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Spastic paraplegia 7(SPG7)

MedGen UID:
339552
Concept ID:
C1846564
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Hereditary spastic paraplegia Paraplegin type; Spastic paraplegia 7, autosomal recessive; SPG7
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Sources: HPO, OMIM, Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in homozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, autosomal recessive disorders manifest in homozygotes (with two copies of the mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele). [HPO:curators]
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Sources: HPO, OMIM, Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in heterozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, an autosomal dominant disorder is caused when a single copy of the mutant allele is present. Males and females are affected equally, and can both transmit the disorder with a risk of 50% for each child of inheriting the mutant allele.
Autosomal recessive inheritance (HPO, OMIM, Orphanet)
Autosomal dominant inheritance (HPO, OMIM, Orphanet)
 
Gene (location): SPG7 (16q24.3)
OMIM®: 607259
Orphanet: ORPHA99013

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: Spastic Paraplegia 7
Spastic paraplegia 7 (SPG7) is characterized by insidiously progressive bilateral leg weakness and spasticity. Most affected individuals have decreased vibration sense and cerebellar signs. Onset is mostly in adulthood, although symptoms may start as early as age 11 years and as late as age 72 years. Additional features including ataxia (gait and limbs), spastic dysarthria, dysphagia, pale optic disks, ataxia, nystagmus, strabismus, ptosis, hearing loss, motor and sensory neuropathy, amyotrophy, scoliosis, pes cavus, and urinary sphincter disturbances may be observed. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Giorgio Casari  |  Roberto Marconi   view full author information

Additional descriptions

From OMIM
Hereditary spastic paraplegia (SPG) is characterized by progressive weakness and spasticity of the lower limbs due to degeneration of corticospinal axons. There is considerable genetic heterogeneity. Inheritance is most often autosomal dominant (see 182600), but X-linked (see 312920) and autosomal recessive (see 270800) forms occur. SPG7 shows phenotypic variability between families. Some cases are pure, whereas other are complicated with additional neurologic features (Warnecke et al., 2007).  http://www.omim.org/entry/607259
From GHR
Spastic paraplegia type 7 is part of a group of genetic disorders known as hereditary spastic paraplegias. These disorders are characterized by progressive muscle stiffness (spasticity) and the development of paralysis of the lower limbs (paraplegia). Hereditary spastic paraplegias are divided into two types: pure and complex. The pure types involve the lower limbs. The complex types involve the lower limbs and can also affect the upper limbs to a lesser degree; the structure or functioning of the brain; and the nerves connecting the brain and spinal cord to muscles and sensory cells that detect sensations such as touch, pain, heat, and sound (the peripheral nervous system). Spastic paraplegia type 7 can occur in either the pure or complex form.Like all hereditary spastic paraplegias, spastic paraplegia type 7 involves spasticity of the leg muscles and increased muscle weakness. People with this form of spastic paraplegia can also experience exaggerated reflexes (hyperreflexia) in the arms; speech difficulties (dysarthria); difficulty swallowing (dysphagia); involuntary movements of the eyes (nystagmus); mild hearing loss; abnormal curvature of the spine (scoliosis); high-arched feet (pes cavus); numbness, tingling, or pain in the arms and legs (sensory neuropathy); disturbance in the nerves used for muscle movement (motor neuropathy); and muscle wasting (amyotrophy). The onset of symptoms varies greatly among those with spastic paraplegia type 7; however, abnormalities in muscle tone and other features are usually noticeable in adulthood.  https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/spastic-paraplegia-type-7

