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SHORT syndrome

MedGen UID:
164212
Concept ID:
C0878684
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: LIPODYSTROPHY, PARTIAL, WITH RIEGER ANOMALY AND SHORT STATURE; SHORT STATURE, HYPEREXTENSIBILITY, HERNIA, OCULAR DEPRESSION, RIEGER ANOMALY, AND TEETHING DELAY; Stature, Hyperextensibility of joints or Hernia (inguinal), Ocular depression, Rieger anomaly and Teething delay
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Sources: HPO, OMIM, Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in heterozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, an autosomal dominant disorder is caused when a single copy of the mutant allele is present. Males and females are affected equally, and can both transmit the disorder with a risk of 50% for each child of inheriting the mutant allele.
Autosomal dominant inheritance (HPO, OMIM, Orphanet)
 
Gene (location): PIK3R1 (5q13.1)
OMIM®: 269880
Orphanet: ORPHA3163

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: SHORT Syndrome
SHORT syndrome is a mnemonic for short stature, hyperextensibility, ocular depression (deeply set eyes), Rieger anomaly, and teething delay. It is now recognized that the features most consistently observed in SHORT syndrome are mild intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR); mild short stature; partial lipodystrophy (evident at birth in the face, and later in the chest and upper extremities, often sparing the buttocks and legs); and a characteristic facial gestalt. Other frequent features include: Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly or related ocular anterior chamber dysgenesis; delayed dentition and a variety of dental abnormalities; insulin resistance (typically in mid-childhood to adolescence) and/or diabetes mellitus in early adulthood; and sensorineural hearing loss. To date the diagnosis has been molecularly confirmed in individuals from 16 families; thus, the current understanding of the phenotypic spectrum and natural history are likely to evolve over time. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
A Micheil Innes  |  David A Dyment   view full author information

Additional descriptions

From OMIM
'Short,' the mnemonic designation for this syndrome, is an acronym: S = stature; H = hyperextensibility of joints or hernia (inguinal) or both; O = ocular depression; R = Rieger anomaly; T = teething delay. The name was given by Gorlin (1975), who described the syndrome in 2 brothers. Dyment et al. (2013) noted that the features listed in the acronym for SHORT syndrome do not capture the full range of the clinical phenotype, which can include a recognizable facial gestalt consisting of triangular facies, lack of facial fat, and hypoplastic nasal alae with overhanging columella, as well as near-universal partial lipodystrophy, insulin resistance, nephrocalcinosis, and hearing deficits. Notably, both developmental milestones and cognition are normal for individuals with SHORT syndrome.  http://www.omim.org/entry/269880
From GHR
Short stature, hyperextensibility, hernia, ocular depression, Rieger anomaly, and teething delay, commonly known by the acronym SHORT syndrome, is a rare disorder that affects many parts of the body.Most people with SHORT syndrome are small at birth and gain weight slowly in childhood. Affected adults tend to have short stature compared with others in their family. Many have a lack of fatty tissue under the skin (lipoatrophy), primarily in the face, arms, and chest. This lack of fat, together with thin, wrinkled skin and veins visible beneath the skin, makes affected individuals look older than their biological age. This appearance of premature aging is sometimes described as progeroid.Most people with SHORT syndrome have distinctive facial features. These include a triangular face shape with a prominent forehead and deep-set eyes (ocular depression), thin nostrils, a downturned mouth, and a small chin. Eye abnormalities are common in affected individuals, particularly Rieger anomaly, which affects structures at the front of the eye. Rieger anomaly can be associated with increased pressure in the eye (glaucoma) and vision loss. Some people with SHORT syndrome also have dental abnormalities such as delayed appearance (eruption) of teeth in early childhood, small teeth, fewer teeth than normal (hypodontia), and a lack of protective covering (enamel) on the surface of the teeth.Other signs and symptoms that have been reported in people with SHORT syndrome include immune system abnormalities, a kidney disorder known as nephrocalcinosis, hearing loss, loose (hyperextensible) joints, and a soft out-pouching in the lower abdomen called an inguinal hernia. A few affected individuals have developed problems with blood sugar regulation including insulin resistance and diabetes. Most people with SHORT syndrome have normal intelligence, although a few have been reported with mild cognitive impairment or delayed development of speech in childhood.  https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/short-stature-hyperextensibility-hernia-ocular-depression-rieger-anomaly-and-teething-delay

