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Spinocerebellar ataxia 25(SCA25)

MedGen UID:
373347
Concept ID:
C1837518
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: SCA25
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Sources: HPO, OMIM, Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in heterozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, an autosomal dominant disorder is caused when a single copy of the mutant allele is present. Males and females are affected equally, and can both transmit the disorder with a risk of 50% for each child of inheriting the mutant allele.
Autosomal dominant inheritance (HPO, OMIM, Orphanet)
SNOMED CT: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 25 (718770005)
 
Cytogenetic location: 2p21-p13
OMIM®: 608703
Orphanet: ORPHA101111

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: Hereditary Ataxia Overview
The hereditary ataxias are a group of genetic disorders characterized by slowly progressive incoordination of gait and often associated with poor coordination of hands, speech, and eye movements. Frequently, atrophy of the cerebellum occurs. In this GeneReview the hereditary ataxias are categorized by mode of inheritance and gene (or chromosome locus) in which pathogenic variants occur. [from GeneReviews]
Full text of GeneReview (by section):
Summary  |  Definition  |  Causes  |  Evaluation Strategy  |  Genetic Counseling  |  Resources  |  Management  |  References  |  Chapter Notes
Authors:
Thomas D Bird   view full author information

Additional description

From GeneReviews Overview
The hereditary ataxias are a group of genetic disorders characterized by slowly progressive incoordination of gait and often associated with poor coordination of hands, speech, and eye movements. Frequently, atrophy of the cerebellum occurs. In this GeneReview the hereditary ataxias are categorized by mode of inheritance and gene (or chromosome locus) in which pathogenic variants occur.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1138

Clinical features

Cerebellar ataxia
MedGen UID:
849
Concept ID:
C0007758
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar ataxia refers to ataxia due to dysfunction of the cerebellum. This causes a variety of elementary neurological deficits including asynergy (lack of coordination between muscles, limbs and joints), dysmetria (lack of ability to judge distances that can lead to under- oder overshoot in grasping movements), and dysdiadochokinesia (inability to perform rapid movements requiring antagonizing muscle groups to be switched on and off repeatedly).
Dysarthria
MedGen UID:
8510
Concept ID:
C0013362
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Disorders of speech articulation caused by imperfect coordination of pharynx, larynx, tongue, or face muscles. This may result from CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; CEREBELLAR DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; BRAIN STEM diseases; or diseases of the corticobulbar tracts (see PYRAMIDAL TRACTS). The cortical language centers are intact in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p489)
Nystagmus
MedGen UID:
45166
Concept ID:
C0028738
Disease or Syndrome
Involuntary movements of the eye that are divided into two types, jerk and pendular. Jerk nystagmus has a slow phase in one direction followed by a corrective fast phase in the opposite direction, and is usually caused by central or peripheral vestibular dysfunction. Pendular nystagmus features oscillations that are of equal velocity in both directions and this condition is often associated with visual loss early in life. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p272)
Babinski sign
MedGen UID:
19708
Concept ID:
C0034935
Finding
A reflex characterized by upward movement of the great toe and an outward movement of the rest of the toes, when the sole of the foot is stroked. It is a normal reflex up to the age of two. Its presence beyond that age indicates neurological damage.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
21278
Concept ID:
C0037932
Finding
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Strabismus
MedGen UID:
21337
Concept ID:
C0038379
Disease or Syndrome
A misalignment of the eyes so that the visual axes deviate from bifoveal fixation. The classification of strabismus may be based on a number of features including the relative position of the eyes, whether the deviation is latent or manifest, intermittent or constant, concomitant or otherwise and according to the age of onset and the relevance of any associated refractive error.
Visual impairment
MedGen UID:
22663
Concept ID:
C0042798
Finding
Reduced ability to perceive visual stimuli.
Vomiting
MedGen UID:
12124
Concept ID:
C0042963
Sign or Symptom
Forceful ejection of the contents of the stomach through the mouth by means of a series of involuntary spasmic contractions.
Urinary urgency
MedGen UID:
39315
Concept ID:
C0085606
Finding
An acute and compelling urge to urinate.
Sensory neuropathy
MedGen UID:
101791
Concept ID:
C0151313
Disease or Syndrome
Inflammation or degeneration of the sensory nerves.
Reduced visual acuity
MedGen UID:
65889
Concept ID:
C0234632
Finding
Diminished clarity of vision.
Facial myokymia
MedGen UID:
78741
Concept ID:
C0270871
Disease or Syndrome
Facial myokymia is a fine fibrillary activity of one or more muscles innervated by the facial nerve (the seventh cranial nerve).
Facial spasm
MedGen UID:
124458
Concept ID:
C0278151
Finding
Sudden, repetitive, nonrhythmic motor movements (spasms), involving the eyes and muscles of the face.
Pes cavus
MedGen UID:
675590
Concept ID:
C0728829
Congenital Abnormality
The presence of an unusually high plantar arch. Also called high instep, pes cavus refers to a distinctly hollow form of the sole of the foot when it is bearing weight.
Abolished vibration sense
MedGen UID:
325190
Concept ID:
C1837520
Finding
A complete loss of the ability to perceive vibration.
Impaired pain sensation
MedGen UID:
373348
Concept ID:
C1837522
Finding
Reduced ability to perceive painful stimuli.
Areflexia of lower limbs
MedGen UID:
347285
Concept ID:
C1856694
Finding
Inability to elicit tendon reflexes in the lower limbs.
Decreased number of peripheral myelinated nerve fibers
MedGen UID:
346872
Concept ID:
C1858285
Finding
A loss of myelinated nerve fibers in the peripheral nervous system (in general, this finding can be observed on nerve biopsy).
Cerebellar atrophy
MedGen UID:
892891
Concept ID:
C4020873
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy (wasting) of the cerebellum.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVSpinocerebellar ataxia 25
Follow this link to review classifications for Spinocerebellar ataxia 25 in Orphanet.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Gasser T, Finsterer J, Baets J, Van Broeckhoven C, Di Donato S, Fontaine B, De Jonghe P, Lossos A, Lynch T, Mariotti C, Schöls L, Spinazzola A, Szolnoki Z, Tabrizi SJ, Tallaksen CM, Zeviani M, Burgunder JM, Harbo HF; EFNS.
Eur J Neurol 2010 Feb;17(2):179-88. Epub 2009 Dec 28 doi: 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2009.02873.x. PMID: 20050888

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