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Spinocerebellar ataxia 14(SCA14)

MedGen UID:
343106
Concept ID:
C1854369
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: SCA14; Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type14
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Sources: HPO, OMIM, Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in heterozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, an autosomal dominant disorder is caused when a single copy of the mutant allele is present. Males and females are affected equally, and can both transmit the disorder with a risk of 50% for each child of inheriting the mutant allele.
Autosomal dominant inheritance (HPO, OMIM, Orphanet)
SNOMED CT: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (719210007)
 
Gene (location): PRKCG (19q13.42)
OMIM®: 605361
Orphanet: ORPHA98763

Definition

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14) is characterized by slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia, dysarthria, and nystagmus. Axial myoclonus, cognitive impairment, tremor, and sensory loss may also be observed. Parkinsonian features including rigidity and tremor have been described in some families. Findings seen in other ataxia disorders (e.g., dysphagia, dysphonia) may also occur in SCA14. Age of onset ranges from childhood to the sixth decade. Life span is not shortened. [from GeneReviews]

Additional description

From GeneReviews Overview
The hereditary ataxias are a group of genetic disorders characterized by slowly progressive incoordination of gait and often associated with poor coordination of hands, speech, and eye movements. Frequently, atrophy of the cerebellum occurs. In this GeneReview the hereditary ataxias are categorized by mode of inheritance and gene (or chromosome locus) in which pathogenic variants occur.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1138

Clinical features

Dysphagia
MedGen UID:
41440
Concept ID:
C0011168
Disease or Syndrome
A symptom referring to difficulty in swallowing. It may be observed in patients with stroke, motor neuron disorders, cancer of the throat or mouth, head and neck injuries, Parkinson disease, and multiple sclerosis.
Depressivity
MedGen UID:
4229
Concept ID:
C0011581
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.
Dysarthria
MedGen UID:
8510
Concept ID:
C0013362
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Disorders of speech articulation caused by imperfect coordination of pharynx, larynx, tongue, or face muscles. This may result from CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; CEREBELLAR DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; BRAIN STEM diseases; or diseases of the corticobulbar tracts (see PYRAMIDAL TRACTS). The cortical language centers are intact in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p489)
Nystagmus
MedGen UID:
45166
Concept ID:
C0028738
Disease or Syndrome
Involuntary movements of the eye that are divided into two types, jerk and pendular. Jerk nystagmus has a slow phase in one direction followed by a corrective fast phase in the opposite direction, and is usually caused by central or peripheral vestibular dysfunction. Pendular nystagmus features oscillations that are of equal velocity in both directions and this condition is often associated with visual loss early in life. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p272)
Hyperreflexia
MedGen UID:
57738
Concept ID:
C0151889
Finding
Autonomic nervous system overreaction to stimuli, most commonly after spinal cord injury at a T-5 level and above.
Memory impairment
MedGen UID:
68579
Concept ID:
C0233794
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
An impairment of memory as manifested by a reduced ability to remember things such as dates and names, and increased forgetfulness.
Dysmetria
MedGen UID:
68583
Concept ID:
C0234162
Finding
A type of ataxia characterized by the inability to carry out movements with the correct range and motion across the plane of more than one joint related to incorrect estimation of the distances required for targeted movements.
Mental deterioration
MedGen UID:
66713
Concept ID:
C0234985
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Loss of previously present mental abilities, generally in adults.
Facial myokymia
MedGen UID:
78741
Concept ID:
C0270871
Disease or Syndrome
Facial myokymia is a fine fibrillary activity of one or more muscles innervated by the facial nerve (the seventh cranial nerve).
Progressive cerebellar ataxia
MedGen UID:
140727
Concept ID:
C0393525
Disease or Syndrome
Focal dystonia
MedGen UID:
149279
Concept ID:
C0743332
Disease or Syndrome
A type of dystonia that is localized to a specific part of the body.
Gait ataxia
MedGen UID:
155642
Concept ID:
C0751837
Sign or Symptom
A type of ataxia characterized by the impairment of the ability to coordinate the movements required for normal walking. Gait ataxia is characteirzed by a wide-based staggering gait with a tendency to fall.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
MedGen UID:
220387
Concept ID:
C1263846
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)
Impaired vibration sensation at ankles
MedGen UID:
343107
Concept ID:
C1854372
Finding
A decrease in the ability to perceive vibration at the ankles. Clinically, this is usually tested with a tuning fork which vibrates at 128 Hz and is applied to the malleoli of the ankles.
Cerebellar atrophy
MedGen UID:
892891
Concept ID:
C4020873
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy (wasting) of the cerebellum.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVSpinocerebellar ataxia 14
Follow this link to review classifications for Spinocerebellar ataxia 14 in Orphanet.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Gasser T, Finsterer J, Baets J, Van Broeckhoven C, Di Donato S, Fontaine B, De Jonghe P, Lossos A, Lynch T, Mariotti C, Schöls L, Spinazzola A, Szolnoki Z, Tabrizi SJ, Tallaksen CM, Zeviani M, Burgunder JM, Harbo HF; EFNS.
Eur J Neurol 2010 Feb;17(2):179-88. Epub 2009 Dec 28 doi: 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2009.02873.x. PMID: 20050888