Clinical features

From HPO
Small for gestational age
MedGen UID:
65920
Concept ID:
C0235991
Finding
A newborn infant who has weight and/or length at birth more than two standard deviations below the mean for the reference population of the same sex and gestational age.
Intrauterine growth retardation
MedGen UID:
473406
Concept ID:
C1386048
Pathologic Function
Birth length less than 3rd percentile
MedGen UID:
340924
Concept ID:
C1855650
Finding
Inguinal hernia
MedGen UID:
6817
Concept ID:
C0019294
Finding
An abdominal hernia with an external bulge in the GROIN region. It can be classified by the location of herniation. Indirect inguinal hernias occur through the internal inguinal ring. Direct inguinal hernias occur through defects in the ABDOMINAL WALL (transversalis fascia) in Hesselbach's triangle. The former type is commonly seen in children and young adults; the latter in adults.
Sensorineural hearing loss
MedGen UID:
9164
Concept ID:
C0018784
Disease or Syndrome
A type of hearing impairment in one or both ears related to an abnormal functionality of the cochlear nerve.
Macrotia
MedGen UID:
488785
Concept ID:
C0152421
Congenital Abnormality
Median longitudinal ear length greater than two standard deviations above the mean and median ear width greater than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or, apparent increase in length and width of the pinna (subjective).
Delayed speech and language development
MedGen UID:
105318
Concept ID:
C0454644
Finding
A degree of language development that is significantly below the norm for a child of a specified age.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
334384
Concept ID:
C1843367
Finding
Radial deviation of finger
MedGen UID:
322852
Concept ID:
C1836189
Finding
Bending or curvature of a finger toward the radial side (i.e., towards the thumb). The deviation is at the metacarpal-phalangeal joint, and this finding is distinct from clinodactyly.
Clinodactyly
MedGen UID:
1644094
Concept ID:
C4551485
Congenital Abnormality
An angulation of a digit at an interphalangeal joint in the plane of the palm (finger) or sole (toe).
Abnormality of the immune system
MedGen UID:
867388
Concept ID:
C4021753
Pathologic Function
An abnormality of the immune system.
Hyperglycemia
MedGen UID:
5689
Concept ID:
C0020456
Disease or Syndrome
Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.
Insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus
MedGen UID:
163439
Concept ID:
C0854110
Disease or Syndrome
A type of diabetes mellitus related not to lack of insulin but rather to lack of response to insulin on the part of the target tissues of insulin such as muscle, fat, and liver cells. This type of diabetes is typically associated with increases both in blood glucose concentrations as will as in fasting and postprandial serum insulin levels.
Micrognathia
MedGen UID:
44428
Concept ID:
C0025990
Congenital Abnormality
A congenital abnormality of the jaws (particularly the mandible) in which they are unusually small. This condition is not always pathological and may correct itself as the patient matures; however, it may also present as a birth defect in multiple syndromes.
Joint laxity
MedGen UID:
39439
Concept ID:
C0086437
Pathologic Function
Lack of stability of a joint.
Frontal bossing
MedGen UID:
67453
Concept ID:
C0221354
Congenital Abnormality
A skeletal deformity characterized by an unusually prominent forehead. Causes include acromegaly, Hurler syndrome, Silver-Russell syndrome, and thalassemia major.
Delayed skeletal maturation
MedGen UID:
108148
Concept ID:
C0541764
Finding
A decreased rate of skeletal maturation. Delayed skeletal maturation can be diagnosed on the basis of an estimation of the bone age from radiographs of specific bones in the human body.
Enlarged epiphyses
MedGen UID:
318846
Concept ID:
C1833328
Finding
Increased size of epiphyses.
Radial deviation of finger
MedGen UID:
322852
Concept ID:
C1836189
Finding
Bending or curvature of a finger toward the radial side (i.e., towards the thumb). The deviation is at the metacarpal-phalangeal joint, and this finding is distinct from clinodactyly.
Clinodactyly
MedGen UID:
1644094
Concept ID:
C4551485
Congenital Abnormality
An angulation of a digit at an interphalangeal joint in the plane of the palm (finger) or sole (toe).
Partial congenital absence of teeth
MedGen UID:
43794
Concept ID:
C0020608
Congenital Abnormality
