Format

Send to:

Choose Destination

Links from PMC

Short stature, onychodysplasia, facial dysmorphism, and hypotrichosis(SOFT)

MedGen UID:
762199
Concept ID:
C3542022
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: SOFT; SOFT SYNDROME
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Sources: HPO, OMIM, Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in homozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, autosomal recessive disorders manifest in homozygotes (with two copies of the mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
Autosomal recessive inheritance (HPO, OMIM, Orphanet)
 
Gene (location): POC1A (3p21.2)
OMIM®: 614813
Orphanet: ORPHA314394

Definition

SOFT syndrome is characterized by severely short long bones, peculiar facies associated with paucity of hair, and nail anomalies. Growth retardation is evident on prenatal ultrasound as early as the second trimester of pregnancy, and affected individuals reach a final stature consistent with a height age of 6 years to 8 years. Relative macrocephaly is present during early childhood but head circumference is markedly low by adulthood. Psychomotor development is normal. Facial dysmorphism includes a long, triangular face with prominent nose and small ears, and affected individuals have an unusual high-pitched voice. Clinodactyly, brachydactyly, and hypoplastic distal phalanges and fingernails are present in association with postpubertal sparse and short hair. Typical skeletal findings include short and thick long bones with mild irregular metaphyseal changes, short femoral necks, and hypoplastic pelvis and sacrum. All long bones of the hand are short, with major delay of carpal ossification and cone-shaped epiphyses. Vertebral body ossification is also delayed (summary by Sarig et al., 2012). [from GTR]

Additional description

From OMIM
SOFT syndrome is characterized by severely short long bones, peculiar facies associated with paucity of hair, and nail anomalies. Growth retardation is evident on prenatal ultrasound as early as the second trimester of pregnancy, and affected individuals reach a final stature consistent with a height age of 6 years to 8 years. Relative macrocephaly is present during early childhood but head circumference is markedly low by adulthood. Psychomotor development is normal. Facial dysmorphism includes a long, triangular face with prominent nose and small ears, and affected individuals have an unusual high-pitched voice. Clinodactyly, brachydactyly, and hypoplastic distal phalanges and fingernails are present in association with postpubertal sparse and short hair. Typical skeletal findings include short and thick long bones with mild irregular metaphyseal changes, short femoral necks, and hypoplastic pelvis and sacrum. All long bones of the hand are short, with major delay of carpal ossification and cone-shaped epiphyses. Vertebral body ossification is also delayed (summary by Sarig et al., 2012).  http://www.omim.org/entry/614813

