy, and progressive vision loss. Additional common features include agenesis of the corpus callosum, sensorineural hearing loss, intellectual disability, and congenital diaphragmatic hernia and/or omphalocele. Both inter- and intrafamilial phenotypic variability are observed.
Deafness, sensorineural, autosomal-mitochondrial type
MedGen UID:
346566
Concept ID:
C1857332
Disease or Syndrome
Deafness, neural, with atypical atopic dermatitis
MedGen UID:
346567
Concept ID:
C1857334
Disease or Syndrome
Deafness, neural, congenital moderate
MedGen UID:
347425
Concept ID:
C1857337
Disease or Syndrome
Groll Hirschowitz syndrome
MedGen UID:
347426
Concept ID:
C1857338
Disease or Syndrome
Syndrome with characteristics of progressive sensorineural deafness, progressive sensory neuropathy and gastrointestinal abnormalities (progressive loss of gastric motility, small bowel diverticulosis). It has been described in five patients (three sisters in a family and two sisters born to consanguineous parents). This syndrome is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait.
Split-hand/foot malformation 1 with sensorineural hearing loss
MedGen UID:
347431
Concept ID:
C1857344
Congenital Abnormality
An extremely rare genetic syndrome with clinical characteristics of split hand/split foot malformation and mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss, sometimes associated with cleft palate and intellectual deficit. There is evidence this syndrome may be caused by homozygous mutation in the DLX5 gene on chromosome 7q21.
Craniosynostosis-mental retardation syndrome of Lin and Gettig
MedGen UID:
341781
Concept ID:
C1857473
Disease or Syndrome
Corneal dystrophy and perceptive deafness
MedGen UID:
387858
Concept ID:
C1857572
Disease or Syndrome
A degenerative corneal disorder characterised by the association of congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy with progressive postlingual sensorineural hearing loss. The ocular manifestations include diffuse bilateral corneal oedema occurring with severe corneal clouding, blurred vision, visual loss and nystagmus. Caused by mutations in the SLC4A11 gene located at the CHED2 locus on chromosome 20p13p12.
Deafness, autosomal recessive 59
MedGen UID:
387899
Concept ID:
C1857744
Disease or Syndrome
Diabetes mellitus, neonatal, with congenital hypothyroidism
MedGen UID:
347541
Concept ID:
C1857775
Disease or Syndrome
Neonatal diabetes mellitus with congenital hypothyroidism (NDH) syndrome is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation and onset of nonimmune diabetes mellitus within the first few weeks of life. Other features include renal parenchymal disease, primarily renal cystic dysplasia, and hepatic disease, with hepatitis in some patients and hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis in others. Facial dysmorphism, when present, consistently involves low-set ears, epicanthal folds, flat nasal bridge, long philtrum, and thin upper lip. Most patients exhibit developmental delay (Dimitri et al., 2015).
Spastic paraplegia 29
MedGen UID:
346682
Concept ID:
C1857855
Disease or Syndrome
Wolfram syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
347604
Concept ID:
C1858028
Disease or Syndrome
Wolfram syndrome-2 is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by diabetes mellitus, high frequency sensorineural hearing loss, optic atrophy or neuropathy, and defective platelet aggregation resulting in peptic ulcer bleeding (summary by Mozzillo et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Wolfram syndrome, see WFS1 (222300).
Stickler syndrome, type 2
MedGen UID:
347615
Concept ID:
C1858084
Disease or Syndrome
Stickler syndrome is a connective tissue disorder that can include ocular findings of myopia, cataract, and retinal detachment; hearing loss that is both conductive and sensorineural; midfacial underdevelopment and cleft palate (either alone or as part of the Robin sequence); and mild spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia and/or precocious arthritis. Variable phenotypic expression of Stickler syndrome occurs both within and among families; interfamilial variability is in part explained by locus and allelic heterogeneity.
Primary autosomal recessive microcephaly 3
MedGen UID:
347619
Concept ID:
C1858108
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (often shortened to MCPH, which stands for "microcephaly primary hereditary") is a condition in which infants are born with a very small head and a small brain. The term "microcephaly" comes from the Greek words for "small head."Infants with MCPH have an unusually small head circumference compared to other infants of the same sex and age. Head circumference is the distance around the widest part of the head, measured by placing a measuring tape above the eyebrows and ears and around the back of the head. Affected infants' brain volume is also smaller than usual, although they usually do not have any major abnormalities in the structure of the brain. The head and brain grow throughout childhood and adolescence, but they continue to be much smaller than normal.MCPH causes intellectual disability, which is typically mild to moderate and does not become more severe with age. Most affected individuals have delayed speech and language skills. Motor skills, such as sitting, standing, and walking, may also be mildly delayed.People with MCPH usually have few or no other features associated with the condition. Some have a narrow, sloping forehead; mild seizures; problems with attention or behavior; or short stature compared to others in their family. The condition typically does not affect any other major organ systems or cause other health problems.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type 4B2
MedGen UID:
346869
Concept ID:
C1858278
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4B is a demyelinating hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy characterized by abnormal folding of myelin sheaths. CMT4B1 (601382) is a clinically similar disorder caused by mutation in the MTMR2 gene (603557) on 11q22. For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive demyelinating CMT, see CMT4A (214400).
Blepharophimosis with facial and genital anomalies and mental retardation
MedGen UID:
347661
Concept ID:
C1858538
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar Ataxia, Deafness, and Narcolepsy
MedGen UID:
347726
Concept ID:
C1858804
Disease or Syndrome
Deafness, autosomal recessive 20
MedGen UID:
347005
Concept ID:
C1858840
Disease or Syndrome
Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata type 1
MedGen UID:
347072
Concept ID:
C1859133
Disease or Syndrome
Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata type 1 (RCDP1) classic type, a peroxisome biogenesis disorder (PBD), is characterized by proximal shortening of the humerus and to a lesser degree the femur (rhizomelia), punctate calcifications in cartilage with epiphyseal and metaphyseal abnormalities (chondrodysplasia punctata, or CDP), coronal clefts of the vertebral bodies, and cataracts that are usually present at birth or appear in the first few months of life. Birth weight, length, and head circumference are often at the lower range of normal; postnatal growth deficiency is profound. Intellectual disability is severe, and the majority of children develop seizures. Most affected children do not survive the first decade of life; a proportion die in the neonatal period. A milder phenotype in which all affected individuals have congenital cataracts and chondrodysplasia is now recognized; some do not have rhizomelia, and some have less severe intellectual disability and growth deficiency.
Klippel-Feil syndrome 2, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
395201
Concept ID:
C1859209
Disease or Syndrome
Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS) is a congenital anomaly characterized by a defect in the formation or segmentation of the cervical vertebrae, resulting in a fused appearance. The clinical triad consists of short neck, low posterior hairline, and limited neck movement, although less than 50% of patients demonstrate all 3 clinical features (Tracy et al., 2004). Clarke et al. (1998) proposed a classification system for KFS in which an autosomal recessive form is characterized by the most rostral fusion at C1 and the presence of severe associated anomalies, including short neck, cardiac defects, and craniofacial anomalies. For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Klippel-Feil syndrome, see KFS1 (118100).
Cerebellar ataxia and neurosensory deafness
MedGen UID:
395224
Concept ID:
C1859304
Disease or Syndrome
Feigenbaum Bergeron Richardson syndrome
MedGen UID:
349198
Concept ID:
C1859596
Disease or Syndrome
Ataxia, deafness and cardiomyopathy
MedGen UID:
395312
Concept ID:
C1859645
Disease or Syndrome
Microphthalmia syndromic 3
MedGen UID:
347232
Concept ID:
C1859773
Disease or Syndrome
SOX2-related eye disorders are characterized by anophthalmia and/or microphthalmia that is usually bilateral, severe, and apparent at birth or by prenatal ultrasound examination. Other common findings include brain malformations, esophageal atresia, cryptorchidism and/or micropenis in males, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and/or pituitary hypoplasia. Postnatal growth failure, delayed motor development, and learning disability are common.
Kaplan Plauchu Fitch syndrome
MedGen UID:
349738
Concept ID:
C1860145
Disease or Syndrome
A very rare form of acrofacial dysostosis, reported in two sisters to date, with characteristics of short stature, acrocephaly, ocular hypertelorism, ptosis of eyelids, ocular proptosis, downslanting palpebral fissures, high nasal bridge, anteverted nostrils, short philtrum, cleft palate, micrognathia, abnormal external ears, preauricular pits, mixed hearing loss, bulbous digits, metatarsus varus, pectus excavatum and various radiological abnormalities. Features of this syndrome were reported to overlap with otopalatodigital syndrome types 1 and 2. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1988.
Stickler syndrome, type 3
MedGen UID:
349293
Concept ID:
C1861481
Disease or Syndrome
Stickler syndrome is a connective tissue disorder that can include ocular findings of myopia, cataract, and retinal detachment; hearing loss that is both conductive and sensorineural; midfacial underdevelopment and cleft palate (either alone or as part of the Robin sequence); and mild spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia and/or precocious arthritis. Variable phenotypic expression of Stickler syndrome occurs both within and among families; interfamilial variability is in part explained by locus and allelic heterogeneity.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease-deafness-intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
348419
Concept ID:
C1861669
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia 31
MedGen UID:
348439
Concept ID:
C1861736
Disease or Syndrome
The hereditary ataxias are a group of genetic disorders characterized by slowly progressive incoordination of gait and often associated with poor coordination of hands, speech, and eye movements. Frequently, atrophy of the cerebellum occurs. In this GeneReview the hereditary ataxias are categorized by mode of inheritance and gene (or chromosome locus) in which pathogenic variants occur.
Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly with partially absent eye muscles, distinctive face, hydrocephaly, and skeletal abnormalities
MedGen UID:
349489
Concept ID:
C1862373
Disease or Syndrome
Arthrogryposis-like hand anomaly and sensorineural deafness
MedGen UID:
350677
Concept ID:
C1862471
Disease or Syndrome
Distal arthrogryposis type 6 (DA6) is distinguished by the additional feature of sensorineural deafness (summary by Bamshad et al., 2009). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of distal arthrogryposis, see DA1 (108120).
