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Postnatal microcephaly

MedGen UID:
339779
Concept ID:
C1847514
Finding
Synonyms: Acquired microcephaly; Deceleration of head growth; Development of small head that was not present at birth; Postnatal deceleration of head circumference
 
HPO: HP:0005484

Definition

Microcephaly (HP:0000252) with onset in the postnatal period, that is, the head circumference is in the normal range at birth but falls behind normal values later in development. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

Conditions with this feature

Rett syndrome
MedGen UID:
48441
Concept ID:
C0035372
Disease or Syndrome
Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder that occurs almost exclusively in females. It is characterized by arrested development between 6 and 18 months of age, regression of acquired skills, loss of speech, stereotypic movements (classically of the hands), microcephaly, seizures, and mental retardation. Rarely, classically affected males with somatic mosaicism or an extra X chromosome have been described (Moog et al., 2003).
Angelman syndrome
MedGen UID:
58144
Concept ID:
C0162635
Disease or Syndrome
Angelman syndrome (AS) is characterized by severe developmental delay or intellectual disability, severe speech impairment, gait ataxia and/or tremulousness of the limbs, and a unique behavior with an inappropriate happy demeanor that includes frequent laughing, smiling, and excitability. Microcephaly and seizures are also common. Developmental delays are first noted at around age six months; however, the unique clinical features of AS do not become manifest until after age one year, and it can take several years before the correct clinical diagnosis is obvious.
Pallister-Killian syndrome
MedGen UID:
120540
Concept ID:
C0265449
Disease or Syndrome
Pallister-Killian syndrome is a dysmorphic condition involving most organ systems, but also characterized by a tissue-limited mosaicism; most fibroblasts have 47 chromosomes with an extra small metacentric chromosome, whereas the karyotype of lymphocytes is normal. The extra metacentric chromosome is an isochromosome for part of the short arm of chromosome 12: i(12)(p10) (Peltomaki et al., 1987; Warburton et al., 1987).
Lissencephaly 1
MedGen UID:
98463
Concept ID:
C0431375
Disease or Syndrome
PAFAH1B1-associated lissencephaly includes Miller-Dieker syndrome (MDS), isolated lissencephaly sequence (ILS), and (rarely) subcortical band heterotopia (SBH). Lissencephaly and SBH are cortical malformations caused by deficient neuronal migration during embryogenesis. Lissencephaly refers to a "smooth brain" with absent gyri (agyria) or abnormally wide gyri (pachygyria). SBH refers to a band of heterotopic gray matter located just beneath the cortex and separated from it by a thin zone of normal white matter. MDS is characterized by lissencephaly, typical facial features, and severe neurologic abnormalities. ILS is characterized by lissencephaly and its direct sequelae: developmental delay, intellectual disability, and seizures.
Severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy
MedGen UID:
148243
Concept ID:
C0751122
Disease or Syndrome
A genetic epilepsy of childhood with characteristics of drug-resistant seizures often induced by fever, presenting in previously healthy children, and which frequently leads to cognitive and motor impairment. Seizures can regress in adulthood but most patients have ongoing seizures that are refractory to medication. Around 85% of cases are due to a mutation or deletion in the SCN1A gene (2q24.3), encoding a voltage-gated sodium channel essential for the excitability of neurons. In families with a known SCN1A mutation, inheritance is autosomal dominant.
Recombinant chromosome 8 syndrome
MedGen UID:
167070
Concept ID:
C0795822
Disease or Syndrome
Recombinant 8 syndrome is a condition that involves heart and urinary tract abnormalities, moderate to severe intellectual disability, and a distinctive facial appearance. The characteristic facial features include a wide, square face; a thin upper lip; a downturned mouth; a small chin (micrognathia); wide-set eyes (hypertelorism); and low-set or unusually shaped ears. People with recombinant 8 syndrome may have overgrowth of the gums (gingival hyperplasia) and abnormal tooth development. Males with this condition frequently have undescended testes (cryptorchidism). Some affected individuals have recurrent ear infections (otitis media) or hearing loss. Many children with recombinant 8 syndrome do not survive past early childhood, usually due to complications related to their heart abnormalities.
Galloway-Mowat syndrome
MedGen UID:
167086
Concept ID:
C0795949
Disease or Syndrome
Galloway-Mowat syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by infantile onset of microcephaly and central nervous system abnormalities resulting in severely delayed psychomotor development. Brain imaging shows cerebellar atrophy and sometimes cerebral atrophy. More variable features include optic atrophy, movement disorders, seizures, and nephrotic syndrome (summary by Vodopiutz et al., 2015). Genetic Heterogeneity of Galloway-Mowat Syndrome See also GAMOS2 (301006), caused by mutation in the LAGE3 gene (300060) on chromosome Xq28; GAMOS3 (617729), caused by mutation in the OSGEP gene (610107) on chromosome 14q11; GAMOS4 (617730), caused by mutation in the TP53RK gene (608679) on chromosome 20q13; GAMOS5 (617731), caused by mutation in the TPRKB gene (608680) on chromosome 2p13; GAMOS6 (618347), caused by mutation in the WDR4 gene (605924) on chromosome 21q22; GAMOS7 (618348), caused by mutation in the NUP107 gene (607617) on chromosome 12q15; and GAMOS8 (618349), caused by mutation in the NUP133 gene (607613) on chromosome 1q42.
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 1M
MedGen UID:
332072
Concept ID:
C1835849
Disease or Syndrome
DOLK-congenital disorder of glycosylation (DOLK-CDG, formerly known as congenital disorder of glycosylation type Im) is an inherited condition that often affects the heart but can also involve other body systems. The pattern and severity of this disorder's signs and symptoms vary among affected individuals.Individuals with DOLK-CDG typically develop signs and symptoms of the condition during infancy or early childhood. Nearly all individuals with DOLK-CDG develop a weakened and enlarged heart (dilated cardiomyopathy). Other frequent signs and symptoms include recurrent seizures; developmental delay; poor muscle tone (hypotonia); and dry, scaly skin (ichthyosis). Less commonly, affected individuals can have distinctive facial features, kidney disease, hormonal abnormalities, or eye problems.Individuals with DOLK-CDG typically do not survive into adulthood, often because of complications related to dilated cardiomyopathy, and some do not survive past infancy.