Clinical features

Diabetes mellitus
MedGen UID:
8350
Concept ID:
C0011849
Disease or Syndrome
A group of abnormalities characterized by hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance.
Deeply set eye
MedGen UID:
8638
Concept ID:
C0014306
Disease or Syndrome
Abnormal recession of the eyeball within the eye socket.
Hypertelorism
MedGen UID:
9373
Concept ID:
C0020534
Finding
Although hypertelorism means an excessive distance between any paired organs (e.g., the nipples), the use of the word has come to be confined to ocular hypertelorism. Hypertelorism occurs as an isolated feature and is also a feature of many syndromes, e.g., Opitz G syndrome (145410), Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (175700), and Noonan syndrome (163950) (summary by Cohen et al., 1995).
Oligospermia
MedGen UID:
18162
Concept ID:
C0028960
Disease or Syndrome
A condition of suboptimal concentration of SPERMATOZOA in the ejaculated SEMEN to ensure successful FERTILIZATION of an OVUM. In humans, oligospermia is defined as a sperm count below 20 million per milliliter semen.
Clitoral hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
336198
Concept ID:
C1844527
Finding
Developmental hypoplasia of the clitoris.
Brachydactyly
MedGen UID:
67454
Concept ID:
C0221357
Congenital Abnormality
Congenital anomaly of abnormally short fingers or toes.
Clinodactyly
MedGen UID:
120550
Concept ID:
C0265610
Congenital Abnormality
An angulation of a digit at an interphalangeal joint in the plane of the palm (finger) or sole (toe).
Small hand
MedGen UID:
108279
Concept ID:
C0575802
Finding
Disproportionately small hand.
Short femoral neck
MedGen UID:
373033
Concept ID:
C1836184
Finding
An abnormally short femoral neck (which is the process of bone, connecting the femoral head with the femoral shaft).
Short metacarpal
MedGen UID:
323064
Concept ID:
C1837084
Finding
Diminished length of one or more metacarpal bones in relation to the others of the same hand or to the contralateral metacarpal.
Short distal phalanx of finger
MedGen UID:
326590
Concept ID:
C1839829
Finding
Short distance from the end of the finger to the most distal interphalangeal crease or the distal interphalangeal joint flexion point. That is, hypoplasia of one or more of the distal phalanx of finger.
Short metatarsal
MedGen UID:
341358
Concept ID:
C1849020
Finding
Diminished length of a metatarsal bone, with resultant proximal displacement of the associated toe.
Small for gestational age
MedGen UID:
7064
Concept ID:
C0021288
Patient or Disabled Group
An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
Disproportionate short stature
MedGen UID:
168053
Concept ID:
C0878659
Finding
A kind of short stature in which different regions of the body are shortened to differing extents.
Microtia
MedGen UID:
57535
Concept ID:
C0152423
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the external ear.
Waddling gait
MedGen UID:
66667
Concept ID:
C0231712
Finding
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
473122
Concept ID:
C0424688
Finding
Occipito-frontal (head) circumference (OFC) less than -3 standard deviations compared to appropriate, age matched, normal standards (Ross JJ, Frias JL 1977, PMID:9683597). Alternatively, decreased size of the cranium.
Psychomotor regression, progressive
MedGen UID:
340556
Concept ID:
C1850493
Finding
Loss of developmental skills, as manifested by loss of developmental milestones.
Cognitive delay
MedGen UID:
351243
Concept ID:
C1864897
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Oligospermia
MedGen UID:
18162
Concept ID:
C0028960
Disease or Syndrome
A condition of suboptimal concentration of SPERMATOZOA in the ejaculated SEMEN to ensure successful FERTILIZATION of an OVUM. In humans, oligospermia is defined as a sperm count below 20 million per milliliter semen.
Clitoral hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
336198
Concept ID:
C1844527
Finding
Developmental hypoplasia of the clitoris.
Muscular hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
A condition of decreased tone of the skeletal muscles and diminished resistance to passive stretching.
Diabetes mellitus
MedGen UID:
8350
Concept ID:
C0011849
Disease or Syndrome
A group of abnormalities characterized by hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance.
High pitched voice
MedGen UID:
66836
Concept ID:
C0241703
Finding
An abnormal increase in the pitch (frequency) of the voice.
Brachydactyly
MedGen UID:
67454
Concept ID:
C0221357
Congenital Abnormality
Congenital anomaly of abnormally short fingers or toes.
Clinodactyly
MedGen UID:
120550
Concept ID:
C0265610
Congenital Abnormality
An angulation of a digit at an interphalangeal joint in the plane of the palm (finger) or sole (toe).
Mandibular prognathia
MedGen UID:
98316
Concept ID:
C0399526
Finding
Abnormal prominence of the chin related to increased length of the mandible.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
473122
Concept ID:
C0424688
Finding
Occipito-frontal (head) circumference (OFC) less than -3 standard deviations compared to appropriate, age matched, normal standards (Ross JJ, Frias JL 1977, PMID:9683597). Alternatively, decreased size of the cranium.
Small hand
MedGen UID:
108279
Concept ID:
C0575802
Finding
Disproportionately small hand.
Short femoral neck
MedGen UID:
373033
Concept ID:
C1836184
Finding
An abnormally short femoral neck (which is the process of bone, connecting the femoral head with the femoral shaft).
Short metacarpal
MedGen UID:
323064
Concept ID:
C1837084
Finding