Townes-Brocks-branchiootorenal-like syndrome
MedGen UID:
349570
Concept ID:
C1862683
Disease or Syndrome
Albinism, ocular, with sensorineural deafness
MedGen UID:
400230
Concept ID:
C1863198
Disease or Syndrome
Ocular albinism is a genetic condition that primarily affects the eyes. This condition reduces the coloring (pigmentation) of the iris, which is the colored part of the eye, and the retina, which is the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. Pigmentation in the eye is essential for normal vision.Ocular albinism is characterized by severely impaired sharpness of vision (visual acuity) and problems with combining vision from both eyes to perceive depth (stereoscopic vision). Although the vision loss is permanent, it does not worsen over time. Other eye abnormalities associated with this condition include rapid, involuntary eye movements (nystagmus); eyes that do not look in the same direction (strabismus); and increased sensitivity to light (photophobia). Many affected individuals also have abnormalities involving the optic nerves, which carry visual information from the eye to the brain.Unlike some other forms of albinism, ocular albinism does not significantly affect the color of the skin and hair. People with this condition may have a somewhat lighter complexion than other members of their family, but these differences are usually minor.The most common form of ocular albinism is known as the Nettleship-Falls type or type 1. Other forms of ocular albinism are much rarer and may be associated with additional signs and symptoms, such as hearing loss.
Deafness, autosomal recessive 16
MedGen UID:
350211
Concept ID:
C1863561
Disease or Syndrome
Neuroendocrine carcinoma of salivary glands, sensorineural hearing loss, and enamel hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
355029
Concept ID:
C1863649
Neoplastic Process
Deafness, autosomal recessive 21
MedGen UID:
355030
Concept ID:
C1863655
Disease or Syndrome
Enlarged vestibular aqueduct
MedGen UID:
355050
Concept ID:
C1863752
Finding
Increased size of the vestibular aqueduct.
Craniosynostosis, anal anomalies, and porokeratosis
MedGen UID:
351066
Concept ID:
C1864186
Disease or Syndrome
A very rare condition with characteristics of craniosynostosis and clavicular hypoplasia, delayed closure of the fontanelle, anal anomalies, genitourinary malformations and skin eruptions. It has been described in seven patients from four unrelated families. Cranial abnormalities include a coronal synostosis with wide-open anterior and posterior fontanelles and large parietal foramina. In some patients the skin eruption has been classified as porokeratosis. Sensorineural hearing loss and mild to severe developmental delay are common. The condition is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait.
Deafness, autosomal recessive 17
MedGen UID:
355180
Concept ID:
C1864276
Disease or Syndrome
Muenke syndrome
MedGen UID:
355217
Concept ID:
C1864436
Disease or Syndrome
Muenke syndrome is defined by the presence of the specific FGFR3 pathogenic variant – c.749C>G – that results in the protein change p.Pro250Arg. Muenke syndrome is characterized by considerable phenotypic variability: features may include coronal synostosis (more often bilateral than unilateral); synostosis of other sutures, all sutures (pan synostosis), or no sutures; or macrocephaly. Bilateral coronal synostosis typically results in brachycephaly (reduced anteroposterior dimension of the skull), although turribrachycephaly (a "tower-shaped" skull) or a cloverleaf skull can be observed. Unilateral coronal synostosis results in anterior plagiocephaly (asymmetry of the skull and face). Other craniofacial findings typically include: temporal bossing; widely spaced eyes, ptosis or proptosis (usually mild); midface retrusion (usually mild); and highly arched palate or cleft lip and palate. Strabismus is common. Other findings can include: hearing loss (in 33%-100% of affected individuals); developmental delay (~33%); epilepsy; intracranial anomalies; intellectual disability; carpal bone and/or tarsal bone fusions; brachydactyly, broad toes, broad thumbs, and/or clinodactyly; and radiographic findings of thimble-like (short and broad) middle phalanges and/or cone-shaped epiphyses. Phenotypic variability is considerable even within the same family. Of note, some individuals who have the p.Pro250Arg pathogenic variant may have no signs of Muenke syndrome on physical or radiographic examination.
Histiocytosis-lymphadenopathy plus syndrome
MedGen UID:
400532
Concept ID:
C1864445
Disease or Syndrome
The histiocytosis-lymphadenopathy plus syndrome comprises features of 4 histiocytic disorders previously thought to be distinct: Faisalabad histiocytosis (FHC), sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML), H syndrome, and pigmented hypertrichosis with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus syndrome (PHID). FHC described an autosomal recessive disease involving joint deformities, sensorineural hearing loss, and subsequent development of generalized lymphadenopathy and swellings in the eyelids that contain histiocytes (summary by Morgan et al., 2010). SHML, or familial Rosai-Dorfman disease, was described as a rare cause of lymph node enlargement in children, consisting of chronic massive enlargement of cervical lymph nodes frequently accompanied by fever, leukocytosis, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia. Extranodal sites were involved in approximately 25% of patients, including salivary glands, orbit, eyelid, spleen, and testes. The involvement of retropharyngeal lymphoid tissue sometimes caused snoring and sleep apnea (summary by Kismet et al., 2005). H syndrome was characterized by cutaneous hyperpigmentation and hypertrichosis, hepatosplenomegaly, heart anomalies, and hypogonadism; hearing loss was also found in about half of patients, and many had short stature. PHID was characterized by predominantly antibody-negative insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus associated with pigmented hypertrichosis and variable occurrence of other features of H syndrome, with hepatosplenomegaly occurring in about half of patients (Cliffe et al., 2009). Bolze et al. (2012) noted that mutations in the SLC29A3 gene (612373) had been implicated in H syndrome, PHID, FHC, and SHML, and that some patients presented a combination of features from 2 or more of these syndromes, leading to the suggestion that these phenotypes should be grouped together as 'SLC29A3 disorder.' Bolze et al. (2012) suggested that the histologic features of the lesions seemed to be the most uniform phenotype in these patients. In addition, the immunophenotype of infiltrating cells in H syndrome patients was shown to be the same as that seen in patients with the familial form of Rosai-Dorfman disease, further supporting the relationship between these disorders (Avitan-Hersh et al., 2011; Colmenero et al., 2012).
Deafness, autosomal recessive 53
MedGen UID:
400602
Concept ID:
C1864746
Disease or Syndrome
Deafness, autosomal recessive 42
MedGen UID:
351225
Concept ID:
C1864818
Disease or Syndrome
Camptodactyly, tall stature, and hearing loss syndrome
MedGen UID:
355844
Concept ID:
C1864852
Disease or Syndrome
Ectodermal dysplasia, sensorineural hearing loss, and distinctive facial features
MedGen UID:
355878
Concept ID:
C1864966
Disease or Syndrome
Deafness, autosomal recessive 51
MedGen UID:
355880
Concept ID:
C1864968
Disease or Syndrome
Spondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia with upper limb mesomelia, punctate calcifications, and deafness
MedGen UID:
355893
Concept ID:
C1865022
Disease or Syndrome
Branchiootic syndrome
MedGen UID:
351307
Concept ID:
C1865143
Disease or Syndrome
Branchiootorenal spectrum disorder (BORSD) is characterized by malformations of the outer, middle, and inner ear associated with conductive, sensorineural, or mixed hearing impairment, branchial fistulae and cysts, and renal malformations ranging from mild renal hypoplasia to bilateral renal agenesis. Some individuals progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) later in life. Extreme variability can be observed in the presence, severity, and type of branchial arch, otologic, audiologic, and renal abnormality from right side to left side in an affected individual and also among individuals in the same family.
Hystrix-like ichthyosis with deafness
MedGen UID:
355410
Concept ID:
C1865234
Disease or Syndrome
Hystrix-like ichthyosis with deafness (HID) is a disorder characterized by dry, scaly skin (ichthyosis) and hearing loss that is usually profound. Hystrix-like means resembling a porcupine; in this type of ichthyosis, the scales may be thick and spiky, giving the appearance of porcupine quills.Newborns with HID typically develop reddened skin. The skin abnormalities worsen over time, and the ichthyosis eventually covers most of the body, although the palms of the hands and soles of the feet are usually only mildly affected. Breaks in the skin may occur and in severe cases can lead to life-threatening infections. Affected individuals have an increased risk of developing a type of skin cancer called squamous cell carcinoma, which can also affect mucous membranes such as the inner lining of the mouth. People with HID may also have patchy hair loss caused by scarring on particular areas of skin.
Bartter syndrome type 4
MedGen UID:
355430
Concept ID:
C1865270
Disease or Syndrome
Bartter syndrome refers to a group of disorders that are unified by autosomal recessive transmission of impaired salt reabsorption in the thick ascending loop of Henle with pronounced salt wasting, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, and hypercalciuria. Clinical disease results from defective renal reabsorption of sodium chloride in the thick ascending limb (TAL) of the Henle loop, where 30% of filtered salt is normally reabsorbed (Simon et al., 1997). Patients with antenatal (or neonatal) forms of Bartter syndrome typically present with premature birth associated with polyhydramnios and low birth weight and may develop life-threatening dehydration in the neonatal period. Patients with classic Bartter syndrome (see BARTS3, 607364) present later in life and may be sporadically asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic (summary by Simon et al., 1996 and Fremont and Chan, 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bartter syndrome, see 607364.
Deafness, autosomal recessive 18
MedGen UID:
356389
Concept ID:
C1865870
Disease or Syndrome
Otofacioosseous-gonadal syndrome
MedGen UID:
356416
Concept ID:
C1865988
Disease or Syndrome
Deafness, autosomal dominant 13
MedGen UID:
400917
Concept ID:
C1866095
Disease or Syndrome
Premature aging syndrome, Penttinen type
MedGen UID:
400936
Concept ID:
C1866182
Disease or Syndrome
Penttinen syndrome is characterized by a prematurely aged appearance involving lipoatrophy and epidermal and dermal atrophy, as well as hypertrophic lesions that resemble scars, thin hair, proptosis, underdeveloped cheekbones, and marked acroosteolysis (Johnston et al., 2015).
Peroxisome Biogenesis Disorder, Complementation Group 11
MedGen UID:
356213
Concept ID:
C1866351
Disease or Syndrome
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder, complementation group R
MedGen UID:
356512
Concept ID:
C1866352
Disease or Syndrome
Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, myopia, and sensorineural deafness
MedGen UID:
401067
Concept ID:
C1866719
Disease or Syndrome
4p partial monosomy syndrome
MedGen UID:
408255
Concept ID:
C1956097
Disease or Syndrome
Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome is a congenital malformation syndrome characterized by pre- and postnatal growth deficiency, developmental disability of variable degree, characteristic craniofacial features ('Greek warrior helmet' appearance of the nose, high forehead, prominent glabella, hypertelorism, high-arched eyebrows, protruding eyes, epicanthal folds, short philtrum, distinct mouth with downturned corners, and micrognathia), and a seizure disorder (Battaglia et al., 2008).