Leukoencephalopathy, arthritis, colitis, and hypogammaglobulinema
MedGen UID:
324768
Concept ID:
C1837329
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 1E
MedGen UID:
324784
Concept ID:
C1837396
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are metabolic deficiencies in glycoprotein biosynthesis that usually cause severe mental and psychomotor retardation. Different forms of CDGs can be recognized by altered isoelectric focusing (IEF) patterns of serum transferrin. For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG Ia (212065) and CDG Ib (602579).
Schimke X-linked mental retardation syndrome
MedGen UID:
374193
Concept ID:
C1839320
Disease or Syndrome
Nablus mask-like facial syndrome
MedGen UID:
334165
Concept ID:
C1842464
Disease or Syndrome
Nablus mask-like facial syndrome (NMLFS) is a rare entity defined by distinctive facial features, including blepharophimosis, tight-appearing glistening facial skin, an abnormal hair pattern with an upswept frontal hairline, sparse arched eyebrows, flat and broad nose, long philtrum, distinctive ears, and a happy demeanor (summary by Jain et al., 2010).
Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome
MedGen UID:
337833
Concept ID:
C1847501
Disease or Syndrome
GLUT1 deficiency syndrome is a disorder affecting the nervous system that can have a variety of neurological signs and symptoms. Approximately 90 percent of affected individuals have a form of the disorder often referred to as common GLUT1 deficiency syndrome. These individuals generally have frequent seizures (epilepsy) beginning in the first months of life. In newborns, the first sign of the disorder may be involuntary eye movements that are rapid and irregular. Babies with common GLUT1 deficiency syndrome have a normal head size at birth, but growth of the brain and skull is often slow, which can result in an abnormally small head size (microcephaly). People with this form of GLUT1 deficiency syndrome may have developmental delay or intellectual disability. Most affected individuals also have other neurological problems, such as stiffness caused by abnormal tensing of the muscles (spasticity), difficulty in coordinating movements (ataxia), and speech difficulties (dysarthria). Some experience episodes of confusion, lack of energy (lethargy), headaches, or muscle twitches (myoclonus), particularly during periods without food (fasting).About 10 percent of individuals with GLUT1 deficiency syndrome have a form of the disorder often known as non-epileptic GLUT1 deficiency syndrome, which is usually less severe than the common form. People with the non-epileptic form do not have seizures, but they may still have developmental delay and intellectual disability. Most have movement problems such as ataxia or involuntary tensing of various muscles (dystonia); the movement problems may be more pronounced than in the common form.Several conditions that were originally given other names have since been recognized to be variants of GLUT1 deficiency syndrome. These include paroxysmal choreoathetosis with spasticity (dystonia 9); paroxysmal exercise-induced dyskinesia and epilepsy (dystonia 18); and certain types of epilepsy. In rare cases, people with variants of GLUT1 deficiency syndrome produce abnormal red blood cells and have uncommon forms of a blood condition known as anemia, which is characterized by a shortage of red blood cells.
Ceroid lipofuscinosis neuronal 1
MedGen UID:
340540
Concept ID:
C1850451
Disease or Syndrome
The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL; CLN) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent lipopigment storage material in different patterns ultrastructurally. The lipopigment pattern seen most often in CLN1 is referred to as granular osmiophilic deposits (GROD). The patterns most often observed in CLN2 and CLN3 are 'curvilinear' and 'fingerprint' profiles, respectively. CLN4, CLN5, CLN6, CLN7, and CLN8 show mixed combinations of granular, curvilinear, fingerprint, and rectilinear profiles. The clinical course includes progressive dementia, seizures, and progressive visual failure (Mole et al., 2005). Zeman and Dyken (1969) referred to these conditions as the 'neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses.' Goebel (1995) provided a comprehensive review of the NCLs and noted that they are possibly the most common group of neurodegenerative diseases in children. Mole et al. (2005) provided a detailed clinical and genetic review of the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses. Genetic Heterogeneity of Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis See also CLN2 (204500), caused by mutation in the TPP1 gene (607998) on chromosome 11p15; CLN3 (204200), caused by mutation in the CLN3 gene (607042) on 16p12; CLN4A (204300), caused by mutation in the CLN6 gene (606725) on 15q21; CLN4B (162350), caused by mutation in the DNAJC5 gene (611203) on 20q13; CLN5 (256731), caused by mutation in the CLN5 gene (608102) on 13q; CLN6 (601780), caused by mutation in the CLN6 gene (602780) on 15q21; CLN7 (610951), caused by mutation in the MFSD8 gene (611124) on 4q28; CLN8 (600143) and the Northern epilepsy variant of CLN8 (610003), caused by mutation in the CLN8 gene (607837) on 8pter; CLN10 (610127), caused by mutation in the CTSD gene (116840) on 11p15; CLN11 (614706), caused by mutation in the GRN gene (138945) on 17q; CLN13 (615362), caused by mutation in the CTSF gene (603539) on 11q13; and CLN14 (611726), caused by mutation in the KCTD7 gene (611725) on 7q11. CLN9 (609055) has not been molecularly characterized. A disorder that was formerly designated neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis-12 (CLN12) is now considered to be a variable form of Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (KRS; 606693).
Microcephaly with spastic quadriplegia
MedGen UID:
343251
Concept ID:
C1855055
Disease or Syndrome
Phosphoserine aminotransferase deficiency
MedGen UID:
410026
Concept ID:
C1970253
Disease or Syndrome
Deficiency of phosphoserine aminotransferase (PSAT) is characterized biochemically by low plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of serine and glycine and clinically by intractable seizures, acquired microcephaly, hypertonia, and psychomotor retardation. Outcome is poor once the individual becomes symptomatic, but treatment with serine and glycine supplementation from birth can lead to a normal outcome (Hart et al., 2007).
Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 4
MedGen UID:
383026
Concept ID:
C2677109
Disease or Syndrome
Mental retardation, autosomal recessive 13
MedGen UID:
442564
Concept ID:
C2750791
Disease or Syndrome
Mental retardation, X-linked 1
MedGen UID:
444070
Concept ID:
C2931498
Disease or Syndrome
Impaired mental functioning occurs as an isolated feature or as part of many syndromes listed in the X-linked catalog. Mental retardation that is not associated with other distinguishing features is referred to as 'nonspecific.' Classification Opitz and Sutherland (1984) reported on a conference in which fragile X mental retardation and X-linked mental retardation of numerous other types were discussed. The report contains a rather comprehensive discussion by Opitz of the nosology of X-linked mental retardation. Mulley et al. (1992) reviewed nomenclature guidelines for X-linked mental retardation. Raymond (2006) reviewed the diagnosis and classification of X-linked mental retardation and discussed the phenotypes associated with genes causing syndromic and nonsyndromic mental retardation.
GLUT1 deficiency syndrome 1, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
460468
Concept ID:
C3149117
Disease or Syndrome
Microcephaly, postnatal progressive, with seizures and brain atrophy
MedGen UID:
462271
Concept ID:
C3150921
Disease or Syndrome
Hemorrhagic destruction of the brain, subependymal calcification, and cataracts
MedGen UID:
462350
Concept ID:
C3151000
Disease or Syndrome
HDBSCC is an autosomal recessive disorder with a distinctive phenotype comprising hemorrhagic destruction of the brain, subependymal calcification, and congenital cataracts. Affected individuals have a catastrophic neurologic clinical course resulting in death in infancy (summary by Akawi et al., 2013).
Megaloblastic anemia due to dihydrofolate reductase deficiency
MedGen UID:
462555
Concept ID:
C3151205
Disease or Syndrome
Dihydrofolate reductase deficiency is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by the hematologic findings of megaloblastic anemia and variable neurologic symptoms, ranging from severe developmental delay and generalized seizures in infancy (Banka et al., 2011) to childhood absence epilepsy with learning difficulties to lack of symptoms (Cario et al., 2011). Treatment with folinic acid can ameliorate some of the symptoms.
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
477139
Concept ID:
C3275508
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome-2 is an X-linked recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by dysmorphic features, neonatal hypotonia, myoclonic seizures, and variable congenital anomalies involving the central nervous, cardiac, and urinary systems. Some affected individuals die in infancy (summary by Johnston et al., 2012). The phenotype shows clinical variability with regard to severity and extraneurologic features. However, most patients present in infancy with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy associated with developmental arrest and subsequent severe neurologic disability (summary by Belet et al., 2014, Kato et al., 2014). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of MCAHS, see MCAHS1 (614080); for a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of EIEE, see 308350; and for a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Warburg micro syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
481833
Concept ID:
C3280203
Disease or Syndrome
RAB18 deficiency is the molecular deficit underlying both Warburg micro syndrome (characterized by eye, nervous system, and endocrine abnormalities) and Martsolf syndrome (characterized by similar – but milder – findings). To date Warburg micro syndrome comprises >96% of reported individuals with genetically defined RAB18 deficiency. The hallmark ophthalmologic findings are bilateral congenital cataracts, usually accompanied by microphthalmia, microcornea (diameter <10), and small atonic pupils. Poor vision despite early cataract surgery likely results from progressive optic atrophy and cortical visual impairment. Individuals with Warburg micro syndrome have severe to profound intellectual disability (ID); those with Martsolf syndrome have mild to moderate ID. Some individuals with RAB18 deficiency also have epilepsy. In Warburg micro syndrome, a progressive ascending spastic paraplegia typically begins with spastic diplegia and contractures during the first year, followed by upper limb involvement leading to spastic quadriplegia after about age five years, often eventually causing breathing difficulties. In Martsolf syndrome infantile hypotonia is followed primarily by slowly progressive lower limb spasticity. Hypogonadism – when present – manifests in both syndromes, in males as micropenis and/or cryptorchidism and in females as hypoplastic labia minora, clitoral hypoplasia, and small introitus.
Warburg micro syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
481844
Concept ID:
C3280214
Disease or Syndrome
RAB18 deficiency is the molecular deficit underlying both Warburg micro syndrome (characterized by eye, nervous system, and endocrine abnormalities) and Martsolf syndrome (characterized by similar – but milder – findings). To date Warburg micro syndrome comprises >96% of reported individuals with genetically defined RAB18 deficiency. The hallmark ophthalmologic findings are bilateral congenital cataracts, usually accompanied by microphthalmia, microcornea (diameter <10), and small atonic pupils. Poor vision despite early cataract surgery likely results from progressive optic atrophy and cortical visual impairment. Individuals with Warburg micro syndrome have severe to profound intellectual disability (ID); those with Martsolf syndrome have mild to moderate ID. Some individuals with RAB18 deficiency also have epilepsy. In Warburg micro syndrome, a progressive ascending spastic paraplegia typically begins with spastic diplegia and contractures during the first year, followed by upper limb involvement leading to spastic quadriplegia after about age five years, often eventually causing breathing difficulties. In Martsolf syndrome infantile hypotonia is followed primarily by slowly progressive lower limb spasticity. Hypogonadism – when present – manifests in both syndromes, in males as micropenis and/or cryptorchidism and in females as hypoplastic labia minora, clitoral hypoplasia, and small introitus.
Baraitser-Winter Syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
482865
Concept ID:
C3281235
Disease or Syndrome
Baraitser-Winter cerebrofrontofacial (BWCFF) syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by typical craniofacial features and intellectual disability (ID) that ranges from mild (usually in those with normal brain structure) to profound (typically in those with a neuronal migration defect). Many (but not all) affected individuals have iris or retinal coloboma, sensorineural deafness, and muscle wasting resulting in a peculiar stance with kyphosis, anteverted shoulders, and slightly flexed elbows and knees. Seizures, congenital heart defects, and renal malformations also are common.
Coenzyme Q10 deficiency, primary, 5
MedGen UID:
766288
Concept ID:
C3553374
Disease or Syndrome
Primary coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency is usually associated with multisystem involvement, including neurologic manifestations such as fatal neonatal encephalopathy with hypotonia; a late-onset slowly progressive multiple-system atrophy-like phenotype (neurodegeneration with autonomic failure and various combinations of parkinsonism and cerebellar ataxia, and pyramidal dysfunction); and dystonia, spasticity, seizures, and intellectual disability. Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), the hallmark renal manifestation, is often the initial manifestation either as isolated renal involvement that progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or associated with encephalopathy (seizures, stroke-like episodes, severe neurologic impairment) resulting in early death. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), retinopathy or optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss can also be seen.
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 2k
MedGen UID:
766485
Concept ID:
C3553571
Disease or Syndrome
CDG2K is an autosomal recessive disorder with a variable phenotype. Affected individuals show psychomotor retardation and growth retardation, and most have short stature. Other features include dysmorphism, hypotonia, eye abnormalities, acquired microcephaly, hepatomegaly, and skeletal dysplasia. Serum transferrin analysis shows a CDG type II pattern (summary by Foulquier et al., 2012). For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065) and CDG2A (212066).
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 8
MedGen UID:
767123
Concept ID:
C3554209
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 8 is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe psychomotor retardation, abnormal movements, hypotonia, spasticity, and variable visual defects. Brain MRI shows pontocerebellar hypoplasia, decreased cerebral white matter, and a thin corpus callosum (summary by Mochida et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1 (607596).
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 1u
MedGen UID:
767299
Concept ID:
C3554385
Disease or Syndrome
Mental retardation, X-linked 98
MedGen UID:
813060
Concept ID:
C3806730
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked mental retardation-98 is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, poor speech, behavioral abnormalities, poor overall growth, dysmorphic facial features, and often early-onset seizures. Some carrier females are unaffected, whereas other females with mutations are affected; males tend to be more severely affected than females. It is believed that the phenotypic variability and disease manifestations in female carriers results from skewed X-inactivation or cellular mosaicism (summary by de Lange et al., 2016).
Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy 16
MedGen UID:
815503
Concept ID:
C3809173
Disease or Syndrome
TBC1D24-related disorders comprise a continuum of features that were originally described as distinct, recognized phenotypes: DOORS syndrome (deafness, onychodystrophy, osteodystrophy, mental retardation, and seizures). Profound sensorineural hearing loss, onychodystrophy, osteodystrophy, intellectual disability / developmental delay, and seizures. Familial infantile myoclonic epilepsy (FIME). Early-onset myoclonic seizures, focal epilepsy, dysarthria, and mild-to-moderate intellectual disability. Progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME). Action myoclonus, tonic-clonic seizures, progressive neurologic decline, and ataxia. Early-infantile epileptic encephalopathy 16 (EIEE16). Epileptiform EEG abnormalities which themselves are believed to contribute to progressive disturbance in cerebral function. Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss, DFNB86. Profound prelingual deafness. Autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss, DFNA65. Slowly progressive deafness with onset in the third decade, initially affecting the high frequencies.
Mental retardation, autosomal recessive 40
MedGen UID:
816410
Concept ID:
C3810080
Disease or Syndrome
Warburg micro syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
816595
Concept ID:
C3810265
Disease or Syndrome
RAB18 deficiency is the molecular deficit underlying both Warburg micro syndrome (characterized by eye, nervous system, and endocrine abnormalities) and Martsolf syndrome (characterized by similar – but milder – findings). To date Warburg micro syndrome comprises >96% of reported individuals with genetically defined RAB18 deficiency. The hallmark ophthalmologic findings are bilateral congenital cataracts, usually accompanied by microphthalmia, microcornea (diameter <10), and small atonic pupils. Poor vision despite early cataract surgery likely results from progressive optic atrophy and cortical visual impairment. Individuals with Warburg micro syndrome have severe to profound intellectual disability (ID); those with Martsolf syndrome have mild to moderate ID. Some individuals with RAB18 deficiency also have epilepsy. In Warburg micro syndrome, a progressive ascending spastic paraplegia typically begins with spastic diplegia and contractures during the first year, followed by upper limb involvement leading to spastic quadriplegia after about age five years, often eventually causing breathing difficulties. In Martsolf syndrome infantile hypotonia is followed primarily by slowly progressive lower limb spasticity. Hypogonadism – when present – manifests in both syndromes, in males as micropenis and/or cryptorchidism and in females as hypoplastic labia minora, clitoral hypoplasia, and small introitus.
Webb-Dattani syndrome
MedGen UID:
863145
Concept ID:
C4014708
Disease or Syndrome