Tooth agenesis in some form is a common human anomaly that affects approximately 20% of the population. Although tooth agenesis is associated with numerous syndromes, several case reports describe nonsyndromic forms that are either sporadic or familial in nature, as reviewed by Gorlin et al. (1990). The incidence of familial tooth agenesis varies with each class of teeth. Most commonly affected are third molars (wisdom teeth), followed by either upper lateral incisors or lower second premolars; agenesis involving first and second molars is very rare. Also see 114600 and 302400. Selective tooth agenesis without associated systemic disorders has sometimes been divided into 2 types: oligodontia, defined as agenesis of 6 or more permanent teeth, and hypodontia, defined as agenesis of less than 6 teeth. The number in both cases does not include absence of third molars (wisdom teeth). Faulty use of the terms, however, have confounded their use. The term 'partial anodontia' is obsolete (Salinas, 1978). Genetic Heterogeneity of Selective Tooth Agenesis Other forms of selective tooth agenesis include STHAG2 (602639), mapped to chromosome 16q12; STHAG3 (604625), caused by mutation in the PAX9 gene (167416) on chromosome 14q12; STHAG4 (150400), caused by mutation in the WNT10A gene (606268) on chromosome 2q35; STHAG5 (610926), mapped to chromosome 10q11; STHAG7 (616724), caused by mutation in the LRP6 gene (603507) on chromosome 12p13; STHAG8 (617073), caused by mutation in the WNT10B gene (601906) on chromosome 12q13; STHAG9 (617275), caused by mutation in the GREM2 gene (608832) on chromosome 1q43; and STHAGX1 (313500), caused by mutation in the EDA gene (300451) on chromosome Xq13. A type of selective tooth agenesis that was formerly designated STHAG6 has been incorporated into the dental anomalies and short stature syndrome (DASS; 601216). Of 34 unrelated patients with nonsyndromic tooth agenesis, van den Boogaard et al. (2012) found that 56% (19 patients) had mutations in the WNT10A gene (STHAG4), whereas only 3% and 9% had mutations in the MSX1 (STHAG1) and PAX9 (STHAG3) genes, respectively. The authors concluded that WNT10A is a major gene in the etiology of isolated hypodontia. Genotype-Phenotype Correlations Yu et al. (2016) observed that the most frequently missing permanent teeth in WNT10B-associated oligodontia were the lateral incisors (83.3%), whereas premolars were missing only 51.4% of the time, which they noted was a pattern 'clearly different' from the oligodontia patterns resulting from WNT10A mutations. They also stated that the selective pattern in WNT10B mutants was different from that associated with mutations in other genes, such as MSX1, in which second premolars are missing, and PAX9, in which there is agenesis of molars.
Dental malocclusion
MedGen UID:
9869
Concept ID:
C0024636
Anatomical Abnormality
An inherited or acquired dental abnormality characterized by improper alignment of the teeth.
Micrognathia
MedGen UID:
44428
Concept ID:
C0025990
Congenital Abnormality
A congenital abnormality of the jaws (particularly the mandible) in which they are unusually small. This condition is not always pathological and may correct itself as the patient matures; however, it may also present as a birth defect in multiple syndromes.
Frontal bossing
MedGen UID:
67453
Concept ID:
C0221354
Congenital Abnormality
A skeletal deformity characterized by an unusually prominent forehead. Causes include acromegaly, Hurler syndrome, Silver-Russell syndrome, and thalassemia major.
Delayed eruption of teeth
MedGen UID:
68678
Concept ID:
C0239174
Finding
Telecanthus
MedGen UID:
140836
Concept ID:
C0423113
Finding
Distance between the inner canthi more than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or, apparently increased distance between the inner canthi.
Underdeveloped nasal alae
MedGen UID:
322332
Concept ID:
C1834055
Congenital Abnormality
Thinned, deficient, or excessively arched ala nasi.
Triangular face
MedGen UID:
324383
Concept ID:
C1835884
Finding
Facial contour, as viewed from the front, triangular in shape, with breadth at the temples and tapering to a narrow chin.
Prominent forehead
MedGen UID:
373291
Concept ID:
C1837260
Finding
Forward prominence of the entire forehead, due to protrusion of the frontal bone.
Wide nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
341441
Concept ID:
C1849367
Finding
Downturned corners of mouth
MedGen UID:
356471
Concept ID:
C1866195
Anatomical Abnormality
A morphological abnormality of the mouth in which the angle of the mouth is downturned. The oral commissures are positioned inferior to the midline labial fissure.
Midface retrusion
MedGen UID:
388629
Concept ID:
C2673410
Finding
Dimple chin
MedGen UID:
1370532
Concept ID:
C4317152
Anatomical Abnormality
A persistent midline depression of the skin over the fat pad of the chin.
Inguinal hernia
MedGen UID:
6817
Concept ID:
C0019294
Finding