Brachydactyly type B2
MedGen UID:
409880
Concept ID:
C1969652
Disease or Syndrome
Brachydactyly type B2 (BDB2) is a subtype of brachydactyly characterized by hypoplasia/aplasia of distal phalanges in combination with distal symphalangism, fusion of carpal/tarsal bones, and partial cutaneous syndactyly (summary by Lehmann et al., 2007).
Hamamy syndrome
MedGen UID:
370148
Concept ID:
C1970027
Disease or Syndrome
Xeroderma Pigmentosum B-Cockayne Syndrome
MedGen UID:
373493
Concept ID:
C1970808
Disease or Syndrome
Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase superactivity
MedGen UID:
370358
Concept ID:
C1970827
Disease or Syndrome
Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase (PRS) superactivity is characterized by hyperuricemia and hyperuricosuria and is divided into a severe phenotype with infantile or early-childhood onset and a milder phenotype with late-juvenile or early-adult onset. Variable combinations of sensorineural hearing loss, hypotonia, and ataxia observed in the severe type are not usually present in the mild type. In the mild type, uric acid crystalluria or a urinary stone is commonly the first clinical finding, followed later by gouty arthritis if serum urate concentration is not controlled.
Stickler syndrome type 1
MedGen UID:
810955
Concept ID:
C2020284
Disease or Syndrome
Stickler syndrome is a connective tissue disorder that can include ocular findings of myopia, cataract, and retinal detachment; hearing loss that is both conductive and sensorineural; midfacial underdevelopment and cleft palate (either alone or as part of the Robin sequence); and mild spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia and/or precocious arthritis. Variable phenotypic expression of Stickler syndrome occurs both within and among families; interfamilial variability is in part explained by locus and allelic heterogeneity.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, Type 2C
MedGen UID:
389170
Concept ID:
C2079540
Disease or Syndrome
Familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
435869
Concept ID:
C2673198
Disease or Syndrome
Familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome-2 (FCAS2) is an autosomal dominant autoinflammatory disorder characterized by episodic and recurrent rash, urticaria, arthralgia, myalgia, and headache. In most patients, these episodes are accompanied by fever and serologic evidence of inflammation. Most, but not all, patients report exposure to cold as a trigger for the episodes. Additional features may include abdominal pain, thoracic pain, and sensorineural deafness. The age at onset is variable, ranging from the first year of life to middle age, and the severity and clinical manifestations are heterogeneous (summary by Shen et al., 2017). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome, see FCAS1 (120100).
Deafness, autosomal recessive 1A
MedGen UID:
388720
Concept ID:
C2673759
Disease or Syndrome
Nonsyndromic hearing loss and deafness (DFNB1) is characterized by congenital non-progressive mild-to-profound sensorineural hearing impairment. No other associated medical findings are present.
Chromosome 10q26 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
436306
Concept ID:
C2674937
Disease or Syndrome
Polyneuropathy, hearing loss, ataxia, retinitis pigmentosa, and cataract
MedGen UID:
436373
Concept ID:
C2675204
Disease or Syndrome
Kallmann Syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
382571
Concept ID:
C2675302
Disease or Syndrome
Chromosome 6pter-p24 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
393396
Concept ID:
C2675486
Disease or Syndrome
Deafness, congenital, with onychodystrophy, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
382676
Concept ID:
C2675730
Disease or Syndrome
The DDOD syndrome is characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance of congenital deafness and onychodystrophy. Conical, hypoplastic teeth is also a feature (Robinson et al., 1962). See also DOOR syndrome (220500), an autosomal recessive disorder, which includes congenital deafness, onychodystrophy, osteodystrophy, and mental retardation.
Deafness, autosomal dominant 3a
MedGen UID:
436512
Concept ID:
C2675750
Disease or Syndrome
Nonsyndromic hearing loss and deafness, DFNA3 is characterized by pre- or postlingual, mild-to-profound progressive high-frequency sensorineural hearing impairment. Affected individuals have no other associated medical findings.
2p15-16.1 microdeletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
390902
Concept ID:
C2675875
Disease or Syndrome
Chromosome 2p16.1-p15 deletion syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, and variable but distinctive dysmorphic features, including microcephaly, bitemporal narrowing, smooth and long philtrum, hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, broad nasal root, thin upper lip, and high palate. Many patients have behavioral disorders, including autistic features, as well as structural brain abnormalities, such as pachygyria or hypoplastic corpus callosum. Those with deletions including the BCL11A gene (606557) also have persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HbF), which is asymptomatic and does not affected hematologic parameters or susceptibility to infection (summary by Funnell et al., 2015). Point mutation in the BCL11A gene causes intellectual developmental disorder with persistence of fetal hemoglobin (617101), which shows overlapping features. See also fetal hemoglobin quantitative trait locus-5 (HBFQTL5; 142335).
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 1N
MedGen UID:
383145
Concept ID:
C2677590
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are a genetically heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by enzymatic defects in the synthesis and processing of asparagine (N)-linked glycans or oligosaccharides on glycoproteins. Type I CDGs comprise defects in the assembly of the dolichol lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO) chain and its transfer to the nascent protein. These disorders can be identified by a characteristic abnormal isoelectric focusing profile of plasma transferrin (Leroy, 2006). For a discussion of the classification of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065).
Hunter-MacDonald syndrome
MedGen UID:
383181
Concept ID:
C2677745
Disease or Syndrome
Mental retardation and microcephaly with pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
437070
Concept ID:
C2677903
Disease or Syndrome
CASK-related disorders include a spectrum of phenotypes in both females and males. The two main types of clinical presentation are: Microcephaly with pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia (MICPCH), generally associated with pathogenic loss-of-function variants in CASK; and X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) with or without nystagmus, generally associated with hypomorphic CASK pathogenic variants. MICPCH is typically seen in females with moderate to severe intellectual disability, progressive microcephaly with or without ophthalmologic anomalies, and sensorineural hearing loss. To date a total of 53 females with MICPCH have been reported, the eldest of whom is 21 years old. Most are able to sit independently; 20%-25% attain the ability to walk; language is nearly absent in most. Neurologic features may include axial hypotonia, hypertonia/spasticity of the extremities, and dystonia or other movement disorders. Nearly 40% have seizures. Behaviors may include sleep disturbances, hand stereotypies, and self-biting. To date, only seven males have been reported with the severe phenotype. The under-representation in this cohort is likely to be a consequence of early male lethality. These males typically present with intellectual disability and MICPCH, or early-infantile epileptic encephalopathy (Ohtahara syndrome, West syndrome, or early myoclonic epilepsy). In individuals and families with milder (i.e., hypomorphic) pathogenic variants, the clinical phenotype is usually that of X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) with or without nystagmus and additional clinical features. More than 24 males and nine females have been reported. The males have mild to severe intellectual disability, with or without nystagmus and other ocular features. Females are typically normal, with some displaying mild intellectual disability with or without ocular features.
Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome type 3
MedGen UID:
394534
Concept ID:
C2678503
Disease or Syndrome
Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome is primarily an eye disorder, although it can also affect other parts of the body. This condition is characterized by abnormalities of the front part of the eye, an area known as the anterior segment. For example, the colored part of the eye (the iris), may be thin or poorly developed. The iris normally has a single central hole, called the pupil, through which light enters the eye. People with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome often have a pupil that is off-center (corectopia) or extra holes in the iris that can look like multiple pupils (polycoria). This condition can also cause abnormalities of the cornea, which is the clear front covering of the eye.About half of affected individuals develop glaucoma, a serious condition that increases pressure inside the eye. When glaucoma occurs with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome, it most often develops in late childhood or adolescence, although it can occur as early as infancy. Glaucoma can cause vision loss or blindness.The signs and symptoms of Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome can also affect other parts of the body. Many affected individuals have distinctive facial features such as widely spaced eyes (hypertelorism); a flattened mid-face with a broad, flat nasal bridge; and a prominent forehead. The condition is also associated with dental abnormalities including unusually small teeth (microdontia) or fewer than normal teeth (oligodontia). Some people with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome have extra folds of skin around their belly button (redundant periumbilical skin). Other, less common features can include heart defects, the opening of the urethra on the underside of the penis (hypospadias), narrowing of the anus (anal stenosis), and abnormalities of the pituitary gland that can result in slow growth.Researchers have described at least three types of Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome. The types, which are numbered 1 through 3, are distinguished by their genetic cause.
Waardenburg syndrome type 2E
MedGen UID:
398476
Concept ID:
C2700405
Disease or Syndrome
Waardenburg syndrome type 2 is an auditory-pigmentary syndrome characterized by pigmentary abnormalities of the hair, skin, and eyes; congenital sensorineural hearing loss; and the absence of 'dystopia canthorum,' the lateral displacement of the inner canthus of each eye, which is seen in some other forms of WS (review by Read and Newton, 1997). Individuals with WS type 2E, which is caused by mutation in the SOX10 gene (602229), may have neurologic abnormalities, including mental impairment, myelination defects, and ataxia. Waardenburg syndrome type 2 is genetically heterogeneous (see WS2A; 193510). For a description of other clinical variants of Waardenburg syndrome, see WS1 (193500), WS3 (148820), and WS4 (277580).
SeSAME syndrome
MedGen UID:
411243
Concept ID:
C2748572
Disease or Syndrome
Syndrome with characteristics of seizures, sensorineural deafness, ataxia, intellectual deficit, and electrolyte imbalance. It has been described in five patients from four families. The disease is caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the KCNJ10 gene, encoding a potassium channel expressed in the brain, spinal cord, inner ear and kidneys. Transmission is autosomal recessive.
Refsum disease, adult, 2
MedGen UID:
440765
Concept ID:
C2749346
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 5 (encephalomyopathic with or without methylmalonic aciduria)
MedGen UID:
413170
Concept ID:
C2749864
Disease or Syndrome
SUCLA2-related mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndrome, encephalomyopathic form with methylmalonic aciduria is characterized by onset of the following features in infancy or childhood (median age of onset 2 months; range of onset birth to 6 years): psychomotor retardation, hypotonia, dystonia, muscular atrophy, sensorineural hearing impairment, postnatal growth retardation, and feeding difficulties. Other, less frequent, features include distinctive facial features, contractures, kyphoscoliosis, gastroesophageal reflux, ptosis, choreoathetosis, ophthalmoplegia, and epilepsy (infantile spasms or generalized convulsions). The median survival is 20 years; approximately 30% of affected individuals succumb during childhood. Affected individuals may have hyperintensities in the basal ganglia, cerebral atrophy, and leukoencephalopathy on head MRI. Elevation of methylmalonic acid (MMA) in the urine and plasma is found in a vast majority of affected individuals, although at levels that are far below those typically seen in individuals with classic methylmalonic aciduria.