Webb-Dattani syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by frontotemporal hypoplasia, globally delayed development, and pituitary and hypothalamic insufficiency due to hypoplastic development of these brain regions. Patients present soon after birth with multiple pituitary hormonal deficiencies and subsequently develop microcephaly, seizures, and spasticity. Other features include postretinal blindness and renal abnormalities (summary by Webb et al., 2013).
Mental retardation, autosomal dominant 34
MedGen UID:
907277
Concept ID:
C4225156
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Cerebellar atrophy, visual impairment, and psychomotor retardation
MedGen UID:
905041
Concept ID:
C4225172
Disease or Syndrome
Leukodystrophy and acquired microcephaly with or without dystonia
MedGen UID:
908888
Concept ID:
C4225213
Disease or Syndrome
Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 12
MedGen UID:
905068
Concept ID:
C4225247
Disease or Syndrome
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-12 is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by severely delayed or even lack of psychomotor development that becomes apparent in the first months of life. Patients are markedly disabled, with acquired microcephaly, lack of speech, and often lack of spontaneous movement due to hypotonia and spasticity. Brain imaging shows delayed myelination (summary by Edvardson et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HLD, see 312080.
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 27
MedGen UID:
908541
Concept ID:
C4225251
Disease or Syndrome
Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy 34
MedGen UID:
899149
Concept ID:
C4225257
Disease or Syndrome
SLC12A5-related epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (SLC12A5-EIMFS), reported to date in nine children, is characterized by onset of seizures before age six months and either developmental delay or developmental regression with seizure onset. Of these nine children, six had severe developmental delay with no progress of abilities and three made notable neurodevelopmental progress. Eight had postnatal microcephaly and hypotonia. In most children epilepsy begins as focal motor seizures (typically involving head and eye deviation) that become multifocal and intractable to conventional antiepileptic drugs (AEDs).
Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 33
MedGen UID:
897930
Concept ID:
C4225337
Disease or Syndrome
Mental retardation, autosomal recessive 49
MedGen UID:
906606
Concept ID:
C4225388
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Epilepsy, early-onset, vitamin b6-dependent
MedGen UID:
934599
Concept ID:
C4310632
Disease or Syndrome
Early-onset vitamin B6-dependent epilepsy is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of seizures in the neonatal period or first months of life. The seizures show favorable response to treatment with activated vitamin B6 (pyridoxal 5-prime-phosphate; PLP) and/or pyridoxine. However, most patients show delayed psychomotor development (summary by Darin et al., 2016).
3-methylglutaconic aciduria, type VIII
MedGen UID:
934617
Concept ID:
C4310650
Disease or Syndrome
MGCA8 is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder resulting in death in infancy. Features include hypotonia, abnormal movements, respiratory insufficiency with apneic episodes, and lack of developmental progress, often with seizures. Brain imaging is variable, but may show progressive cerebral atrophy. Laboratory studies show increased serum lactate and 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, suggesting a mitochondrial defect (summary by Mandel et al., 2016). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, see MGCA type I (250950).
Encephalopathy, progressive, early-onset, with brain atrophy and thin corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
934638
Concept ID:
C4310671
Disease or Syndrome
PEBAT is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severely delayed psychomotor development apparent soon after birth or in infancy, profound intellectual disability, poor or absent speech, and seizures. Most patients are never able to walk due to hypotonia or spasticity. Brain imaging shows cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, thin corpus callosum, and secondary hypomyelination. The disorder shows progressive features, including microcephaly, consistent with a neurodegenerative process (summary by Miyake et al., 2016; Flex et al., 2016).
Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 47
MedGen UID:
934652
Concept ID:
C4310685
Disease or Syndrome
Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy-47 is a neurologic disorder characterized by onset of intractable seizures in the first days or weeks of life. EEG shows background slowing and multifocal epileptic spikes, and may show hypsarrhythmia. Most patients have developmental regression after seizure onset and show persistent intellectual disability and neurologic impairment, although the severity is variable. Treatment with phenytoin, a voltage-gated sodium channel blocker, may be beneficial (summary by Guella et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of EIEE, see EIEE1 (308350).
Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 44
MedGen UID:
934667
Concept ID:
C4310700
Disease or Syndrome
Hypermanganesemia with dystonia 2
MedGen UID:
934732
Concept ID:
C4310765
Disease or Syndrome
SLC39A14 deficiency is characterized by evidence between ages six months and three years of delay or loss of motor developmental milestones (e.g., delayed walking, gait disturbance). Early in the disease course, children show axial hypotonia followed by dystonia, spasticity, dysarthria, bulbar dysfunction, and signs of parkinsonism including bradykinesia, hypomimia, and tremor. By the end of the first decade they develop severe, generalized, pharmaco-resistant dystonia, limb contractures, and scoliosis, and lose independent ambulation. Cognitive impairment appears to be less prominent than motor disability. Some affected children have succumbed in their first decade due to secondary complications such as respiratory infections.
Mental retardation, X-linked, syndromic, Bain type
MedGen UID:
934781
Concept ID:
C4310814
Disease or Syndrome
MRXSB is an X-linked dominant neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability with behavioral abnormalities, and dysmorphic facial features. Additional variable features include musculoskeletal abnormalities, seizures, acquired microcephaly, and feeding problems with poor overall growth. Only females are affected (summary by Bain et al., 2016).
CONGENITAL DISORDER OF GLYCOSYLATION, TYPE IIq
MedGen UID:
1390458
Concept ID:
C4479353
Disease or Syndrome