An abdominal hernia with an external bulge in the GROIN region. It can be classified by the location of herniation. Indirect inguinal hernias occur through the internal inguinal ring. Direct inguinal hernias occur through defects in the ABDOMINAL WALL (transversalis fascia) in Hesselbach's triangle. The former type is commonly seen in children and young adults; the latter in adults.
Lipodystrophy
MedGen UID:
6111
Concept ID:
C0023787
Disease or Syndrome
A collection of heterogenous conditions resulting from defective LIPID METABOLISM and characterized by ADIPOSE TISSUE atrophy. Often there is redistribution of body fat resulting in peripheral fat wasting and central adiposity. They include generalized, localized, congenital, and acquired lipodystrophy.
Lipoatrophy
MedGen UID:
488959
Concept ID:
C1280433
Disease or Syndrome
Localized loss of fat tissue.
Abnormality of the skin
MedGen UID:
11449
Concept ID:
C0037268
Congenital Abnormality
A skin abnormality that is present at birth or detected in the neonatal period.
Premature skin wrinkling
MedGen UID:
19996
Concept ID:
C0037301
Finding
The presence of an increased degree of wrinkling (irregular folds and indentations) of the skin as compared with age-related norms.
Thin skin
MedGen UID:
140848
Concept ID:
C0423757
Finding
Reduction in thickness of the skin, generally associated with a loss of suppleness and elasticity of the skin.
Insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus
MedGen UID:
163439
Concept ID:
C0854110
Disease or Syndrome
A type of diabetes mellitus related not to lack of insulin but rather to lack of response to insulin on the part of the target tissues of insulin such as muscle, fat, and liver cells. This type of diabetes is typically associated with increases both in blood glucose concentrations as will as in fasting and postprandial serum insulin levels.
Glaucoma
MedGen UID:
42224
Concept ID:
C0017601
Disease or Syndrome
Glaucoma is a group of eye disorders in which the optic nerves connecting the eyes and the brain are progressively damaged. This damage can lead to reduction in side (peripheral) vision and eventual blindness. Other signs and symptoms may include bulging eyes, excessive tearing, and abnormal sensitivity to light (photophobia). The term "early-onset glaucoma" may be used when the disorder appears before the age of 40.In most people with glaucoma, the damage to the optic nerves is caused by increased pressure within the eyes (intraocular pressure). Intraocular pressure depends on a balance between fluid entering and leaving the eyes.Usually glaucoma develops in older adults, in whom the risk of developing the disorder may be affected by a variety of medical conditions including high blood pressure (hypertension) and diabetes mellitus, as well as family history. The risk of early-onset glaucoma depends mainly on heredity.Structural abnormalities that impede fluid drainage in the eye may be present at birth and usually become apparent during the first year of life. Such abnormalities may be part of a genetic disorder that affects many body systems, called a syndrome. If glaucoma appears before the age of 5 without other associated abnormalities, it is called primary congenital glaucoma.Other individuals experience early onset of primary open-angle glaucoma, the most common adult form of glaucoma. If primary open-angle glaucoma develops during childhood or early adulthood, it is called juvenile open-angle glaucoma.
Myopia
MedGen UID:
44558
Concept ID:
C0027092
Disease or Syndrome
Nearsightedness, also known as myopia, is an eye condition that causes blurry distance vision. People who are nearsighted have more trouble seeing things that are far away (such as when driving) than things that are close up (such as when reading or using a computer). If it is not treated with corrective lenses or surgery, nearsightedness can lead to squinting, eyestrain, headaches, and significant visual impairment.Nearsightedness usually begins in childhood or adolescence. It tends to worsen with age until adulthood, when it may stop getting worse (stabilize). In some people, nearsightedness improves in later adulthood.For normal vision, light passes through the clear cornea at the front of the eye and is focused by the lens onto the surface of the retina, which is the lining of the back of the eye that contains light-sensing cells. People who are nearsighted typically have eyeballs that are too long from front to back. As a result, light entering the eye is focused too far forward, in front of the retina instead of on its surface. It is this change that causes distant objects to appear blurry. The longer the eyeball is, the farther forward light rays will be focused and the more severely nearsighted a person will be.Nearsightedness is measured by how powerful a lens must be to correct it. The standard unit of lens power is called a