Deafness, autosomal recessive 79
MedGen UID:
413222
Concept ID:
C2750082
Disease or Syndrome
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type 2N
MedGen UID:
413754
Concept ID:
C2750090
Disease or Syndrome
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease encompasses a group of disorders called hereditary sensory and motor neuropathies that damage the peripheral nerves. Peripheral nerves connect the brain and spinal cord to muscles and to sensory cells that detect sensations such as touch, pain, heat, and sound. Damage to the peripheral nerves that worsens over time can result in alteration or loss of sensation and wasting (atrophy) of muscles in the feet, legs, and hands.Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease usually becomes apparent in adolescence or early adulthood, but onset may occur anytime from early childhood through late adulthood. Symptoms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease vary in severity and age of onset even among members of the same family. Some people never realize they have the disorder because their symptoms are so mild, but most have a moderate amount of physical disability. A small percentage of people experience severe weakness or other problems which, in very rare cases, can be life-threatening. In most affected individuals, however, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease does not affect life expectancy.Typically, the earliest symptoms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease result from muscle atrophy in the feet. Affected individuals may have foot abnormalities such as high arches (pes cavus), flat feet (pes planus), or curled toes (hammer toes). They often have difficulty flexing the foot or walking on the heel of the foot. These difficulties may cause a higher than normal step (steppage gait) and increase the risk of ankle injuries and tripping. As the disease worsens, muscles in the lower legs usually weaken, but leg and foot problems rarely require the use of a wheelchair.Affected individuals may also develop weakness in the hands, causing difficulty with daily activities such as writing, fastening buttons, and turning doorknobs. People with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease typically experience a decreased sensitivity to touch, heat, and cold in the feet and lower legs, but occasionally feel aching or burning sensations. In rare cases, affected individuals have loss of vision or gradual hearing loss that sometimes leads to deafness.There are several types of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, which are differentiated by their effects on nerve cells and patterns of inheritance. Type 1 (CMT1) is characterized by abnormalities in myelin, the fatty substance that covers nerve cells, protecting them and helping to transmit nerve impulses. These abnormalities slow the transmission of nerve impulses and can affect the health of the nerve fiber. Type 2 (CMT2) is characterized by abnormalities in the fiber, or axon, that extends from a nerve cell body to muscles or to sense organs. These abnormalities reduce the strength of the nerve impulse. In forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease classified as intermediate type, the nerve impulses are both slowed and reduced in strength, probably due to abnormalities in both myelin and axons. Type 4 (CMT4) is distinguished from the other types by its pattern of inheritance; it can affect either the axons or the myelin. Type X Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX) is caused by mutations in genes on the X chromosome, one of the two sex chromosomes. Within the various types of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, subtypes (such as CMT1A, CMT1B, CMT2A, CMT4A, and CMTX1) indicate different genetic causes.Sometimes other, historical names are used to refer to particular forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. For example, Roussy-Levy syndrome is a form of CMT11 with the additional feature of rhythmic shaking (tremors). Dejerine-Sottas syndrome is a term sometimes used to describe a severe, early childhood form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease; it is also sometimes called type 3 (CMT3). Depending on the specific gene that is altered, this severe, early-onset form of the disorder may also be classified as CMT1 or CMT4. CMTX5 is also known as Rosenberg-Chutorian syndrome.
Waardenburg syndrome type 4C
MedGen UID:
413310
Concept ID:
C2750452
Disease or Syndrome
Waardenburg syndrome type 4 is an auditory-pigmentary syndrome characterized by pigmentary abnormalities of the eye, deafness, and Hirschsprung disease (review by Read and Newton, 1997). WS type 4C is caused by mutation in the SOX10 gene (602229). WS type 4 is genetically heterogeneous (see WS4A; 277580). For a description of other clinical variants of Waardenburg syndrome, see WS1 (193500), WS2 (193510), and WS3 (148820).
Waardenburg syndrome type 4B
MedGen UID:
412961
Concept ID:
C2750457
Disease or Syndrome
Waardenburg syndrome type 4 is an auditory-pigmentary syndrome characterized by pigmentary abnormalities of the eye, deafness, and Hirschsprung disease (review by Read and Newton, 1997). WS type 4B is caused by mutation in the EDN3 gene (131242). WS type 4 is genetically heterogeneous (see WS4A; 277580). For a description of other clinical variants of Waardenburg syndrome, see WS1 (193500), WS2 (193510), and WS3 (148820).
Spastic paraplegia 44, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
413042
Concept ID:
C2750784
Disease or Syndrome
Bartter Syndrome, Type 4b
MedGen UID:
416521
Concept ID:
C2751312
Disease or Syndrome
Myopathy, mitochondrial progressive, with congenital cataract, hearing loss, and developmental delay
MedGen UID:
416525
Concept ID:
C2751320
Disease or Syndrome
Optic atrophy 7
MedGen UID:
414112
Concept ID:
C2751812
Disease or Syndrome
Leukoencephalopathy, cystic, without megalencephaly
MedGen UID:
416646
Concept ID:
C2751843
Disease or Syndrome
RNAse T2-deficient leukoencephalopathy is a disorder that affects the brain. People with RNAse T2-deficient leukoencephalopathy have neurological problems that become apparent during infancy; the problems generally do not worsen over time (progress). Most affected individuals have severe intellectual disability; muscle stiffness (spasticity); and a delay in developing motor skills such as sitting, crawling, and walking. Some do not learn to walk, and most do not develop the ability to speak. Other neurological features that can occur in RNAse T2-deficient leukoencephalopathy include hearing loss caused by abnormalities in the inner ear (sensorineural deafness), seizures, involuntary writhing movements of the hands (athetosis), uncontrolled muscle tensing (dystonia), and involuntary eye movements (nystagmus). In addition to the neurological problems associated with this disorder, some affected individuals have unusual facial features sometimes described as a "doll-like face."The neurological problems in this disorder are caused by abnormalities in the brain. People with this condition have leukoencephalopathy, an abnormality of the brain's white matter that can be detected with medical imaging. White matter consists of nerve fibers covered by a fatty substance called myelin. Myelin insulates nerve fibers and promotes the rapid transmission of nerve impulses. In people with RNAse T2-deficient leukoencephalopathy, myelin is not made in sufficient amounts during development, leading to patchy white matter abnormalities (lesions) in the brain. In addition, individuals with RNAse T2-deficient leukoencephalopathy may have cysts in regions of the brain called the temporal lobes and enlargement of the fluid-filled cavities (ventricles) near the center of the brain. The white matter lesions are primarily concentrated around the cysts and the ventricles. An abnormally small head and brain size (microcephaly) often occurs in this disorder.
Stargardt macular degeneration absent or hypoplastic corpus callosum mental retardation and dysmorphic features
MedGen UID:
414494
Concept ID:
C2751864
Disease or Syndrome
Growth retardation, developmental delay, coarse facies, and early death
MedGen UID:
414158
Concept ID:
C2752001
Congenital Abnormality
Growth retardation, developmental delay, and facial dysmorphism (GDFD) is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by severe psychomotor retardation, poor overall growth, and dysmorphic facial features. Additional features may include cardiac malformations and deafness (summary by Daoud et al., 2016).
Corneal hypesthesia with retinal abnormalities, sensorineural deafness, unusual facies, persistent ductus arteriosus, and mental retardation
MedGen UID:
418932
Concept ID:
C2930866
Disease or Syndrome
An extremely rare genetic disorder characterised by corneal anaesthesia, retinal abnormalities, bilateral hearing loss, distinct facies, patent ductus arteriosus, Hirschsprung disease, short stature and intellectual disability. The phenotype is variable. Some affected individuals have only mild disease manifestations. The aetiology of this syndrome is not yet known. Mutations in an as of yet unidentified gene, involved in autonomic nervous system function, are suspected. Follows an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, probably with variable expressivity.
Carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome type II
MedGen UID:
443956
Concept ID:
C2931008
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are a genetically heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by enzymatic defects in the synthesis and processing of asparagine (N)-linked glycans or oligosaccharides on glycoproteins. These glycoconjugates play critical roles in metabolism, cell recognition and adhesion, cell migration, protease resistance, host defense, and antigenicity, among others. CDGs are divided into 2 main groups: type I CDGs (see, e.g., CDG1A, 212065) comprise defects in the assembly of the dolichol lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO) chain and its transfer to the nascent protein, whereas type II CDGs refer to defects in the trimming and processing of the protein-bound glycans either late in the endoplasmic reticulum or the Golgi compartments. The biochemical changes of CDGs are most readily observed in serum transferrin (TF; 190000), and the diagnosis is usually made by isoelectric focusing of this glycoprotein (reviews by Marquardt and Denecke, 2003; Grunewald et al., 2002). Genetic Heterogeneity of Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation Type II Multiple forms of CDG type II have been identified; see CDG2B (606056) through CDG2Q (617395).
Leber congenital amaurosis 1
MedGen UID:
419026
Concept ID:
C2931258
Disease or Syndrome
Leber congenital amaurosis is an eye disorder that primarily affects the retina, which is the specialized tissue at the back of the eye that detects light and color. People with this disorder typically have severe visual impairment beginning in infancy. The visual impairment tends to be stable, although it may worsen very slowly over time.Leber congenital amaurosis is also associated with other vision problems, including an increased sensitivity to light (photophobia), involuntary movements of the eyes (nystagmus), and extreme farsightedness (hyperopia). The pupils, which usually expand and contract in response to the amount of light entering the eye, do not react normally to light. Instead, they expand and contract more slowly than normal, or they may not respond to light at all. Additionally, the clear front covering of the eye (the cornea) may be cone-shaped and abnormally thin, a condition known as keratoconus.A specific behavior called Franceschetti's oculo-digital sign is characteristic of Leber congenital amaurosis. This sign consists of poking, pressing, and rubbing the eyes with a knuckle or finger. Researchers suspect that this behavior may contribute to deep-set eyes and keratoconus in affected children.In rare cases, delayed development and intellectual disability have been reported in people with the features of Leber congenital amaurosis. However, researchers are uncertain whether these individuals actually have Leber congenital amaurosis or another syndrome with similar signs and symptoms.At least 13 types of Leber congenital amaurosis have been described. The types are distinguished by their genetic cause, patterns of vision loss, and related eye abnormalities.