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Ashwal S, Michelson D, Plawner L, Dobyns WB; Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the Practice Committee of the Child Neurology Society.
Neurology 2009 Sep 15;73(11):887-97. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181b783f7. PMID: 19752457Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Ishihara N, Inagaki H, Miyake M, Kawamura Y, Yoshikawa T, Kurahashi H
Brain Dev 2019 Mar;41(3):285-291. Epub 2018 Nov 2 doi: 10.1016/j.braindev.2018.10.008. PMID: 30392841
Cavallin M, Maillard C, Hully M, Philbert M, Boddaert N, Reilly ML, Nitschké P, Bery A, Bahi-Buisson N
Eur J Med Genet 2018 Dec;61(12):729-732. Epub 2018 May 25 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2018.05.002. PMID: 29758293
Stankiewicz P, Khan TN, Szafranski P, Slattery L, Streff H, Vetrini F, Bernstein JA, Brown CW, Rosenfeld JA, Rednam S, Scollon S, Bergstrom KL, Parsons DW, Plon SE, Vieira MW, Quaio CRDC, Baratela WAR, Acosta Guio JC, Armstrong R, Mehta SG, Rump P, Pfundt R, Lewandowski R, Fernandes EM, Shinde DN, Tang S, Hoyer J, Zweier C, Reis A, Bacino CA, Xiao R, Breman AM, Smith JL; Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study., Katsanis N, Bostwick B, Popp B, Davis EE, Yang Y
Am J Hum Genet 2017 Oct 5;101(4):503-515. Epub 2017 Sep 21 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2017.08.014. PMID: 28942966Free PMC Article
Aragao MFVV, Holanda AC, Brainer-Lima AM, Petribu NCL, Castillo M, van der Linden V, Serpa SC, Tenório AG, Travassos PTC, Cordeiro MT, Sarteschi C, Valenca MM, Costello A
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Jul;38(7):1427-1434. Epub 2017 May 18 doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A5216. PMID: 28522665
Seltzer LE, Paciorkowski AR
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2014 Jun;166C(2):140-55. Epub 2014 May 16 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31400. PMID: 24839169

