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Nail pits

MedGen UID:
57463
Concept ID:
C0150993
Finding
Synonyms: Nail pitting; Pitted nails
SNOMED CT: Nail pitting (89704006); Pitting of nails (89704006)
 
HPO: HP:0001803

Definition

Depressions on the surface of the nail. This finding may be associated with psoriasis. [from NCI]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVNail pits

Conditions with this feature

Incontinentia pigmenti syndrome
MedGen UID:
7049
Concept ID:
C0021171
Disease or Syndrome
Incontinentia pigmenti (IP) is a disorder that affects the skin, hair, teeth, nails, eyes, and central nervous system; it occurs primarily in females and on occasion in males. Characteristic skin lesions evolve through four stages: I. Blistering (birth to age ~4 months). II. Wart-like rash (for several months). III. Swirling macular hyperpigmentation (age ~6 months into adulthood). IV. Linear hypopigmentation. Alopecia, hypodontia, abnormal tooth shape, and dystrophic nails are observed. Neovascularization of the retina, present in some individuals, predisposes to retinal detachment. Neurologic findings including seizures, intellectual disability, and developmental delays are occasionally seen.
Hypoplastic enamel-onycholysis-hypohidrosis syndrome
MedGen UID:
140809
Concept ID:
C0406735
Disease or Syndrome
Some ectodermal dysplasias are here classified as congenital disorders characterized by abnormal development in 2 or more ectodermal structures (hair, nails, teeth, and sweat glands) without other systemic findings. Witkop syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant ectodermal dysplasia involving the teeth and nails. Although a few reported cases have sparse or fine hair, almost all affected individuals have normal hair, sweat glands, and ability to tolerate heat. Affected individuals have a variable number and variable types of congenitally missing permanent and/or primary teeth, which frequently results in lip eversion due to loss of occlusion in the vertical dimension. Nails are generally thin, slow-growing, brittle, and spoon-shaped (koilonychia). Toenails are usually more severely affected than fingernails. The nail defects are alleviated with age and may not be easily detectable during adulthood (summary by Jumlongras et al., 2001).
Revesz syndrome
MedGen UID:
231230
Concept ID:
C1327916
Disease or Syndrome
A rare severe phenotypic variant of dyskeratosis congenita with onset in early childhood. The syndrome has features of dyskeratosis congenita (for example skin hyper/hypopigmentation, nail dystrophy, high risk of bone marrow failure and cancer, developmental delay sparse and fine hair) in conjunction with bilateral exudative retinopathy and intracranial calcifications.
Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft lip/palate syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
343663
Concept ID:
C1851841
Disease or Syndrome
Dyskeratosis congenita autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
338831
Concept ID:
C1851970
Disease or Syndrome
Dyskeratosis congenita (DC), a telomere biology disorder, is characterized by a classic triad of dysplastic nails, lacy reticular pigmentation of the upper chest and/or neck, and oral leukoplakia. The classic triad may not be present in all individuals. People with DC are at increased risk for progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), solid tumors (usually squamous cell carcinoma of the head/neck or anogenital cancer), and pulmonary fibrosis. Other findings can include: abnormal pigmentation changes not restricted to the upper chest and neck, eye abnormalities (epiphora, blepharitis, sparse eyelashes, ectropion, entropion, trichiasis), and dental abnormalities (caries, periodontal disease, taurodauntism). Although most persons with DC have normal psychomotor development and normal neurologic function, significant developmental delay is present in the two variants in which additional findings include cerebellar hypoplasia (Hoyeraal Hreidarsson syndrome) and bilateral exudative retinopathy and intracranial calcifications (Revesz syndrome). Onset and progression of manifestations of DC vary: at the mild end of the spectrum are those who have only minimal physical findings with normal bone marrow function, and at the severe end are those who have the diagnostic triad and early-onset BMF.
Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft lip/palate syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
347666
Concept ID:
C1858562
Disease or Syndrome
The TP63-related disorders comprise six overlapping phenotypes: Ankyloblepharon-ectodermal defects-cleft lip/palate (AEC) syndrome (which includes Rapp-Hodgkin syndrome). Acro-dermo-ungual-lacrimal-tooth (ADULT) syndrome. Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, cleft lip/palate syndrome 3 (EEC3). Limb-mammary syndrome. Split-hand/foot malformation type 4 (SHFM4). Isolated cleft lip/cleft palate (orofacial cleft 8). Individuals typically have varying combinations of ectodermal dysplasia (subjective hypohidrosis, nail dysplasia, sparse hair, tooth abnormalities), cleft lip/palate, split-hand/foot malformation/syndactyly, lacrimal duct obstruction, hypopigmentation, and hypoplastic breasts and/or nipples. Findings associated with a single phenotype include ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum (tissue strands that completely or partially fuse the upper and lower eyelids), skin erosions especially on the scalp associated with areas of scarring and alopecia, hypospadias, trismus, and excessive freckling.