Hypertryptophanemia, familial
MedGen UID:
419177
Concept ID:
C2931837
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital hypertryptophanemia, which is accompanied by hyperserotonemia, does not appear to have significant clinical consequences (Ferreira et al., 2017).
Nephronophthisis-like nephropathy 1
MedGen UID:
461769
Concept ID:
C3150419
Disease or Syndrome
The nephronophthisis (NPH) phenotype is characterized by reduced renal concentrating ability, chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis, cystic renal disease, and progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) before age 30 years. Three age-based clinical subtypes are recongnized: infantile, juvenile, and adolescent/adult. Infantile NPH can present in utero with oligohydramnios sequence (limb contractures, pulmonary hypoplasia and facial dysmorphisms) or postnatally with renal manifestations that progress to ESRD before age 3 years. Juvenile NPH, the most prevalent subtype, typically presents with polydipsia and polyuria, growth retardation, chronic iron-resistant anemia, or other findings related to chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hypertension is typically absent due to salt wasting. ESRD develops at a median age of 13 years. Ultrasound findings are increased echogenicity, reduced corticomedullary differentiation, and renal cysts (in 50% of affected individuals). Histologic findings include tubulointerstitial fibrosis, thickened and disrupted tubular basement membrane, sporadic corticomedullary cysts, and normal or reduced kidney size. Adolescent/ adult NPH is clinically similar to juvenile NPH, but ESRD develops at a median age of 19 years. Within a subtype inter- and intrafamilial variability in rate of progression to ESRD is considerable. Approximately 80%-90% of individuals with the NPH phenotype have no extrarenal features (i.e., they have isolated NPH); ~10%-20% have extrarenal manifestations that constitute a recognizable syndrome (e.g., Joubert syndrome, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, Jeune syndrome and related skeletal disorders, Meckel-Gruber syndrome, Senior-Løken syndrome, Leber congenital amaurosis, COACH syndrome, and oculomotor apraxia, Cogan type).
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 1P
MedGen UID:
462263
Concept ID:
C3150913
Disease or Syndrome
A form of congenital disorders of N-linked glycosylation with characteristics of facial dysmorphism (microcephaly, high forehead, low posterior hairline, strabismus), hypotonia, failure to thrive, intractable seizures, developmental delay, persistent vomiting and gastric bleeding. Additional features that may be observed include fat pads anomalies, inverted nipples, and body temperature oscillation. The disease is caused by mutations in the gene ALG11 (13q14.3).
LEOPARD syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
462321
Concept ID:
C3150971
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML) is a condition in which the cardinal features consist of lentigines, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, short stature, pectus deformity, and dysmorphic facial features, including widely spaced eyes and ptosis. Multiple lentigines present as dispersed flat, black-brown macules, mostly on the face, neck and upper part of the trunk with sparing of the mucosa. In general, lentigines do not appear until age four to five years but then increase to the thousands by puberty. Some individuals with NSML do not exhibit lentigines. Approximately 85% of affected individuals have heart defects, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) (typically appearing during infancy and sometimes progressive) and pulmonary valve stenosis. Postnatal growth retardation resulting in short stature occurs in fewer than 50% of affected persons, although most affected individuals have a height that is less than the 25th percentile for age. Sensorineural hearing deficits, present in approximately 20%, are poorly characterized. Intellectual disability, typically mild, is observed in approximately 30% of persons with NSML.
Deafness, autosomal recessive 61
MedGen UID:
462580
Concept ID:
C3151230
Disease or Syndrome
2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyric aciduria
MedGen UID:
781653
Concept ID:
C3266731
Disease or Syndrome
HSD10 mitochondrial disease most commonly presents as an X-linked neurodegenerative disorder with highly variable severity and age at onset ranging from the neonatal period to early childhood. The features are usually multisystemic, consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction. Some affected males have a severe infantile form associated with cardiomyopathy that may result in death in early childhood, whereas other rare patients may have juvenile onset or even atypical presentations with normal neurologic development. More severely affected males show developmental regression in infancy or early childhood, often associated with early-onset intractable seizures, progressive choreoathetosis and spastic tetraplegia, optic atrophy or retinal degeneration resulting in visual loss, and mental retardation. Heterozygous females may show non-progressive developmental delay and intellectual disability, but may also be clinically normal. Although the diagnosis can be aided by the observation of increased urinary levels of metabolites of isoleucine breakdown (2-methyl-3 hydroxybutyrate and tiglylglycine), there is not a correlation between these laboratory features and the phenotype. In addition, patients do not develop severe metabolic crises in the neonatal period as observed in other organic acidurias, but may show persistent lactic acidosis, most likely reflecting mitochondrial dysfunction (summary by Rauschenberger et al., 2010; review by Zschocke, 2012). In a review of the disorder, Zschocke (2012) noted that although this disorder was originally thought to be an inborn error of branched-chain fatty acid and isoleucine metabolism resulting from decreased HSD17B10 dehydrogenase activity (HSD17B10 'deficiency'), subsequent studies have shown that the HSD17B10 gene product has additional functions and also acts as a component of the mitochondrial RNase P holoenzyme, which is involved in mitochondrial tRNA processing and maturation and ultimately mitochondrial protein synthesis. The multisystemic features of HSD10MD most likely result from the adverse effect of HSD17B10 mutations on mitochondrial function, rather than from the effects on the dehydrogenase activity (see PATHOGENESIS below).
Mental retardation, X-linked, with or without nystagmus
MedGen UID:
476987
Concept ID:
C3275356
Disease or Syndrome
Deafness, autosomal recessive 29
MedGen UID:
481290
Concept ID:
C3279660
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary sensory neuropathy type IE
MedGen UID:
481515
Concept ID:
C3279885
Disease or Syndrome
DNMT1-related disorder is a degenerative disorder of the central and peripheral nervous systems comprising a phenotypic spectrum that includes hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 1E (HSAN1E) and autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia, deafness, and narcolepsy (ADCA-DN). DNMT1 disorder is often characterized by moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss beginning in the teens or early 20s, sensory impairment, sudomotor dysfunction (loss of sweating), and dementia usually beginning in the mid-40s. In some affected individuals, narcolepsy/cataplexy syndrome and ataxia are predominant findings.
Stickler syndrome, type 4
MedGen UID:
481571
Concept ID:
C3279941
Disease or Syndrome
Stickler syndrome is a connective tissue disorder that can include ocular findings of myopia, cataract, and retinal detachment; hearing loss that is both conductive and sensorineural; midfacial underdevelopment and cleft palate (either alone or as part of the Robin sequence); and mild spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia and/or precocious arthritis. Variable phenotypic expression of Stickler syndrome occurs both within and among families; interfamilial variability is in part explained by locus and allelic heterogeneity.
Deafness, autosomal dominant 64
MedGen UID:
481578
Concept ID:
C3279948
Disease or Syndrome
Chromosome 8q21.11 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
481861
Concept ID:
C3280231
Disease or Syndrome
The chromosome 8q21.11 deletion syndrome is characterized by intellectual disability and common facial dysmorphic features (summary by Palomares et al., 2011).
Stickler syndrome, type 5
MedGen UID:
481972
Concept ID:
C3280342
Disease or Syndrome
Stickler syndrome is a connective tissue disorder that can include ocular findings of myopia, cataract, and retinal detachment; hearing loss that is both conductive and sensorineural; midfacial underdevelopment and cleft palate (either alone or as part of the Robin sequence); and mild spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia and/or precocious arthritis. Variable phenotypic expression of Stickler syndrome occurs both within and among families; interfamilial variability is in part explained by locus and allelic heterogeneity.
Hypermethioninemia due to adenosine kinase deficiency
MedGen UID:
482011
Concept ID:
C3280381
Disease or Syndrome
Hypermethioninemia due to adenosine kinase deficiency is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism characterized by global developmental delay, early-onset seizures, mild dysmorphic features, and characteristic biochemical anomalies, including persistent hypermethioninemia with increased levels of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy); homocysteine is typically normal (summary by Bjursell et al., 2011).
Infantile cerebellar-retinal degeneration
MedGen UID:
482822
Concept ID:
C3281192
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile cerebellar-retinal degeneration is a severe autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset between ages 2 and 6 months of truncal hypotonia, athetosis, seizures, and ophthalmologic abnormalities, particularly optic atrophy and retinal degeneration. Affected individuals show profound psychomotor retardation, with only some achieving rolling, sitting, or recognition of family. Brain MRI shows progressive cerebral and cerebellar degeneration (summary by Spiegel et al., 2012).
Pituitary hormone deficiency, combined 3
MedGen UID:
483740
Concept ID:
C3489787
Disease or Syndrome
Combined pituitary hormone deficiency is a condition that causes a shortage (deficiency) of several hormones produced by the pituitary gland, which is located at the base of the brain. A lack of these hormones may affect the development of many parts of the body. The first signs of this condition include a failure to grow at the expected rate and short stature that usually becomes apparent in early childhood.People with combined pituitary hormone deficiency may have hypothyroidism, which is underactivity of the butterfly-shaped thyroid gland in the lower neck. Hypothyroidism can cause many symptoms, including weight gain and fatigue. Other features of combined pituitary hormone deficiency include delayed or absent puberty and lack the ability to have biological children (infertility). The condition can also be associated with a deficiency of the hormone cortisol. Cortisol deficiency can impair the body's immune system, causing individuals to be more susceptible to infection.Rarely, people with combined pituitary hormone deficiency have intellectual disability; a short, stiff neck; or underdeveloped optic nerves, which carry visual information from the eyes to the brain.
Pontine tegmental cap dysplasia
MedGen UID:
762040
Concept ID:
C3541340
Disease or Syndrome
Pontine tegmental cap dysplasia (PTCD) refers to a neurologic condition characterized by a distinct pattern of hindbrain malformations apparent on brain imaging. The abnormalities affect the pons, medulla, and cerebellum. In neuroradiologic studies, the ventral side of the pons is flattened, whereas there is vaulting ('capping') of the dorsal pontine border into the fourth ventricle. Affected individuals show a variety of neurologic deficits, most commonly sensorineural deafness, impaired cranial nerve function, and variable psychomotor retardation (summary by Barth et al., 2007).