Diminished length of one or more metacarpal bones in relation to the others of the same hand or to the contralateral metacarpal.
Short distal phalanx of finger
MedGen UID:
326590
Concept ID:
C1839829
Finding
Short distance from the end of the finger to the most distal interphalangeal crease or the distal interphalangeal joint flexion point. That is, hypoplasia of one or more of the distal phalanx of finger.
Short metatarsal
MedGen UID:
341358
Concept ID:
C1849020
Finding
Diminished length of a metatarsal bone, with resultant proximal displacement of the associated toe.
Cone-shaped epiphysis
MedGen UID:
351282
Concept ID:
C1865037
Finding
Cone-shaped epiphyses (also known as coned epiphyses) are epiphyses that invaginate into cupped metaphyses. That is, the epiphysis has a cone-shaped distal extension resulting from increased growth of the central portion of the epiphysis relative to its periphery.
Hypoplastic sacrum
MedGen UID:
370356
Concept ID:
C1970816
Finding
Macrocephaly
MedGen UID:
745757
Concept ID:
C2243051
Finding
Macrocephaly refers to an abnormally enlarged head inclusive of the scalp, cranial bones, and intracranial contents. Macrocephaly may be due to megalencephaly (true enlargement of the brain parenchyma), and the 2 terms are often used interchangeably in the genetic literature (reviews by Olney, 2007 and Williams et al., 2008). Autosomal recessive macrocephaly/megalencephaly syndrome is characterized by an enlarged cranium apparent at birth or in early childhood. Affected individuals have intellectual disability and may have dysmorphic facial features resulting from the macrocephaly (summary by Alfaiz et al., 2014).
Hypoplastic pelvis
MedGen UID:
760700
Concept ID:
C3536734
Anatomical Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the bony pelvis.
Deeply set eye
MedGen UID:
8638
Concept ID:
C0014306
Disease or Syndrome
Abnormal recession of the eyeball within the eye socket.
Hypertelorism
MedGen UID:
9373
Concept ID:
C0020534
Finding
Although hypertelorism means an excessive distance between any paired organs (e.g., the nipples), the use of the word has come to be confined to ocular hypertelorism. Hypertelorism occurs as an isolated feature and is also a feature of many syndromes, e.g., Opitz G syndrome (145410), Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (175700), and Noonan syndrome (163950) (summary by Cohen et al., 1995).
Abnormality of the teeth
MedGen UID:
78084
Concept ID:
C0262444
Finding
An abnormality of the morphology of the tooth.
Mandibular prognathia
MedGen UID:
98316
Concept ID:
C0399526
Finding
Abnormal prominence of the chin related to increased length of the mandible.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
473122
Concept ID:
C0424688
Finding
Occipito-frontal (head) circumference (OFC) less than -3 standard deviations compared to appropriate, age matched, normal standards (Ross JJ, Frias JL 1977, PMID:9683597). Alternatively, decreased size of the cranium.
Hypertrophy of nose
MedGen UID:
908052
Concept ID:
C1400105
Finding
Distance between subnasale and pronasale more than two standard deviations above the mean, or alternatively, an apparently increased anterior protrusion of the nasal tip.
Triangular face
MedGen UID:
324383
Concept ID:
C1835884
Finding
Facial contour, as viewed from the front, triangular in shape, with breadth at the temples and tapering to a narrow chin.
Long face
MedGen UID:
324419
Concept ID:
C1836047
Finding
Facial height (length) is more than 2 standard deviations above the mean (objective); or, an apparent increase in the height (length) of the face (subjective).
Pointed chin
MedGen UID:
336193
Concept ID:
C1844505
Finding
A marked tapering of the lower face to the chin.
Prominent forehead
MedGen UID:
401234
Concept ID:
C1867446
Finding
Forward prominence of the entire forehead, due to protrusion of the frontal bone.
Macrocephaly
MedGen UID:
745757
Concept ID:
C2243051
Finding
Macrocephaly refers to an abnormally enlarged head inclusive of the scalp, cranial bones, and intracranial contents. Macrocephaly may be due to megalencephaly (true enlargement of the brain parenchyma), and the 2 terms are often used interchangeably in the genetic literature (reviews by Olney, 2007 and Williams et al., 2008). Autosomal recessive macrocephaly/megalencephaly syndrome is characterized by an enlarged cranium apparent at birth or in early childhood. Affected individuals have intellectual disability and may have dysmorphic facial features resulting from the macrocephaly (summary by Alfaiz et al., 2014).
Small nail
MedGen UID:
537942
Concept ID:
C0263523
Finding
A nail that is diminished in length and width, i.e., underdeveloped nail.
Nail dysplasia
MedGen UID:
331737
Concept ID:
C1834405
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of developmental dysplasia of the nail.
Sparse hair
MedGen UID:
349904
Concept ID:
C1860844
Sign or Symptom
Reduced density of hairs.
Diabetes mellitus
MedGen UID:
8350
Concept ID:
C0011849
Disease or Syndrome
A group of abnormalities characterized by hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance.
Breast hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
75594
Concept ID:
C0266013
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the breast.
Breast hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
75594
Concept ID:
C0266013
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the breast.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVShort stature, onychodysplasia, facial dysmorphism, and hypotrichosis
Follow this link to review classifications for Short stature, onychodysplasia, facial dysmorphism, and hypotrichosis in Orphanet.

