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1.

PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome

The PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS) includes Cowden syndrome (CS), Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome (BRRS), PTEN-related Proteus syndrome (PS), and Proteus-like syndrome. CS is a multiple hamartoma syndrome with a high risk for benign and malignant tumors of the thyroid, breast, and endometrium. Affected individuals usually have macrocephaly, trichilemmomas, and papillomatous papules, and present by the late 20s. The lifetime risk of developing breast cancer is 85%, with an average age of diagnosis between 38 and 46 years. The lifetime risk for thyroid cancer (usually follicular, rarely papillary, but never medullary thyroid cancer) is approximately 35%. The risk for endometrial cancer may approach 28%. BRRS is a congenital disorder characterized by macrocephaly, intestinal hamartomatous polyposis, lipomas, and pigmented macules of the glans penis. PS is a complex, highly variable disorder involving congenital malformations and hamartomatous overgrowth of multiple tissues, as well as connective tissue nevi, epidermal nevi, and hyperostoses. Proteus-like syndrome is undefined but refers to individuals with significant clinical features of PS who do not meet the diagnostic criteria for PS. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
368366
Concept ID:
C1959582
Neoplastic Process
2.

Glioma susceptibility 2

MedGen UID:
414431
Concept ID:
C2751642
Finding
3.

Meningioma, familial

Meningiomas are, in general, slowly growing benign tumors derived from the arachnoidal cap cells of the leptomeninges, the soft coverings of the brain and spinal cord. Meningiomas are believed to be the most common primary tumors of the central nervous system in man. The vast majority of meningiomas are sporadic; familial occurrence of meningioma is rare (Zang, 2001). Familial or multiple meningiomas may also be seen in tumor predisposition syndromes. Some patients with schwannomatosis (162091), caused by mutation in the SMARCB1 gene, may develop meningiomas. One patient with malignant gliomas (GLM2; 613028) associated with a mutation in the PTEN gene (601728) developed a meningioma (Staal et al., 2002). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
764829
Concept ID:
C3551915
Finding
4.

Cowden syndrome 1

The PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS) includes Cowden syndrome (CS), Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome (BRRS), PTEN-related Proteus syndrome (PS), and Proteus-like syndrome. CS is a multiple hamartoma syndrome with a high risk for benign and malignant tumors of the thyroid, breast, and endometrium. Affected individuals usually have macrocephaly, trichilemmomas, and papillomatous papules, and present by the late 20s. The lifetime risk of developing breast cancer is 85%, with an average age of diagnosis between 38 and 46 years. The lifetime risk for thyroid cancer (usually follicular, rarely papillary, but never medullary thyroid cancer) is approximately 35%. The risk for endometrial cancer may approach 28%. BRRS is a congenital disorder characterized by macrocephaly, intestinal hamartomatous polyposis, lipomas, and pigmented macules of the glans penis. PS is a complex, highly variable disorder involving congenital malformations and hamartomatous overgrowth of multiple tissues, as well as connective tissue nevi, epidermal nevi, and hyperostoses. Proteus-like syndrome is undefined but refers to individuals with significant clinical features of PS who do not meet the diagnostic criteria for PS. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
833619
Concept ID:
CN072330
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Malignant tumor of prostate

A primary or metastatic malignant tumor involving the prostate gland. The vast majority are carcinomas. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
138169
Concept ID:
C0376358
Neoplastic Process
6.

Cowden syndrome

Cowden syndrome-1 is a hamartomatous disorder characterized by macrocephaly, facial trichilemmomas, acral keratoses, papillomatous papules, and an increased risk for the development of breast, thyroid, and endometrial carcinoma. Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome (BRRS), previously thought be distinct, shared clinical characteristics with Cowden syndrome, such as hamartomatous polyps of the gastrointestinal tract, mucocutaneous lesions, and increased risk of developing neoplasms, but had the additional features of developmental delay, macrocephaly, lipomas, hemangiomas, and pigmented speckled macules of the glans penis in males. Because features of BRRS and Cowden syndrome have been found in individuals within the same family with the same PTEN mutation, Cowden syndrome-1 and BRRS are considered to be the same disorder with variable expression and age-related penetrance (summary by Marsh et al., 1999, Lachlan et al., 2007, and Blumenthal and Dennis, 2008). Approximately 80% of patients reported with Cowden syndrome and 60% with BRSS have PTEN mutations (Blumenthal and Dennis, 2008). Some patients with Cowden syndrome may have immune system defects resulting in increased susceptibility to infections (summary by Browning et al., 2015). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
5420
Concept ID:
C0018553
Neoplastic Process
7.

Cutaneous malignant melanoma 1

Malignant melanoma is a neoplasm of pigment-producing cells called melanocytes that occurs most often in the skin, but may also occur in the eyes, ears, gastrointestinal tract, leptomeninges, and oral and genital mucous membranes (summary by Habif, 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Susceptibility to Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma The locus for susceptibility to familial cutaneous malignant melanoma-1 (CMM1) has been mapped to chromosome 1p36. Other CMM susceptibility loci include CMM2 (155601), caused by variation in the CDKN2A gene (600160) on chromosome 9p21; CMM3 (609048), caused by variation in the CDK4 gene (123829) on chromosome 12q14; CMM4 (608035), mapped to chromosome 1p22; CMM5 (613099), caused by variation in the MC1R gene (155555) on chromosome 16q24; CMM6 (613972), caused by variation in the XRCC3 gene (600675) on chromosome 14q32; CMM7 (612263), mapped to chromosome 20q11; CMM8 (614456), caused by variation in the MITF gene (156845) on chromosome 3p13; CMM9 (615134), caused by variation in the TERT gene (187270) on chromosome 5p15; and CMM10 (615848), caused by mutation in the POT1 gene (606478) on chromosome 7q31. Somatic mutations causing malignant melanoma have also been identified in several genes, including BRAF (164757), STK11 (602216), PTEN (601728), TRRAP (603015), DCC (120470), GRIN2A (138253), ZNF831, BAP1 (603089), and RASA2 (601589). A large percentage of melanomas (40-60%) carry an activating somatic mutation in the BRAF gene, most often V600E (164757.0001) (Davies et al., 2002; Pollock et al., 2003). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
320506
Concept ID:
C1835047
Finding
8.