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 5B
MedGen UID:
762202
Concept ID:
C3542026
Disease or Syndrome
The overlapping phenotypes of neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD) and infantile Refsum disease (IRD) represent the milder manifestations of the Zellweger syndrome spectrum (ZSS) of peroxisome biogenesis disorders. The clinical course of patients with the NALD and IRD presentation is variable and may include developmental delay, hypotonia, liver dysfunction, sensorineural hearing loss, retinal dystrophy, and visual impairment. Children with the NALD presentation may reach their teens, and those with the IRD presentation may reach adulthood (summary by Waterham and Ebberink, 2012). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PBD(NALD/IRD), see 601539. Individuals with mutations in the PEX2 gene have cells of complementation group 5 (CG5, equivalent to CG10 and CGF). For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100.
Coenzyme Q10 deficiency, primary, 6
MedGen UID:
766263
Concept ID:
C3553349
Disease or Syndrome
Primary coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency is usually associated with multisystem involvement, including neurologic manifestations such as fatal neonatal encephalopathy with hypotonia; a late-onset slowly progressive multiple-system atrophy-like phenotype (neurodegeneration with autonomic failure and various combinations of parkinsonism and cerebellar ataxia, and pyramidal dysfunction); and dystonia, spasticity, seizures, and intellectual disability. Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), the hallmark renal manifestation, is often the initial manifestation either as isolated renal involvement that progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or associated with encephalopathy (seizures, stroke-like episodes, severe neurologic impairment) resulting in early death. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), retinopathy or optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss can also be seen.
Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
766452
Concept ID:
C3553538
Disease or Syndrome
Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome-2 is an autosomal recessive progressive neurologic disorder characterized by early childhood onset of sensorineural deafness, bulbar dysfunction, and severe diffuse muscle weakness and wasting of the upper and lower limbs and axial muscles, resulting in respiratory insufficiency. Some patients may lose independent ambulation. Because it results from a defect in riboflavin metabolism, some patients may benefit from high-dose riboflavin supplementation (summary by Johnson et al., 2012; Foley et al., 2014). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome, see BVVLS1 (211530).
3-methylglutaconic aciduria with deafness, encephalopathy, and Leigh-like syndrome
MedGen UID:
766511
Concept ID:
C3553597
Disease or Syndrome
MEGDEL (3-methylglutaconic aciduria with deafness, encephalopathy and Leigh-like) syndrome is characterized in neonates by hypoglycemia and a sepsis-like clinical picture for which no infectious agent can be found. During the first year of life feeding problems, failure to thrive, and/or truncal hypotonia become evident; many infants experience (transient) liver involvement ranging from undulating transaminases to prolonged hyperbilirubinemia and near-fatal liver failure. By age two years progressive deafness, dystonia, and spasticity prevent further psychomotor development and/or result in loss of acquired skills. Affected children are completely dependent on care for all activities of daily living; speech is absent.
Hereditary congenital facial paresis 3
MedGen UID:
766539
Concept ID:
C3553625
Disease or Syndrome
HCFP3 is an autosomal recessive congenital cranial dysinnervation disorder characterized by isolated dysfunction of the seventh cranial nerve resulting in facial palsy. Additional features may include orofacial anomalies, such as smooth philtrum, lagophthalmos, swallowing difficulties, and dysarthria, as well as hearing loss. There is some phenotypic overlap with Moebius syndrome (see, e.g., 157900), but patients with HCFP usually retain full eye motility or have esotropia without paralysis of the sixth cranial nerve (summary by Vogel et al., 2016). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hereditary congenital facial paresis, see 601471.
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 4B
MedGen UID:
766851
Concept ID:
C3553937
Disease or Syndrome
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder-4B (PBD4B) includes the overlapping phenotypes of neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD) and infantile Refsum disease (IRD), which represent milder manifestations of the Zellweger syndrome spectrum (ZSS) of peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBDs). The clinical course of patients with the NALD and IRD presentation is variable and may include developmental delay, hypotonia, liver dysfunction, sensorineural hearing loss, retinal dystrophy, and visual impairment. Children with the NALD presentation may reach their teens, and those with the IRD presentation may reach adulthood (summary by Waterham and Ebberink, 2012). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PBD(NALD/IRD), see 601539. Individuals with mutations in the PEX6 gene have cells of complementation group 4 (CG4, equivalent to CG6 and CGC). For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100.
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 6B
MedGen UID:
766862
Concept ID:
C3553948
Disease or Syndrome
The overlapping phenotypes of neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD) and infantile Refsum disease (IRD) represent the milder manifestations of the Zellweger syndrome spectrum (ZSS) of peroxisome biogenesis disorders. The clinical course of patients with the NALD and IRD presentation is variable and may include developmental delay, hypotonia, liver dysfunction, sensorineural hearing loss, retinal dystrophy, and visual impairment. Children with the NALD presentation may reach their teens, and those with the IRD presentation may reach adulthood. Some patients with PEX10 mutations have a milder disorder characterized by childhood-onset cerebellar ataxia and neuropathy without mental retardation (summary by Waterham and Ebberink, 2012). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PBD(NALD/IRD), see 601539. Individuals with mutations in the PEX10 gene have cells of complementation group 7 (CG7, equivalent to CGB). For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100.
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 7B
MedGen UID:
766865
Concept ID:
C3553951
Disease or Syndrome
The overlapping phenotypes of neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD) and infantile Refsum disease (IRD) represent the milder manifestations of the Zellweger syndrome spectrum (ZSS) of peroxisome biogenesis disorders. The clinical course of patients with the NALD and IRD presentation is variable and may include developmental delay, hypotonia, liver dysfunction, sensorineural hearing loss, retinal dystrophy, and visual impairment. Children with the NALD presentation may reach their teens, and those with the IRD presentation may reach adulthood (summary by Waterham and Ebberink, 2012). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PBD(NALD/IRD), see 601539. Individuals with mutations in the PEX26 gene have cells of complementation group 8 (CG8, equivalent to CGA). For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100.
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 8B
MedGen UID:
766874
Concept ID:
C3553960
Disease or Syndrome
The overlapping phenotypes of neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD) and infantile Refsum disease (IRD) represent the milder manifestations of the Zellweger syndrome spectrum (ZSS) of peroxisome biogenesis disorders. The clinical course of patients with the NALD and IRD presentation is variable and may include developmental delay, hypotonia, liver dysfunction, sensorineural hearing loss, retinal dystrophy, and visual impairment. Children with the NALD presentation may reach their teens, and those with the IRD presentation may reach adulthood (summary by Waterham and Ebberink, 2012). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PBD(NALD/IRD), see 601539. Individuals with mutations in the PEX16 gene have cells of complementation group 9 (CG9, equivalent to CGD). For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100.
Perrault syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
767019
Concept ID:
C3554105
Disease or Syndrome
Perrault syndrome is characterized by sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in males and females and ovarian dysfunction in females. SNHL is bilateral and ranges from profound with prelingual (congenital) onset to moderate with early-childhood onset. When onset is in early childhood, hearing loss can be progressive. Ovarian dysfunction ranges from gonadal dysgenesis (absent or streak gonads) manifesting as primary amenorrhea to primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) defined as cessation of menses before age 40 years. Fertility in affected males is reported as normal (although the number of reported males is limited). Neurologic features described in some individuals with Perrault syndrome include learning difficulties and developmental delay, cerebellar ataxia, and motor and sensory peripheral neuropathy.
Carpenter syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
767161
Concept ID:
C3554247
Disease or Syndrome
Carpenter syndrome-2 is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital malformation disorder characterized by multisuture craniosynostosis and polysyndactyly of the hands and feet, in association with abnormal left-right patterning and other features, most commonly obesity, umbilical hernia, cryptorchidism, and congenital heart disease (summary by Twigg et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Carpenter syndrome, see 201000.
Mandibular hypoplasia, deafness, progeroid features, and lipodystrophy syndrome
MedGen UID:
811623
Concept ID:
C3715192
Disease or Syndrome
Mandibular hypoplasia, deafness, progeroid features, and lipodystrophy syndrome (MDPL) is an autosomal dominant systemic disorder characterized by prominent loss of subcutaneous fat, a characteristic facial appearance, and metabolic abnormalities including insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. Sensorineural deafness occurs late in the first or second decades of life (summary by Weedon et al., 2013).
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, X-linked dominant, 6
MedGen UID:
813032
Concept ID:
C3806702
Disease or Syndrome
Nephrotic syndrome, type 8
MedGen UID:
815283
Concept ID:
C3808953
Disease or Syndrome
Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with brain and eye anomalies), type a, 12
MedGen UID:
815294
Concept ID:
C3808964
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy with brain and eye anomalies (type A) is an autosomal recessive disorder with congenital muscular dystrophy resulting in muscle weakness early in life and brain and eye anomalies. It is usually associated with delayed psychomotor development and shortened life expectancy. The phenotype includes the alternative clinical designations Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) and muscle-eye-brain disease (MEB). The disorder represents the most severe end of a phenotypic spectrum of similar disorders resulting from defective glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (DAG1; 128239), collectively known as dystroglycanopathies (summary by Stevens et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type A, see MDDGA1 (236670).
Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with brain and eye anomalies), type a, 14
MedGen UID:
815546
Concept ID:
C3809216
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile liver failure syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
815852
Concept ID:
C3809522
Disease or Syndrome
Van Maldergem syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
816205
Concept ID:
C3809875
Disease or Syndrome
Van Maldergem syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by intellectual disability, typical craniofacial features, auditory malformations resulting in hearing loss, and skeletal and limb malformations. Some patients have renal hypoplasia. Brain MRI typically shows periventricular nodular heterotopia (summary by Cappello et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Van Maldergem syndrome, see 601390.
Joubert syndrome 21
MedGen UID:
816542
Concept ID:
C3810212
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Deafness, autosomal dominant 50
MedGen UID:
854780
Concept ID:
C3888123
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant deafness-50 is a form of nonsyndromic hearing loss. Hearing impairment shows postlingual onset and is progressive (summary by Mencia et al., 2009).