diopter. Negative (minus) powered lenses are used to correct nearsightedness. The more severe a person's nearsightedness, the larger the number of diopters required for correction. In an individual with nearsightedness, one eye may be more nearsighted than the other.Eye doctors often refer to nearsightedness less than -5 or -6 diopters as "common myopia." Nearsightedness of -6 diopters or more is commonly called "high myopia." This distinction is important because high myopia increases a person's risk of developing other eye problems that can lead to permanent vision loss or blindness. These problems include tearing and detachment of the retina, clouding of the lens (cataract), and an eye disease called glaucoma that is usually related to increased pressure within the eye. The risk of these other eye problems increases with the severity of the nearsightedness. The term "pathological myopia" is used to describe cases in which high myopia leads to tissue damage within the eye.
Cataract
MedGen UID:
39462
Concept ID:
C0086543
Acquired Abnormality
A cataract is an opacity or clouding that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye or in its capsule.
Rieger syndrome
MedGen UID:
78558
Concept ID:
C0265341
Disease or Syndrome
Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome is primarily an eye disorder, although it can also affect other parts of the body. This condition is characterized by abnormalities of the front part of the eye, an area known as the anterior segment. For example, the colored part of the eye (the iris), may be thin or poorly developed. The iris normally has a single central hole, called the pupil, through which light enters the eye. People with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome often have a pupil that is off-center (corectopia) or extra holes in the iris that can look like multiple pupils (polycoria). This condition can also cause abnormalities of the cornea, which is the clear front covering of the eye.About half of affected individuals develop glaucoma, a serious condition that increases pressure inside the eye. When glaucoma occurs with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome, it most often develops in late childhood or adolescence, although it can occur as early as infancy. Glaucoma can cause vision loss or blindness.The signs and symptoms of Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome can also affect other parts of the body. Many affected individuals have distinctive facial features such as widely spaced eyes (hypertelorism); a flattened mid-face with a broad, flat nasal bridge; and a prominent forehead. The condition is also associated with dental abnormalities including unusually small teeth (microdontia) or fewer than normal teeth (oligodontia). Some people with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome have extra folds of skin around their belly button (redundant periumbilical skin). Other, less common features can include heart defects, the opening of the urethra on the underside of the penis (hypospadias), narrowing of the anus (anal stenosis), and abnormalities of the pituitary gland that can result in slow growth.Researchers have described at least three types of Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome. The types, which are numbered 1 through 3, are distinguished by their genetic cause.
Megalocornea
MedGen UID:
138008
Concept ID:
C0344530
Congenital Abnormality
Megalocornea is an inherited eye disorder in which the corneal diameter is bilaterally enlarged (greater than 13 mm) without an increase in intraocular pressure. It may also be referred to as 'anterior megalophthalmos,' since the entire anterior segment is larger than normal. Features of megalocornea in addition to a deep anterior chamber include astigmatic refractive errors, atrophy of the iris stroma, miosis secondary to decreased function of the dilator muscle, iridodonesis, and tremulousness, subluxation, or dislocation of the lens. Whereas most affected individuals exhibit normal ocular function, complications include cataract development and glaucoma following lenticular dislocation or subluxation. X-linked recessive inheritance is the most common pattern, accounting for the male preponderance of the disorder (summary by Skuta et al., 1983). Megalocornea sometimes occurs as part of the Marfan syndrome (154700). Genetic Heterogeneity of Megalocornea Autosomal recessive megalocornea has been reported (249300).
Deeply set eye
MedGen UID:
473112
Concept ID:
C0423224
Finding
An eye that is more deeply recessed into the plane of the face than is typical.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
Follow this link to review classifications for SHORT syndrome in Orphanet.

