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AU-KLINE SYNDROME(AUKS)

MedGen UID:
900671
Concept ID:
C4225274
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: AUKS
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Sources: HPO, OMIM, Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in heterozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, an autosomal dominant disorder is caused when a single copy of the mutant allele is present. Males and females are affected equally, and can both transmit the disorder with a risk of 50% for each child of inheriting the mutant allele.
not genetically inherited
MedGen UID:
832438
Concept ID:
CN227390
Finding
Source: Orphanet
clinical entity without genetic inheritance.
Autosomal dominant inheritance (HPO, OMIM, Orphanet)
 
Gene (location): HNRNPK (9q21.32)
OMIM®: 616580
Orphanet: ORPHA453499

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: Au-Kline Syndrome
Au-Kline syndrome is characterized by developmental delay and hypotonia with moderate-to-severe intellectual disability, and typical facial features that include long palpebral fissures, ptosis, shallow orbits, large and deeply grooved tongue, broad nose with a wide nasal bridge, and downturned mouth. There is frequently variable autonomic dysfunction (gastrointestinal dysmotility, high pain threshold, heat intolerance, recurrent fevers, abnormal sweating). Congenital heart disease, hydronephrosis, palate abnormalities, and oligodontia are also reported in the majority of affected individuals. Additional complications can include craniosynostosis, feeding difficulty, vision issues, osteopenia, and other skeletal anomalies. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Ping-Yee Billie Au  |  A Micheil Innes  |  Antonie D Kline   view full author information

Additional description

From GHR
Au-Kline syndrome is a condition that affects many body systems. Individuals with this condition typically have weak muscle tone (hypotonia), intellectual disability, and delayed development. Speech is delayed in children with Au-Kline syndrome, and some are able to say only one or a few words or are never able to speak. In addition, affected children learn to walk later than usual, and some are never able to walk on their own.Individuals with Au-Kline syndrome can have distinctive facial features, including long openings of the eyelids (long palpebral fissures), drooping eyelids (ptosis), and shallow eye sockets. Other common facial features in this condition include a broad nasal bridge, a mouth with the outer corners turned downward and often held in an open position, and a deep groove down the middle of the tongue. Less common abnormalities include premature joining of certain skull bones (craniosynostosis) in affected infants, an opening or unusually high arch in the roof of the mouth (cleft or high-arched palate), a split in the soft flap of tissue that hangs from the back of the mouth (bifid uvula), and missing teeth (oligodontia).Malformations of the heart, blood vessels, kidneys, or bones can also occur in people with Au-Kline syndrome. For example, in some affected individuals, the large blood vessel that distributes blood from the heart to the rest of the body (the aorta) becomes weakened and stretched (aortic dilatation), which can be life-threatening. Some people with Au-Kline syndrome have an abnormal curvature of the spine (scoliosis). In addition, affected individuals may have difficulty feeding or poor vision.Au-Kline syndrome can sometimes affect the autonomic nervous system, which controls involuntary body functions, such as digestion and regulation of body temperature. In people with Au-Kline syndrome, abnormalities in this system can lead to digestive problems, difficulty feeling pain, abnormal sweating, and an inability to adjust to high heat in people with Au-Kline syndrome.  https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/au-kline-syndrome