Immunodeficiency 23
MedGen UID:
862808
Concept ID:
C4014371
Disease or Syndrome
IMD23 is an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by recurrent respiratory and skin infections beginning in early childhood. Laboratory studies are notable for increased serum IgE. Affected individuals also show developmental delay or cognitive impairment of varying severity (summary by Zhang et al., 2014).
Frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2
MedGen UID:
863085
Concept ID:
C4014648
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency 26 with or without neurologic abnormalities
MedGen UID:
863270
Concept ID:
C4014833
Disease or Syndrome
Cataracts, growth hormone deficiency, sensory neuropathy, sensorineural hearing loss, and skeletal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
863379
Concept ID:
C4014942
Disease or Syndrome
Deafness, autosomal recessive 103
MedGen UID:
863487
Concept ID:
C4015050
Disease or Syndrome
Sideroblastic anemia with B-cell immunodeficiency, periodic fevers, and developmental delay
MedGen UID:
863609
Concept ID:
C4015172
Disease or Syndrome
Sideroblastic anemia with B-cell immunodeficiency, periodic fevers, and developmental delay (SIFD) is an autosomal recessive syndromic disorder characterized by onset of severe sideroblastic anemia in the neonatal period or infancy. Affected individuals show delayed psychomotor development with variable neurodegeneration. Recurrent periodic fevers without an infectious etiology occur throughout infancy and childhood; immunologic work-up shows B-cell lymphopenia and hypogammaglobulinemia. Other more variable features include sensorineural hearing loss, retinitis pigmentosa, nephrocalcinosis, and cardiomyopathy. Death in the first decade may occur (summary by Wiseman et al., 2013).
Ataxia, combined cerebellar and peripheral, with hearing loss and diabetes mellitus
MedGen UID:
863873
Concept ID:
C4015436
Disease or Syndrome
Neurologic, endocrine, and pancreatic disease, multisystem, infantile-onset
MedGen UID:
864165
Concept ID:
C4015728
Disease or Syndrome
Deafness, autosomal dominant 40
MedGen UID:
896665
Concept ID:
C4084708
Disease or Syndrome
Deafness, autosomal dominant 67
MedGen UID:
900413
Concept ID:
C4084712
Disease or Syndrome
Optic atrophy 8
MedGen UID:
898923
Concept ID:
C4085249
Disease or Syndrome
Optic atrophy-8 (OPA8) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by progressive visual loss during the first or second decade of life. Some patients may have additional features, mainly late-onset sensorineural hearing loss. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of optic atrophy, see OPA1 (165500).
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 14 (cardioencephalomyopathic type)
MedGen UID:
903789
Concept ID:
C4225163
Disease or Syndrome
Split-foot malformation with mesoaxial polydactyly
MedGen UID:
898233
Concept ID:
C4225167
Disease or Syndrome
TANGO2-Related Metabolic Encephalopathy and Arrhythmias
MedGen UID:
894196
Concept ID:
C4225171
Disease or Syndrome
Individuals with TANGO2-related metabolic encephalopathy and arrhythmias can present in acute metabolic crisis (hypoglycemia, elevated lactate, mild hyperammonemia) or with developmental delay, regression, and/or seizures. The acute presentation varies from profound muscle weakness, ataxia, and/or disorientation to a comatose state. Individuals can present with intermittent acute episodes of rhabdomyolysis. The first episode of myoglobinuria has been known to occur as early as age five months. Acute renal tubular damage due to myoglobinuria can result in acute kidney injury and renal failure. During acute illness, transient electrocardiogram changes can be seen; the most common is QT prolongation. Life-threatening recurrent ventricular tachycardia or torsade de pointes occurs primarily during times of acute illness. Individuals who do not present in metabolic crises may present with gait incoordination, progressively unsteady gait, difficulty with speech, or clumsiness. Intellectual disability of variable severity is observed in almost all individuals. Seizures are observed outside the periods of crises in more than 75% of individuals. Hypothyroidism has been reported in more than one third of individuals.
Microcephaly, short stature, and impaired glucose metabolism 2
MedGen UID:
906140
Concept ID:
C4225195
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia and psychomotor retardation with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
897828
Concept ID:
C4225215
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia and psychomotor retardation with or without seizures is an autosomal recessive complex neurodevelopmental disorder with onset in infancy. Affected children show hypotonia followed by severely impaired global development and significant motor disability. Most develop seizures in childhood and have speech delay. Other features, such as ocular abnormalities, foot deformities, hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, and decreased white matter, are more variable (summary by Hollstein et al., 2015).
Radioulnar synostosis with amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia 2
MedGen UID:
901732
Concept ID:
C4225221
Disease or Syndrome
Radioulnar synostosis with amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia (RUSAT) is characterized by thrombocytopenia that progresses to pancytopenia, in association with congenital proximal fusion of the radius and ulna that results in extremely limited pronation and supination of the forearm (summary by Niihori et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of radioulnar synostosis with amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia, see RUSAT1 (605432).
Takenouchi-Kosaki syndrome
MedGen UID:
906646
Concept ID:
C4225222
Disease or Syndrome
Takenouchi-Kosaki syndrome is a highly heterogeneous autosomal dominant complex congenital developmental disorder affecting multiple organ systems. The core phenotype includes delayed psychomotor development with variable intellectual disability, dysmorphic facial features, and cardiac, genitourinary, and hematologic or lymphatic defects, including thrombocytopenia and lymphedema. Additional features may include abnormalities on brain imaging, skeletal anomalies, and recurrent infections. Some patients have a milder disease course reminiscent of Noonan syndrome (see, e.g., NS1, 163950) (summary by Martinelli et al., 2018).
Desanto-shinawi syndrome
MedGen UID:
908218
Concept ID:
C4225239
Disease or Syndrome
WAC-related intellectual disability (ID) is typically characterized by variable degrees of global developmental delay and/or intellectual disability. Behavioral abnormalities including anxiety, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and/or autism spectrum disorder are observed in the majority of older children and adults. Most affected infants have significant but nonspecific features at birth such as neonatal hypotonia and feeding problems. Some affected individuals come to medical attention with respiratory or vision problems. Facial features may be mildly dysmorphic, but are nonspecific. To date, 18 individuals have been identified with WAC-related ID.
Deafness, autosomal dominant 69
MedGen UID:
905882
Concept ID:
C4225241
Disease or Syndrome
Craniosynostosis 6
MedGen UID:
904675
Concept ID:
C4225269
Disease or Syndrome
Craniosynostosis is a primary abnormality of skull growth involving premature fusion of the cranial sutures such that the growth velocity of the skull often cannot match that of the developing brain. This produces skull deformity and, in some cases, raises intracranial pressure, which must be treated promptly to avoid permanent neurodevelopmental disability (summary by Fitzpatrick, 2013). Craniosynostosis-6 is a bicoronal form associated with bony defects in the sagittal, metopic, or lambdoid sutures (Twigg et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of craniosynostosis, see CRS1 (123100).
Epilepsy, hearing loss, and mental retardation syndrome
MedGen UID:
895574
Concept ID:
C4225276
Disease or Syndrome
Epilepsy, hearing loss, and mental retardation syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe neurologic impairment including intellectual disability, intractable epilepsy, microcephaly, abnormal muscle tone, and sensorineural hearing loss. Most affected individuals are nonambulatory, cannot sit unassisted, and have no speech development. More variable features include feeding difficulties, poor growth, cortical visual impairment, spasticity, scoliosis, immunodeficiency, and thrombocytopenia (summary by Tanaka et al., 2015).
Short stature, microcephaly, and endocrine dysfunction
MedGen UID:
895448
Concept ID:
C4225288
Disease or Syndrome
In patients with SSMED, short stature and microcephaly are apparent at birth, and there is progressive postnatal growth failure. Endocrine dysfunction, including hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, multinodular goiter, and diabetes mellitus, is present in affected adults. Progressive ataxia has been reported in some patients, with onset ranging from the second to fifth decade of life. In addition, a few patients have developed tumors, suggesting that there may be a predisposition to tumorigenesis. In contrast to syndromes involving defects in other components of the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) complex (see, e.g., 606593), no clinically overt immunodeficiency has been observed in SSMED, although laboratory analysis has revealed lymphopenia or borderline leukopenia in some patients (Murray et al., 2015; Bee et al., 2015; de Bruin et al., 2015; Guo et al., 2015).
Mental retardation, autosomal recessive 50
MedGen UID:
906893
Concept ID:
C4225319
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Zimmermann-Laband syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
897567
Concept ID:
C4225321
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 20
MedGen UID:
903867
Concept ID:
C4225355
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-20 is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severely delayed psychomotor development with poor or absent speech, wide-based or absent gait, coarse facies, and cerebellar atrophy (summary by Thomas et al., 2014).
Robinow syndrome, autosomal dominant 2
MedGen UID:
897039
Concept ID:
C4225363
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome (ADRS) is characterized by skeletal findings (short stature, mesomelic limb shortening predominantly of the upper limbs, and brachydactyly), genital abnormalities (in males: micropenis / webbed penis, hypoplastic scrotum, cryptorchidism; in females: hypoplastic clitoris and labia majora), dysmorphic facial features (widely spaced and prominent eyes, frontal bossing, anteverted nares, midface retrusion), dental abnormalities (including malocclusion, crowding, hypodontia, late eruption of permanent teeth), bilobed tongue, and occasional prenatal macrocephaly that persists postnatally. Less common findings include renal anomalies, radial head dislocation, vertebral abnormalities such as hemivertebrae and scoliosis, nail dysplasia, cardiac defects, cleft lip/palate, and (rarely) cognitive delay. When present, cardiac defects are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. A variant of Robinow syndrome, associated with osteosclerosis and caused by a heterozygous pathogenic variant in DVL1, is characterized by normal stature, persistent macrocephaly, increased bone mineral density with skull osteosclerosis, and hearing loss, in addition to the typical features described above.
Deafness, autosomal dominant 66
MedGen UID:
924418
Concept ID:
C4283893
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant deafness-66 is a form of nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing impairment with widely variable age at onset (Nyegaard et al., 2015).
3-methylglutaconic aciduria, type VIII
MedGen UID:
934617
Concept ID:
C4310650
Disease or Syndrome
MGCA8 is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder resulting in death in infancy. Features include hypotonia, abnormal movements, respiratory insufficiency with apneic episodes, and lack of developmental progress, often with seizures. Brain imaging is variable, but may show progressive cerebral atrophy. Laboratory studies show increased serum lactate and 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, suggesting a mitochondrial defect (summary by Mandel et al., 2016). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, see MGCA type I (250950).