Macrocephaly/autism syndrome

Macrocephaly/autism syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by increased head circumference, abnormal facial features, and delayed psychomotor development resulting in autistic behavior or mental retardation (Herman et al., 2007). Some patients may have a primary immunodeficiency disorder with recurrent infections associated with variably abnormal T- and B-cell function (Tsujita et al., 2016). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
381416
Concept ID:
C1854416
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Glioma susceptibility 1

Gliomas are central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells and comprise astrocytomas, glioblastoma multiforme, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, and subependymomas. Glial cells can show various degrees of differentiation even within the same tumor (summary by Kyritsis et al., 2010). Ependymomas are rare glial tumors of the brain and spinal cord (Yokota et al., 2003). Subependymomas are unusual tumors believed to arise from the bipotential subependymal cell, which normally differentiates into either ependymal cells or astrocytes. They were characterized as a distinct entity by Scheinker (1945). They tend to be slow-growing, noninvasive, and located in the ventricular system, septum pellucidum, cerebral aqueduct, or proximal spinal cord (summary by Ryken et al., 1994). Gliomas are known to occur in association with several other well-defined hereditary tumor syndromes such as mismatch repair cancer syndrome (276300), melanoma-astrocytoma syndrome (155755), neurofibromatosis-1 (NF1; 162200) and NF2 (101000), and tuberous sclerosis (TSC1; 191100). Familial clustering of gliomas may occur in the absence of these tumor syndromes, however. Genetic Heterogeneity of Susceptibility to Glioma Other glioma susceptibilities include GLM2 (613028), caused by variation in the PTEN gene (601728) on chromosome 10q23; GLM3 (613029), caused by variation in the BRCA2 gene (600185) on chromosome 13q12; GLM4 (607248), mapped to chromosome 15q23-q26.3; GLM5 (613030), mapped to chromosome 9p21; GLM6 (613031), mapped to chromosome 20q13; GLM7 (613032), mapped to chromosome 8q24; GLM8 (613033), mapped to chromosome 5p15; and GLM9, caused by variation in the POT1 gene (606478) on chromosome 7q31. Somatic mutation, disruption, or copy number variation of the following genes or loci may also contribute to the formation of glioma: ERBB (EGFR; 131550), ERBB2 (164870), LGI1 (604619), GAS41 (602116), GLI (165220), DMBT1 (601969), IDH1 (147700), IDH2 (147650), BRAF (164757), PARK2 (602544), TP53 (191170), RB1 (614041), PIK3CA (171834), 10p15, 19q, and 17p13.3. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
413414
Concept ID:
C2750850
Finding
10.

Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome

The PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS) includes Cowden syndrome (CS), Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome (BRRS), PTEN-related Proteus syndrome (PS), and Proteus-like syndrome. CS is a multiple hamartoma syndrome with a high risk for benign and malignant tumors of the thyroid, breast, and endometrium. Affected individuals usually have macrocephaly, trichilemmomas, and papillomatous papules, and present by the late 20s. The lifetime risk of developing breast cancer is 85%, with an average age of diagnosis between 38 and 46 years. The lifetime risk for thyroid cancer (usually follicular, rarely papillary, but never medullary thyroid cancer) is approximately 35%. The risk for endometrial cancer may approach 28%. BRRS is a congenital disorder characterized by macrocephaly, intestinal hamartomatous polyposis, lipomas, and pigmented macules of the glans penis. PS is a complex, highly variable disorder involving congenital malformations and hamartomatous overgrowth of multiple tissues, as well as connective tissue nevi, epidermal nevi, and hyperostoses. Proteus-like syndrome is undefined but refers to individuals with significant clinical features of PS who do not meet the diagnostic criteria for PS. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
78554
Concept ID:
C0265326
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Proteus-like syndrome

Proteus like syndrome describes patients who do not meet the diagnostic criteria for Proteus syndrome but who share a multitude of characteristic clinical features of the disease. The prevalence is unknown. The main clinical features include skeletal overgrowth, hamartomous overgrowth of multiple tissues, cerebriform connective tissue nevi, vascular malformations and linear epidermal nevi. Mutations in the PTEN gene are found in 50% of Proteus-like syndrome cases, making them a part of the PTEN harmatoma syndrome group. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
356222
Concept ID:
C1866398
Disease or Syndrome
12.

PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome with granular cell tumor

MedGen UID:
400984
Concept ID:
C1866376
Neoplastic Process
13.

Chromosome 10q22.3-q23.2 deletion syndrome

The 10q22.3-q23.2 region is characterized by a complex set of low-copy repeats (LCRs), which can give rise to various genomic changes mediated by nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR). Recurrent deletions of chromosome 10q22.3-q23.2, including the BMPR1A gene (601299) have been associated with dysmorphic facies, developmental delay, and multiple congenital anomalies. Some patients with deletions that extend distally to include the PTEN gene (601728) have a more severe phenotype with infantile/juvenile polyposis, macrocephaly, dysmorphic facial features, and developmental delay (summary by van Bon et al., 2011). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
906099
Concept ID:
C4225669
Disease or Syndrome
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