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Items: 4

1.

Malignant hyperthermia, susceptibility to, 5

Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS) is a pharmacogenetic disorder of skeletal muscle calcium regulation associated with uncontrolled skeletal muscle hypermetabolism. Manifestations of malignant hyperthermia (MH) are precipitated by certain volatile anesthetics (i.e., halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, desflurane, enflurane), either alone or in conjunction with a depolarizing muscle relaxant (specifically, succinylcholine). The triggering substances cause uncontrolled release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and may promote entry of extracellular calcium into the myoplasm, causing contracture of skeletal muscles, glycogenolysis, and increased cellular metabolism, resulting in production of heat and excess lactate. Affected individuals experience acidosis, hypercapnia, tachycardia, hyperthermia, muscle rigidity, compartment syndrome, rhabdomyolysis with subsequent increase in serum creatine kinase (CK) concentration, hyperkalemia with a risk for cardiac arrhythmia or even cardiac arrest, and myoglobinuria with a risk for renal failure. In nearly all cases, the first manifestations of MH (tachycardia and tachypnea) occur in the operating room; however, MH may also occur in the early postoperative period. There is mounting evidence that some individuals with MHS will also develop MH with exercise and/or on exposure to hot environments. Without proper and prompt treatment with dantrolene sodium, mortality is extremely high. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
356151
Concept ID:
C1866077
Finding
2.

Hypokalemic periodic paralysis, type 1

Hypokalemic periodic paralysis (hypoPP) is a condition in which affected individuals may experience paralytic episodes with concomitant hypokalemia (serum potassium <3.5 mmol/L). The paralytic attacks are characterized by decreased muscle tone (flaccidity) more marked proximally than distally with normal to decreased deep tendon reflexes. The episodes develop over minutes to hours and last several minutes to several days with spontaneous recovery. Some individuals have only one episode in a lifetime; more commonly, crises occur repeatedly: daily, weekly, monthly, or less often. The major triggering factors are cessation of effort following strenuous exercise and carbohydrate-rich evening meals. Additional triggers can include cold, stress/excitement/fear, salt intake, prolonged immobility, use of glucosteroids or alcohol, and anesthetic procedures. The age of onset of the first attack ranges from two to 30 years; the duration of paralytic episodes ranges from one to 72 hours with an average of nearly 24 hours. Long-lasting interictal muscle weakness may occur in some affected individuals and in some stages of the disease and in myopathic muscle changes. A myopathy may occur independent of paralytic symptoms and may be the sole manifestation of hypoPP. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
811387
Concept ID:
C3714580
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis, susceptibility to, 1

Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is a sporadic muscle disorder characterized by episodic attacks of weakness associated with hypokalemia in individuals with hyperthyroidism. The paralysis resolves upon treatment of hyperthyroidism. The disorder is most common among males of Asian descent, including Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese, Filipino, and Koreans, although it occurs less commonly in individuals of Caucasian background. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is clinically similar to hereditary hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HOKPP; 170400), but the paralysis in TTPP occurs only in the presence of hyperthyroidism. TTPP can also be precipitated by factors that result in hypokalemia, such as carbohydrate ingestion and rest after exercise (review by Kung, 2006). Genetic Heterogeneity of Thyrotoxic Periodic Paralysis See also TTPP2 (613239), conferred by variation in the KCNJ18 gene (613236) on chromosome 17p11, and TTPP3 (614834), mapped to chromosome 17q24. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
413199
Concept ID:
C2749982
Finding
4.

Congenital myopathy 18

Congenital myopathy-18 (CMYP18) is a disorder of the skeletal muscle characterized by the onset of symptoms of muscle weakness in early childhood, including in utero and infancy. There is clinical heterogeneity in the manifestations and severity, ranging from fetal akinesia sequence causing early death to onset of symptoms in adulthood. Most affected individuals show delayed motor development with generalized hypotonia and progressive axial and limb muscle weakness beginning soon after birth or in infancy. Additional features may include swallowing difficulties, external ophthalmoplegia, ptosis, high-arched palate, and respiratory insufficiency, which can lead to death in severe cases. Muscle biopsy shows variable morphologic abnormalities, including alveolar changes in the intermyofibrillar network, fiber size variability, focal disorganization, internal nuclei, and dilated sarcoplasmic reticulum and T-tubules. The disorder results from a defect in excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle (Schartner et al., 2017; Ravenscroft et al., 2021; Mauri et al., 2021; Yis et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1840919
Concept ID:
C5830283
Disease or Syndrome
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