Cone-rod dystrophy and hearing loss
MedGen UID:
934624
Concept ID:
C4310657
Disease or Syndrome
CRDHL1 is characterized by cone-rod dystrophy and sensorineural hearing loss, with relatively late onset of both ocular and hearing impairment. The funduscopic findings are characteristic, showing ring-shaped atrophy along the major vascular arcades that manifests on fundus autofluorescence as a hypoautofluorescent band along the vascular arcades surrounded by hyperautofluorescent borders (Namburi et al., 2016). Genetic Heterogeneity of Cone-Rod Dystrophy and Hearing Loss CRDHL2 (618358) is caused by mutation in the CEP250 gene (609689) on chromosome 20q11.
Frontometaphyseal dysplasia 2
MedGen UID:
934664
Concept ID:
C4310697
Disease or Syndrome
Frontometaphyseal dysplasia (FMD) is a progressive sclerosing skeletal dysplasia characterized by supraorbital hyperostosis, undermodeling of the small bones, and small and large joint contractures, as well as extraskeletal developmental abnormalities, primarily of the cardiorespiratory system and genitourinary tract. Patients with FMD2 appear to have a propensity for keloid formation (summary by Wade et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of frontometaphyseal dysplasia, see FMD1 (305620).
Thauvin-Robinet-Faivre syndrome
MedGen UID:
934682
Concept ID:
C4310715
Disease or Syndrome
Thauvin-Robinet-Faivre syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by generalized overgrowth, mainly of height, and mildly delayed psychomotor development with mild or severe learning difficulties. More variable features may include congenital heart defects, kidney abnormalities, and skeletal defects. Patients may have an increased risk for Wilms tumor (summary by Akawi et al., 2016).
Growth retardation, intellectual developmental disorder, hypotonia, and hepatopathy
MedGen UID:
934687
Concept ID:
C4310720
Disease or Syndrome
GRIDHH is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by poor overall growth, impaired intellectual development, hypotonia, and variable liver dysfunction. Additional features, such as seizures and hearing loss, may also be present (summary by Kopajtich et al., 2016).
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, autosomal recessive 4
MedGen UID:
934700
Concept ID:
C4310733
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions-4 (PEOB4) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by adult onset of eye muscle weakness and proximal limb muscle weakness associated with deletions of mtDNA on skeletal muscle biopsy, which results from defective mtDNA replication in post-mitotic muscle tissue. Additional features are more variable (summary by Ronchi et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive PEO, see PEOB1 (258450).
Midface hypoplasia, hearing impairment, elliptocytosis, and nephrocalcinosis
MedGen UID:
934777
Concept ID:
C4310810
Disease or Syndrome
Midface hypoplasia, hearing impairment, elliptocytosis, and nephrocalcinosis is an X-linked recessive disorder with onset of features in early childhood. Anemia is sometimes present. Some patients may show mild early motor or speech delay, but cognition is normal (summary by Andreoletti et al., 2017).
Immunodeficiency 47
MedGen UID:
934786
Concept ID:
C4310819
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-47 is an X-linked recessive complex immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by recurrent bacterial infections, hypogammaglobulinemia, liver dysfunction, and defective glycosylation of serum proteins. Some patients may also have neurologic abnormalities (summary by Jansen et al., 2016).

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Idstad M, Tambs K, Aarhus L, Engdahl BL
BMC Public Health 2019 Feb 8;19(1):168. doi: 10.1186/s12889-019-6449-2. PMID: 30736854Free PMC Article
De Schrijver L, Topsakal V, Wojciechowski M, Van de Heyning P, Boudewyns A
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2019 Jan;116:168-172. Epub 2018 Nov 3 doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2018.10.048. PMID: 30554691
Castañeda R, Natarajan S, Jeong SY, Hong BN, Kang TH
J Ethnopharmacol 2019 Mar 1;231:409-428. Epub 2018 Nov 12 doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2018.11.016. PMID: 30439402
Gündoğan F, Bayram A, Kalkan M, Özcan I
J Laryngol Otol 2018 Nov;132(11):995-999. Epub 2018 Oct 29 doi: 10.1017/S002221511800186X. PMID: 30370871
Kaspar A, Newton O, Kei J, Driscoll C, Swanepoel W, Goulios H
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2018 Aug;111:21-25. Epub 2018 May 19 doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2018.05.021. PMID: 29958609

Diagnosis

Kaspar A, Newton O, Kei J, Driscoll C, Swanepoel W, Goulios H
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2018 Aug;111:21-25. Epub 2018 May 19 doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2018.05.021. PMID: 29958609
Muelleman T, Kavookjian H, Lin J, Staecker H
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2018 Sep;127(9):649-652. Epub 2018 Jun 25 doi: 10.1177/0003489418784051. PMID: 29938521
Wu X, Jiang H, Wen L, Zong L, Chen K
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2018 Jun;127(6):373-378. Epub 2018 May 2 doi: 10.1177/0003489418769942. PMID: 29717656
Chroni M, Prappa E, Kokkevi I
J Laryngol Otol 2018 Apr;132(4):368-371. Epub 2018 Feb 21 doi: 10.1017/S0022215118000269. PMID: 29463328
Haremza C, Klopp-Dutote N, Strunski V, Page C
J Laryngol Otol 2017 Oct;131(10):919-924. Epub 2017 Aug 15 doi: 10.1017/S0022215117001736. PMID: 28807070

Therapy

Gündoğan F, Bayram A, Kalkan M, Özcan I
J Laryngol Otol 2018 Nov;132(11):995-999. Epub 2018 Oct 29 doi: 10.1017/S002221511800186X. PMID: 30370871
Arslan F, Karagöz E, Beköz HS, Ceylan B, Mert A
Infez Med 2017 Sep 1;25(3):277-280. PMID: 28956548
Jamshidi A, Glidewell C, Murnick J, Magge S, Reilly BK
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2017 Sep;100:141-144. Epub 2017 Jul 1 doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2017.06.034. PMID: 28802360
Lee JM, Kim JY, Bok J, Kim KS, Choi JY, Kim SH
Clin Immunol 2017 Oct;183:24-35. Epub 2017 Jun 23 doi: 10.1016/j.clim.2017.06.008. PMID: 28648633
Wasano K, Tomisato S, Yamamoto S, Suzuki N, Kawasaki T, Ogawa K
Auris Nasus Larynx 2017 Aug;44(4):489-492. Epub 2016 Aug 20 doi: 10.1016/j.anl.2016.07.019. PMID: 27552828

Prognosis

Yoon SH, Kim ME, Kim HY, Lee JS, Jang CH
J Laryngol Otol 2019 Feb;133(2):95-101. Epub 2019 Feb 11 doi: 10.1017/S0022215119000100. PMID: 30739608
Wu X, Jiang H, Wen L, Zong L, Chen K
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2018 Jun;127(6):373-378. Epub 2018 May 2 doi: 10.1177/0003489418769942. PMID: 29717656
Barbara M, Volpini L, Filippi C, Atturo F, Monini S
Acta Otolaryngol 2018 Jan;138(1):31-35. Epub 2017 Aug 30 doi: 10.1080/00016489.2017.1371327. PMID: 28854835
Ciccone MM, Scicchitano P, Gesualdo M, Cortese F, Zito A, Manca F, Boninfante B, Recchia P, Leogrande D, Viola D, Damiani M, Gambacorta V, Piccolo A, De Ceglie V, Quaranta N
Clin Otolaryngol 2018 Feb;43(1):230-239. Epub 2017 Sep 5 doi: 10.1111/coa.12947. PMID: 28744995
Hosokawa S, Sugiyama K, Takahashi G, Takebayashi S, Mineta H
J Laryngol Otol 2017 Jan;131(1):77-82. Epub 2016 Dec 5 doi: 10.1017/S0022215116009725. PMID: 27917721

Clinical prediction guides

Wu X, Jiang H, Wen L, Zong L, Chen K
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2018 Jun;127(6):373-378. Epub 2018 May 2 doi: 10.1177/0003489418769942. PMID: 29717656
Barbara M, Volpini L, Filippi C, Atturo F, Monini S
Acta Otolaryngol 2018 Jan;138(1):31-35. Epub 2017 Aug 30 doi: 10.1080/00016489.2017.1371327. PMID: 28854835
Ciccone MM, Scicchitano P, Gesualdo M, Cortese F, Zito A, Manca F, Boninfante B, Recchia P, Leogrande D, Viola D, Damiani M, Gambacorta V, Piccolo A, De Ceglie V, Quaranta N
Clin Otolaryngol 2018 Feb;43(1):230-239. Epub 2017 Sep 5 doi: 10.1111/coa.12947. PMID: 28744995
Haremza C, Klopp-Dutote N, Strunski V, Page C
J Laryngol Otol 2017 Oct;131(10):919-924. Epub 2017 Aug 15 doi: 10.1017/S0022215117001736. PMID: 28807070
Xu H, Fan W, Zhao X, Li J, Zhang W, Lei P, Liu Y, Wang H, Cheng H, Shi H
Hear Res 2016 May;335:138-148. Epub 2016 Mar 9 doi: 10.1016/j.heares.2016.02.016. PMID: 26969260

Recent systematic reviews

Riga M, Korres G, Chouridis P, Naxakis S, Danielides V
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2018 Dec;115:156-164. Epub 2018 Oct 4 doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2018.10.005. PMID: 30368378
Kraaijenga VJC, Derksen TC, Stegeman I, Smit AL
Clin Otolaryngol 2018 Apr;43(2):440-449. Epub 2017 Oct 19 doi: 10.1111/coa.12988. PMID: 28944603
Souza MEDCA, Costa KVTD, Vitorino PA, Bueno NB, Menezes PL
Braz J Otorhinolaryngol 2018 May - Jun;84(3):368-380. Epub 2017 Aug 26 doi: 10.1016/j.bjorl.2017.07.011. PMID: 28888754
Verbecque E, Marijnissen T, De Belder N, Van Rompaey V, Boudewyns A, Van de Heyning P, Vereeck L, Hallemans A
Int J Audiol 2017 Jun;56(6):361-381. Epub 2017 Feb 13 doi: 10.1080/14992027.2017.1281444. PMID: 28264605
Su CX, Yan LJ, Lewith G, Liu JP
Clin Otolaryngol 2013 Dec;38(6):455-73. doi: 10.1111/coa.12198. PMID: 24209508

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