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Saengkaew T, McNeil E, Jaruratanasirikul S
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2017 Nov 27;30(12):1265-1270. doi: 10.1515/jpem-2017-0205. PMID: 29127766
Ko JM, Shin CH, Yang SW, Seong MW, Park SS, Song J
J Korean Med Sci 2012 Aug;27(8):961-4. Epub 2012 Jul 25 doi: 10.3346/jkms.2012.27.8.961. PMID: 22876067Free PMC Article
Napryeyenko O, Sonnik G, Tartakovsky I
J Neurol Sci 2009 Aug 15;283(1-2):224-9. Epub 2009 Mar 14 doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2009.02.353. PMID: 19286192

Diagnosis

Klatka M, Rysz I, Kozyra K, Polak A, Kołłątaj W
Ital J Pediatr 2017 May 4;43(1):44. doi: 10.1186/s13052-017-0362-z. PMID: 28472977Free PMC Article
Bravo García-Morato M, García-Miñaúr S, Molina Garicano J, Santos Simarro F, Del Pino Molina L, López-Granados E, Ferreira Cerdán A, Rodríguez Pena R
Clin Immunol 2017 Jun;179:77-80. Epub 2017 Mar 14 doi: 10.1016/j.clim.2017.03.004. PMID: 28302518
Salinas-Torres VM, De La O-Expinoza EA, Salinas-Torres RA
Genet Couns 2016;27(4):479-483. PMID: 30226966
Prontera P, Micale L, Verrotti A, Napolioni V, Stangoni G, Merla G
Hum Mutat 2015 Nov;36(11):1043-7. Epub 2015 Aug 24 doi: 10.1002/humu.22853. PMID: 26252249
Bárcena C, Quesada V, De Sandre-Giovannoli A, Puente DA, Fernández-Toral J, Sigaudy S, Baban A, Lévy N, Velasco G, López-Otín C
BMC Med Genet 2014 May 2;15:51. doi: 10.1186/1471-2350-15-51. PMID: 24886349Free PMC Article

Therapy

Ko JM, Shin CH, Yang SW, Seong MW, Park SS, Song J
J Korean Med Sci 2012 Aug;27(8):961-4. Epub 2012 Jul 25 doi: 10.3346/jkms.2012.27.8.961. PMID: 22876067Free PMC Article
Napryeyenko O, Sonnik G, Tartakovsky I
J Neurol Sci 2009 Aug 15;283(1-2):224-9. Epub 2009 Mar 14 doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2009.02.353. PMID: 19286192
Müller T, Welnic J, Fuchs G, Baas H, Ebersbach G, Reichmann H
J Neural Transm Suppl 2006;(71):27-30. PMID: 17447412
Verge CF, Donaghue KC, Williams PF, Cowell CT, Silink M
Acta Paediatr 1994 Jul;83(7):786-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.1994.tb13142.x. PMID: 7949817

Prognosis

Klatka M, Rysz I, Kozyra K, Polak A, Kołłątaj W
Ital J Pediatr 2017 May 4;43(1):44. doi: 10.1186/s13052-017-0362-z. PMID: 28472977Free PMC Article
Parıltay E, Hazan F, Ataman E, Demir K, Etlik Ö, Özbek E, Özkan B
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2016 Sep 1;29(9):1111-4. doi: 10.1515/jpem-2015-0482. PMID: 27544718
Bankier A, Keith CG, Temple IK
Clin Dysmorphol 1995 Oct;4(4):304-12. PMID: 8574420
Brolin RE
Surgery 1986 Sep;100(3):576-80. PMID: 3090727

Clinical prediction guides

Saengkaew T, McNeil E, Jaruratanasirikul S
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2017 Nov 27;30(12):1265-1270. doi: 10.1515/jpem-2017-0205. PMID: 29127766
Alcantara D, Elmslie F, Tetreault M, Bareke E, Hartley T; Care4Rare Consortium., Majewski J, Boycott K, Innes AM, Dyment DA, O'Driscoll M
Hum Mol Genet 2017 Oct 1;26(19):3713-3721. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddx256. PMID: 28934384
Salinas-Torres VM, De La O-Expinoza EA, Salinas-Torres RA
Genet Couns 2016;27(4):479-483. PMID: 30226966
Petrovski S, Parrott RE, Roberts JL, Huang H, Yang J, Gorentla B, Mousallem T, Wang E, Armstrong M, McHale D, MacIver NJ, Goldstein DB, Zhong XP, Buckley RH
J Clin Immunol 2016 Jul;36(5):462-71. Epub 2016 Apr 13 doi: 10.1007/s10875-016-0281-6. PMID: 27076228Free PMC Article
Thauvin-Robinet C, Auclair M, Duplomb L, Caron-Debarle M, Avila M, St-Onge J, Le Merrer M, Le Luyer B, Héron D, Mathieu-Dramard M, Bitoun P, Petit JM, Odent S, Amiel J, Picot D, Carmignac V, Thevenon J, Callier P, Laville M, Reznik Y, Fagour C, Nunes ML, Capeau J, Lascols O, Huet F, Faivre L, Vigouroux C, Rivière JB
Am J Hum Genet 2013 Jul 11;93(1):141-9. Epub 2013 Jun 27 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2013.05.019. PMID: 23810378Free PMC Article

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