Clinical features

From HPO
Cryptorchidism
MedGen UID:
8192
Concept ID:
C0010417
Congenital Abnormality
Cryptorchidism, or failure of testicular descent, is a common human congenital abnormality with a multifactorial etiology that likely reflects the involvement of endocrine, environmental, and hereditary factors. Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for testicular tumors. Testicular descent from abdomen to scrotum occurs in 2 distinct phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase (summary by Gorlov et al., 2002).
Constipation
MedGen UID:
1101
Concept ID:
C0009806
Sign or Symptom
Infrequent or difficult evacuation of FECES. These symptoms are associated with a variety of causes, including low DIETARY FIBER intake, emotional or nervous disturbances, systemic and structural disorders, drug-induced aggravation, and infections.
Feeding difficulties
MedGen UID:
65429
Concept ID:
C0232466
Finding
Impaired ability to eat related to problems gathering food and getting ready to suck, chew, or swallow it.
Microtia
MedGen UID:
57535
Concept ID:
C0152423
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the external ear.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
334384
Concept ID:
C1843367
Finding
Poor speech
MedGen UID:
341172
Concept ID:
C1848207
Finding
Dysplasia of acetabulum
MedGen UID:
9258
Concept ID:
C0019555
Congenital Abnormality
The presence of developmental dysplasia of the hip.
Overlapping toe
MedGen UID:
182531
Concept ID:
C0920299
Anatomical Abnormality
Describes a foot digit resting on the dorsal surface of an adjacent digit when the foot is at rest.
Deep palmar crease
MedGen UID:
387849
Concept ID:
C1857539
Finding
Excessively deep creases of the palm.
Deep plantar creases
MedGen UID:
341890
Concept ID:
C1857953
Finding
The presence of unusually deep creases (ridges/wrinkles) on the skin of sole of foot.
Postaxial polydactyly type A1
MedGen UID:
924305
Concept ID:
C4282400
Disease or Syndrome
Polydactyly refers to the occurrence of supernumerary digits and is the most frequent of congenital hand and foot deformities. Based on the location of the extra digits, polydactyly can be classified into preaxial, involving the thumb or great toe; postaxial, affecting the fifth digit; and central, involving the 3 central digits. Postaxial polydactyly (PAP) is further subclassified into 2 types: in type A, a well-formed extra digit articulates with the fifth or a sixth metacarpal, whereas in type B, a rudimentary, poorly developed extra digit is present (summary by Umm-e-Kalsoom et al., 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of Postaxial Polydactyly Other forms of postaxial polydactyly type A include PAPA2 (602085) on chromosome 13q21; PAPA3 (607324) on chromosome 19p13; PAPA4 (608562) on chromosome 7q22; PAPA5 (263450) on chromosome 13q13; PAPA6 (615226), caused by mutation in the ZNF141 gene (194648) on chromosome 4p16; PAPA7 (617642), caused by mutation in the IQCE gene (617631) on chromosome 7p22; PAPA8 (618123), caused by mutation in the GLI1 gene (165220) on chromosome 12q13; PAPA9 (618219), caused by mutation in the FAM98A gene (617273) on chromosome 8q22; and PAPA10 (618498), caused by mutation in the KIAA0825 gene (617266) on chromosome 5q15.
Generalized hypotonia
MedGen UID:
346841
Concept ID:
C1858120
Finding
Generalized muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone).
Craniosynostosis syndrome
MedGen UID:
1163
Concept ID:
C0010278
Disease or Syndrome
A congenital disorder characterized by earlier than normal closure of some or all sutures of the infant skull.
Pectus excavatum
MedGen UID:
5293
Concept ID:
C0016842
Congenital Abnormality
A developmental anomaly in which the lower sternum is posteriorly dislocated and concavely deformed, resulting in a funnel-shaped thorax.
Dysplasia of acetabulum
MedGen UID:
9258
Concept ID:
C0019555
Congenital Abnormality
The presence of developmental dysplasia of the hip.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
11348
Concept ID:
C0036439
Disease or Syndrome
A congenital or acquired spinal deformity characterized by lateral curvature of the spine.
Dolichocephaly
MedGen UID:
65142
Concept ID:
C0221358
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality of skull shape characterized by a increased anterior-posterior diameter, i.e., an increased antero-posterior dimension of the skull. Cephalic index less than 76%. Alternatively, an apparently increased antero-posterior length of the head compared to width. Often due to premature closure of the sagittal suture.
Sacral dimple
MedGen UID:
98428
Concept ID:
C0426848
Finding
A cutaneous indentation resulting from tethering of the skin to underlying structures (bone) of the intergluteal cleft.
Overlapping toe
MedGen UID:
182531
Concept ID:
C0920299
Anatomical Abnormality
Describes a foot digit resting on the dorsal surface of an adjacent digit when the foot is at rest.
Postaxial polydactyly type A1
MedGen UID:
924305
Concept ID:
C4282400
Disease or Syndrome
Polydactyly refers to the occurrence of supernumerary digits and is the most frequent of congenital hand and foot deformities. Based on the location of the extra digits, polydactyly can be classified into preaxial, involving the thumb or great toe; postaxial, affecting the fifth digit; and central, involving the 3 central digits. Postaxial polydactyly (PAP) is further subclassified into 2 types: in type A, a well-formed extra digit articulates with the fifth or a sixth metacarpal, whereas in type B, a rudimentary, poorly developed extra digit is present (summary by Umm-e-Kalsoom et al., 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of Postaxial Polydactyly Other forms of postaxial polydactyly type A include PAPA2 (602085) on chromosome 13q21; PAPA3 (607324) on chromosome 19p13; PAPA4 (608562) on chromosome 7q22; PAPA5 (263450) on chromosome 13q13; PAPA6 (615226), caused by mutation in the ZNF141 gene (194648) on chromosome 4p16; PAPA7 (617642), caused by mutation in the IQCE gene (617631) on chromosome 7p22; PAPA8 (618123), caused by mutation in the GLI1 gene (165220) on chromosome 12q13; PAPA9 (618219), caused by mutation in the FAM98A gene (617273) on chromosome 8q22; and PAPA10 (618498), caused by mutation in the KIAA0825 gene (617266) on chromosome 5q15.