Diagnosis

Lallar M, Rai A, Srivastava P, Mandal K, Gupta N, Kabra M, Phadke SR
Indian Pediatr 2018 Jun 15;55(6):474-477. Epub 2018 Feb 9 PMID: 29428920
Sheffer R, Douiev L, Edvardson S, Shaag A, Tamimi K, Soiferman D, Meiner V, Saada A
Am J Med Genet A 2016 Jun;170(6):1603-7. Epub 2016 Mar 17 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.37624. PMID: 26992161
Terrone G, Bienvenu T, Germanaud D, Barthez-Carpentier MA, Diebold B, Delanoe C, Passemard S, Auvin S
Epilepsia 2014 Nov;55(11):e116-9. Epub 2014 Sep 29 doi: 10.1111/epi.12800. PMID: 25266269
Seltzer LE, Paciorkowski AR
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2014 Jun;166C(2):140-55. Epub 2014 May 16 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31400. PMID: 24839169
Le Guen T, Bahi-Buisson N, Nectoux J, Boddaert N, Fichou Y, Diebold B, Desguerre I, Raqbi F, Daire VC, Chelly J, Bienvenu T
Neurogenetics 2011 Feb;12(1):1-8. Epub 2010 Aug 24 doi: 10.1007/s10048-010-0255-4. PMID: 20734096