Alopecia areata 1
MedGen UID:
400208
Concept ID:
C1863094
Disease or Syndrome
Alopecia areata is a genetically determined, immune-mediated disorder of the hair follicle with an estimated lifetime risk of approximately 2%, making it one of the most common human autoimmune diseases. It shows a spectrum of severity that ranges from patchy localized hair loss on the scalp to the complete absence of hair everywhere on the body (Gilhar and Kalish, 2006).
ADULT syndrome
MedGen UID:
400232
Concept ID:
C1863204
Disease or Syndrome
The TP63-related disorders comprise six overlapping phenotypes: Ankyloblepharon-ectodermal defects-cleft lip/palate (AEC) syndrome (which includes Rapp-Hodgkin syndrome). Acro-dermo-ungual-lacrimal-tooth (ADULT) syndrome. Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, cleft lip/palate syndrome 3 (EEC3). Limb-mammary syndrome. Split-hand/foot malformation type 4 (SHFM4). Isolated cleft lip/cleft palate (orofacial cleft 8). Individuals typically have varying combinations of ectodermal dysplasia (subjective hypohidrosis, nail dysplasia, sparse hair, tooth abnormalities), cleft lip/palate, split-hand/foot malformation/syndactyly, lacrimal duct obstruction, hypopigmentation, and hypoplastic breasts and/or nipples. Findings associated with a single phenotype include ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum (tissue strands that completely or partially fuse the upper and lower eyelids), skin erosions especially on the scalp associated with areas of scarring and alopecia, hypospadias, trismus, and excessive freckling.
T-cell immunodeficiency, congenital alopecia and nail dystrophy
MedGen UID:
355713
Concept ID:
C1866426
Disease or Syndrome
T-cell immunodeficiency, congenital alopecia, and nail dystrophy is a type of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), which is a group of disorders characterized by an almost total lack of immune protection from foreign invaders such as bacteria and viruses. People with this form of SCID are missing functional immune cells called T cells, which normally recognize and attack foreign invaders to prevent infection. Without functional T cells, affected individuals develop repeated and persistent infections starting early in life. The infections result in slow growth and can be life-threatening; without effective treatment, most affected individuals live only into infancy or early childhood.T-cell immunodeficiency, congenital alopecia, and nail dystrophy also affects growth of the hair and nails. Congenital alopecia refers to an absence of hair that is apparent from birth. Affected individuals have no scalp hair, eyebrows, or eyelashes. Nail dystrophy is a general term that describes malformed fingernails and toenails; in this condition, the nails are often ridged, pitted, or abnormally curved.Researchers have described abnormalities of the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system) in at least two cases of this condition. However, it is not yet known whether central nervous system abnormalities are a common feature of T-cell immunodeficiency, congenital alopecia, and nail dystrophy.
Psoriasis susceptibility 1
MedGen UID:
357279
Concept ID:
C1867449
Finding
Psoriasis (psoriasis vulgaris; PV) is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis that affects approximately 2% of the population. It is characterized by red, scaly skin patches that are usually found on the scalp, elbows, and knees, and may be associated with severe arthritis. The lesions are caused by abnormal keratinocyte proliferation and infiltration of inflammatory cells into the dermis and epidermis. The usual age of onset of psoriasis is between 15 and 30 years, although it can present at any age (summary by Matthews et al., 1996). Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is a life-threatening disease characterized by sudden, repeated episodes of high-grade fever, generalized rash, and disseminated pustules, with hyperleukocytosis and elevated serum levels of C-reactive protein (123260) (summary by Marrakchi et al., 2011). GPP often presents in patients with existing or prior psoriasis vulgaris; however, GPP can develop without a history of PV (Sugiura et al., 2013). Palmoplantar pustulosis and acrodermatitis continua of Hallopeau represent acral forms of pustular psoriasis that have historically been grouped with GPP (summary by Setta-Kaffetzi et al., 2013). Nestle et al. (2009) provided a detailed review of the pathogenesis and genetics of psoriasis. Genetic Heterogeneity of Psoriasis and Psoriasis Susceptibility PSORS2 (602723) is caused by mutation in the CARD14 gene (607211) on chromosome 17q25, and PSORS14 (614204) is caused by mutation in the IL36RN gene (605507) on chromosome 2q14. Psoriasis susceptibility loci include PSORS1 on 6p21.3; PSORS3 (601454) on 4q; PSORS4 on 1q21; PSORS5 (604316) on 3q21; PSORS6 (605364) on 19p; PSORS7 (605606) on 1p; PSORS8 (610707) on 16q; PSORS9 (607857) on 4q31; PSORS10 (612410) on 18p11; PSORS11 (612599) on 5q31-q33; PSORS12 (612950) on 20q13; PSORS13 (614070), conferred by variation in the TRAF3IP2 gene (607043) on 6q21; and PSORS15 (616106), conferred by variation in the AP1S3 gene (615781) on 2q36. An additional putative psoriasis candidate locus has been reported on 20p (Nair et al., 1997).