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Sarig O, Nahum S, Rapaport D, Ishida-Yamamoto A, Fuchs-Telem D, Qiaoli L, Cohen-Katsenelson K, Spiegel R, Nousbeck J, Israeli S, Borochowitz ZU, Padalon-Brauch G, Uitto J, Horowitz M, Shalev S, Sprecher E
Am J Hum Genet 2012 Aug 10;91(2):337-42. Epub 2012 Jul 26 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2012.06.003. PMID: 22840363Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Giorgio E, Rubino E, Bruselles A, Pizzi S, Rainero I, Duca S, Sirchia F, Pasini B, Tartaglia M, Brusco A
Eur J Endocrinol 2017 Nov;177(5):K21-K27. Epub 2017 Aug 17 doi: 10.1530/EJE-17-0431. PMID: 28819016
Ko JM, Jung S, Seo J, Shin CH, Cheong HI, Choi M, Kim OH, Cho TJ
J Hum Genet 2016 Jun;61(6):561-4. Epub 2016 Jan 21 doi: 10.1038/jhg.2015.174. PMID: 26791357
Barraza-García J, Iván Rivera-Pedroza C, Salamanca L, Belinchón A, López-González V, Sentchordi-Montané L, del Pozo Á, Santos-Simarro F, Campos-Barros Á, Lapunzina P, Guillén-Navarro E, González-Casado I, García-Miñaur S, Heath KE
Am J Med Genet A 2016 Jan;170A(1):210-6. Epub 2015 Sep 16 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.37393. PMID: 26374189

Prognosis

Sarig O, Nahum S, Rapaport D, Ishida-Yamamoto A, Fuchs-Telem D, Qiaoli L, Cohen-Katsenelson K, Spiegel R, Nousbeck J, Israeli S, Borochowitz ZU, Padalon-Brauch G, Uitto J, Horowitz M, Shalev S, Sprecher E
Am J Hum Genet 2012 Aug 10;91(2):337-42. Epub 2012 Jul 26 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2012.06.003. PMID: 22840363Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Sarig O, Nahum S, Rapaport D, Ishida-Yamamoto A, Fuchs-Telem D, Qiaoli L, Cohen-Katsenelson K, Spiegel R, Nousbeck J, Israeli S, Borochowitz ZU, Padalon-Brauch G, Uitto J, Horowitz M, Shalev S, Sprecher E
Am J Hum Genet 2012 Aug 10;91(2):337-42. Epub 2012 Jul 26 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2012.06.003. PMID: 22840363Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Recent activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...
Support Center