Therapy

Yin X, Tang B, Mao X, Peng J, Zeng S, Wang Y, Jiang H, Li N
J Hum Genet 2018 Sep;63(9):971-980. Epub 2018 Jun 18 doi: 10.1038/s10038-018-0478-z. PMID: 29915213
Suzuki-Muromoto S, Wakusawa K, Miyabayashi T, Sato R, Okubo Y, Endo W, Inui T, Togashi N, Kato A, Oba H, Nakashima M, Saitsu H, Matsumoto N, Haginoya K
J Hum Genet 2018 Jun;63(6):749-753. Epub 2018 Mar 19 doi: 10.1038/s10038-018-0432-0. PMID: 29556033
Pearson MA, Hoyme HE, Seaver LH, Rimsza ME
Pediatrics 1994 Feb;93(2):211-5. PMID: 7510061

Prognosis

Ishihara N, Inagaki H, Miyake M, Kawamura Y, Yoshikawa T, Kurahashi H
Brain Dev 2019 Mar;41(3):285-291. Epub 2018 Nov 2 doi: 10.1016/j.braindev.2018.10.008. PMID: 30392841
Abbasi AA, Blaesius K, Hu H, Latif Z, Picker-Minh S, Khan MN, Farooq S, Khan MA, Kaindl AM
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2017 Dec;174(8):839-845. Epub 2017 Oct 14 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.b.32602. PMID: 29031008
Horn D, Weschke B, Knierim E, Fischer-Zirnsak B, Stenzel W, Schuelke M, Zemojtel T
Am J Med Genet A 2016 Sep;170(9):2274-81. Epub 2016 Jun 9 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.37798. PMID: 27282648
Al-Maawali A, Barry BJ, Rajab A, El-Quessny M, Seman A, Coury SN, Barkovich AJ, Yang E, Walsh CA, Mochida GH, Stoler JM
Am J Med Genet A 2016 Feb;170A(2):435-440. Epub 2015 Oct 13 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.37422. PMID: 26463574Free PMC Article
Le Guen T, Bahi-Buisson N, Nectoux J, Boddaert N, Fichou Y, Diebold B, Desguerre I, Raqbi F, Daire VC, Chelly J, Bienvenu T
Neurogenetics 2011 Feb;12(1):1-8. Epub 2010 Aug 24 doi: 10.1007/s10048-010-0255-4. PMID: 20734096

Clinical prediction guides

Stankiewicz P, Khan TN, Szafranski P, Slattery L, Streff H, Vetrini F, Bernstein JA, Brown CW, Rosenfeld JA, Rednam S, Scollon S, Bergstrom KL, Parsons DW, Plon SE, Vieira MW, Quaio CRDC, Baratela WAR, Acosta Guio JC, Armstrong R, Mehta SG, Rump P, Pfundt R, Lewandowski R, Fernandes EM, Shinde DN, Tang S, Hoyer J, Zweier C, Reis A, Bacino CA, Xiao R, Breman AM, Smith JL; Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study., Katsanis N, Bostwick B, Popp B, Davis EE, Yang Y
Am J Hum Genet 2017 Oct 5;101(4):503-515. Epub 2017 Sep 21 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2017.08.014. PMID: 28942966Free PMC Article
Luk HM, Yeung KS, Wong WL, Chung BH, Tong TM, Lo IF
Hong Kong Med J 2016 Dec;22(6):526-33. Epub 2016 Jul 29 doi: 10.12809/hkmj154750. PMID: 27468965
Srivastava S, McMillan R, Willis J, Clark H, Chavan V, Liang C, Zhang H, Hulver M, Mukherjee K
Acta Neuropathol Commun 2016 Mar 31;4:30. doi: 10.1186/s40478-016-0295-6. PMID: 27036546Free PMC Article
Dubruc E, Putoux A, Labalme A, Rougeot C, Sanlaville D, Edery P
Am J Med Genet A 2014 Jun;164A(6):1571-5. Epub 2014 Mar 25 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.36484. PMID: 24668549
Le Guen T, Bahi-Buisson N, Nectoux J, Boddaert N, Fichou Y, Diebold B, Desguerre I, Raqbi F, Daire VC, Chelly J, Bienvenu T
Neurogenetics 2011 Feb;12(1):1-8. Epub 2010 Aug 24 doi: 10.1007/s10048-010-0255-4. PMID: 20734096

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