Craniosynostosis syndrome
MedGen UID:
1163
Concept ID:
C0010278
Disease or Syndrome
A congenital disorder characterized by earlier than normal closure of some or all sutures of the infant skull.
Dolichocephaly
MedGen UID:
65142
Concept ID:
C0221358
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality of skull shape characterized by a increased anterior-posterior diameter, i.e., an increased antero-posterior dimension of the skull. Cephalic index less than 76%. Alternatively, an apparently increased antero-posterior length of the head compared to width. Often due to premature closure of the sagittal suture.
Open mouth
MedGen UID:
116104
Concept ID:
C0240379
Finding
A facial appearance characterized by a permanently or nearly permanently opened mouth.
High palate
MedGen UID:
66814
Concept ID:
C0240635
Congenital Abnormality
Height of the palate more than 2 SD above the mean (objective) or palatal height at the level of the first permanent molar more than twice the height of the teeth (subjective).
Downslanted palpebral fissures
MedGen UID:
98391
Concept ID:
C0423110
Finding
The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations below the mean.
Underdeveloped nasal alae
MedGen UID:
322332
Concept ID:
C1834055
Congenital Abnormality
Thinned, deficient, or excessively arched ala nasi.
Long face
MedGen UID:
324419
Concept ID:
C1836047
Finding
Facial height (length) is more than 2 standard deviations above the mean (objective); or, an apparent increase in the height (length) of the face (subjective).
Thickened nuchal skin fold
MedGen UID:
324644
Concept ID:
C1836940
Finding
A thickening of the skin thickness in the posterior aspect of the fetal neck. A nuchal fold measurement is obtained in a transverse section of the fetal head at the level of the cavum septum pellucidum and thalami, angled posteriorly to include the cerebellum. The measurement is taken from the outer edge of the occiput bone to the outer skin limit directly in the midline. A measurement 6 mm or more is considered significant between 18 and 24 weeks and a measurement of 5 mm or more is considered significant at 16 to 18 weeks (pmid:16100637).
Long palpebral fissure
MedGen UID:
340300
Concept ID:
C1849340
Finding
Distance between medial and lateral canthi is more than two standard deviations above the mean for age (objective); or, apparently increased length of the palpebral fissures.
Sparse lateral eyebrow
MedGen UID:
387768
Concept ID:
C1857206
Finding
Decreased density/number and/or decreased diameter of lateral eyebrow hairs.
Downturned corners of mouth
MedGen UID:
356471
Concept ID:
C1866195
Anatomical Abnormality
A morphological abnormality of the mouth in which the angle of the mouth is downturned. The oral commissures are positioned inferior to the midline labial fissure.
Cleft palate
MedGen UID:
756015
Concept ID:
C2981150
Congenital Abnormality
Cleft palate is a developmental defect of the palate resulting from a failure of fusion of the palatine processes and manifesting as a separation of the roof of the mouth (soft and hard palate).
Wide nasal ridge
MedGen UID:
866473
Concept ID:
C4020718
Finding
Increased width of the nasal ridge.
Oligodontia
MedGen UID:
904670
Concept ID:
C4082304
Congenital Abnormality
A developmental anomaly characterized by a reduced number of teeth, whereby more than 6 teeth are missing.
Sacral dimple
MedGen UID:
98428
Concept ID:
C0426848
Finding
A cutaneous indentation resulting from tethering of the skin to underlying structures (bone) of the intergluteal cleft.
Sparse lateral eyebrow
MedGen UID:
387768
Concept ID:
C1857206
Finding
Decreased density/number and/or decreased diameter of lateral eyebrow hairs.
Deep palmar crease
MedGen UID:
387849
Concept ID:
C1857539
Finding
Excessively deep creases of the palm.
Deep plantar creases
MedGen UID:
341890
Concept ID:
C1857953
Finding
The presence of unusually deep creases (ridges/wrinkles) on the skin of sole of foot.
Thickened nuchal skin fold
MedGen UID:
324644
Concept ID:
C1836940
Finding
A thickening of the skin thickness in the posterior aspect of the fetal neck. A nuchal fold measurement is obtained in a transverse section of the fetal head at the level of the cavum septum pellucidum and thalami, angled posteriorly to include the cerebellum. The measurement is taken from the outer edge of the occiput bone to the outer skin limit directly in the midline. A measurement 6 mm or more is considered significant between 18 and 24 weeks and a measurement of 5 mm or more is considered significant at 16 to 18 weeks (pmid:16100637).
Inversion of nipple
MedGen UID:
82844
Concept ID:
C0269269
Anatomical Abnormality
Wide intermamillary distance
MedGen UID:
473489
Concept ID:
C1827524
Finding
A larger than usual distance between the left and right nipple.
Ptosis
MedGen UID:
2287
Concept ID:
C0005745
Disease or Syndrome
Drooping of the upper lid due to deficient development or paralysis of the levator palpebrae muscle.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVAU-KLINE SYNDROME

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