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Ganos C, Zittel S, Minnerop M, Schunke O, Heinbokel C, Gerloff C, Zühlke C, Bauer P, Klockgether T, Münchau A, Bäumer T
Cerebellum 2014 Feb;13(1):89-96. doi: 10.1007/s12311-013-0522-7. PMID: 24030789
Wedding IM, Koht J, Dietrichs E, Landrø NI, Tallaksen CM
BMC Neurol 2013 Nov 29;13:186. doi: 10.1186/1471-2377-13-186. PMID: 24289098Free PMC Article
Klebe S, Durr A, Rentschler A, Hahn-Barma V, Abele M, Bouslam N, Schöls L, Jedynak P, Forlani S, Denis E, Dussert C, Agid Y, Bauer P, Globas C, Wüllner U, Brice A, Riess O, Stevanin G
Ann Neurol 2005 Nov;58(5):720-9. doi: 10.1002/ana.20628. PMID: 16193476
Verbeek DS, Warrenburg BP, Hennekam FA, Dooijes D, Ippel PF, Verschuuren-Bemelmans CC, Kremer HP, Sinke RJ
Hum Genet 2005 Jun;117(1):88-91. Epub 2005 Apr 20 doi: 10.1007/s00439-005-1278-z. PMID: 15841389

Diagnosis

Wedding IM, Koht J, Dietrichs E, Landrø NI, Tallaksen CM
BMC Neurol 2013 Nov 29;13:186. doi: 10.1186/1471-2377-13-186. PMID: 24289098Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Nakazono A, Adachi N, Takahashi H, Seki T, Hamada D, Ueyama T, Sakai N, Saito N
J Biol Chem 2018 Sep 21;293(38):14758-14774. Epub 2018 Aug 9 doi: 10.1074/jbc.RA118.002913. PMID: 30093405Free PMC Article
Takahashi H, Adachi N, Shirafuji T, Danno S, Ueyama T, Vendruscolo M, Shuvaev AN, Sugimoto T, Seki T, Hamada D, Irie K, Hirai H, Sakai N, Saito N
Hum Mol Genet 2015 Jan 15;24(2):525-39. Epub 2014 Sep 12 doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddu472. PMID: 25217572
Ganos C, Zittel S, Minnerop M, Schunke O, Heinbokel C, Gerloff C, Zühlke C, Bauer P, Klockgether T, Münchau A, Bäumer T
Cerebellum 2014 Feb;13(1):89-96. doi: 10.1007/s12311-013-0522-7. PMID: 24030789

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