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Stoll ML, Nigrovic PA, Gotte AC, Punaro M
Clin Exp Rheumatol 2011 May-Jun;29(3):582-8. Epub 2011 Jun 30 PMID: 21385553Free PMC Article
Ayala F
Reumatismo 2007;59 Suppl 1:40-5. PMID: 17828342
Roberton DM, Cabral DA, Malleson PN, Petty RE
J Rheumatol 1996 Jan;23(1):166-70. PMID: 8838527

Diagnosis

Stoll ML, Nigrovic PA, Gotte AC, Punaro M
Clin Exp Rheumatol 2011 May-Jun;29(3):582-8. Epub 2011 Jun 30 PMID: 21385553Free PMC Article
Ayala F
Reumatismo 2007;59 Suppl 1:40-5. PMID: 17828342
Roberton DM, Cabral DA, Malleson PN, Petty RE
J Rheumatol 1996 Jan;23(1):166-70. PMID: 8838527

Therapy

de Jong EM, Menke HE, van Praag MC, van De Kerkhof PC
Dermatology 1999;199(4):313-8. doi: 10.1159/000018281. PMID: 10640840

Prognosis

Stoll ML, Nigrovic PA, Gotte AC, Punaro M
Clin Exp Rheumatol 2011 May-Jun;29(3):582-8. Epub 2011 Jun 30 PMID: 21385553Free PMC Article
Ayala F
Reumatismo 2007;59 Suppl 1:40-5. PMID: 17828342
Roberton DM, Cabral DA, Malleson PN, Petty RE
J Rheumatol 1996 Jan;23(1):166-70. PMID: 8838527

Clinical prediction guides

Stoll ML, Nigrovic PA, Gotte AC, Punaro M
Clin Exp Rheumatol 2011 May-Jun;29(3):582-8. Epub 2011 Jun 30 PMID: 21385553Free PMC Article
de Jong EM, Menke HE, van Praag MC, van De Kerkhof PC
Dermatology 1999;199(4):313-8. doi: 10.1159/000018281. PMID: 10640840

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