Clinical features

From HPO
Dysphagia
MedGen UID:
41440
Concept ID:
C0011168
Disease or Syndrome
A symptom referring to difficulty in swallowing. It may be observed in patients with stroke, motor neuron disorders, cancer of the throat or mouth, head and neck injuries, Parkinson disease, and multiple sclerosis.
Dysarthria
MedGen UID:
8510
Concept ID:
C0013362
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Disorders of speech articulation caused by imperfect coordination of pharynx, larynx, tongue, or face muscles. This may result from CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; CEREBELLAR DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; BRAIN STEM diseases; or diseases of the corticobulbar tracts (see PYRAMIDAL TRACTS). The cortical language centers are intact in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p489)
Nystagmus
MedGen UID:
45166
Concept ID:
C0028738
Disease or Syndrome
Involuntary movements of the eye that are divided into two types, jerk and pendular. Jerk nystagmus has a slow phase in one direction followed by a corrective fast phase in the opposite direction, and is usually caused by central or peripheral vestibular dysfunction. Pendular nystagmus features oscillations that are of equal velocity in both directions and this condition is often associated with visual loss early in life. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p272)
Optic atrophy
MedGen UID:
18180
Concept ID:
C0029124
Disease or Syndrome
A disorder characterized by loss of optic nerve fibers. It may be inherited or acquired. Acquired causes include ischemia, optic nerve neuropathy, glaucoma, trauma, radiation, brain tumors, and multiple sclerosis. It leads to vision disturbances.
Babinski sign
MedGen UID:
19708
Concept ID:
C0034935
Finding
A reflex characterized by upward movement of the great toe and an outward movement of the rest of the toes, when the sole of the foot is stroked. It is a normal reflex up to the age of two. Its presence beyond that age indicates neurological damage.
Spastic paraplegia
MedGen UID:
20882
Concept ID:
C0037772
Disease or Syndrome
Spasticity and weakness of the leg and hip muscles.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
21278
Concept ID:
C0037932
Finding
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Urinary incontinence
MedGen UID:
22579
Concept ID:
C0042024
Finding
Involuntary loss of URINE, such as leaking of urine. It is a symptom of various underlying pathological processes. Major types of incontinence include URINARY URGE INCONTINENCE and URINARY STRESS INCONTINENCE.
Urinary urgency
MedGen UID:
39315
Concept ID:
C0085606
Finding
An acute and compelling urge to urinate.
Hyperreflexia
MedGen UID:
57738
Concept ID:
C0151889
Finding
Autonomic nervous system overreaction to stimuli, most commonly after spinal cord injury at a T-5 level and above.
Spastic gait
MedGen UID:
115907
Concept ID:
C0231687
Finding
Spasticity is manifested by increased stretch reflex which is intensified with movement velocity. This results in excessive and inappropriate muscle activation which can contribute to muscle hypertonia. Spastic gait is characterized by manifestations such as muscle hypertonia, stiff knee, and circumduction of the leg.
Memory impairment
MedGen UID:
68579
Concept ID:
C0233794
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
An impairment of memory as manifested by a reduced ability to remember things such as dates and names, and increased forgetfulness.
Cerebral atrophy
MedGen UID:
116012
Concept ID:
C0235946
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy (wasting, decrease in size of cells or tissue) affecting the cerebrum. [HPO:sdoelken]
Pes cavus
MedGen UID:
675590
Concept ID:
C0728829
Congenital Abnormality
The presence of an unusually high plantar arch. Also called high instep, pes cavus refers to a distinctly hollow form of the sole of the foot when it is bearing weight.
Gait ataxia
MedGen UID:
155642
Concept ID:
C0751837
Sign or Symptom
A type of ataxia characterized by the impairment of the ability to coordinate the movements required for normal walking. Gait ataxia is characteirzed by a wide-based staggering gait with a tendency to fall.
Lower limb spasticity
MedGen UID:
220865
Concept ID:
C1271100
Finding
Spasticity (velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes with increased muscle tone and hyperexcitable tendon reflexes) in the muscles of the lower limbs, hips, and pelvis
Lower limb muscle weakness
MedGen UID:
324478
Concept ID:
C1836296
Finding
A reduction in the strength of the lower limb muscles.
Urinary bladder sphincter dysfunction
MedGen UID:
334804
Concept ID:
C1843663
Finding
Abnormal function of a sphincter of the urinary bladder.
Degeneration of the lateral corticospinal tracts
MedGen UID:
375921
Concept ID:
C1846566
Finding
Deterioration of the tissues of the lateral corticospinal tracts.
Impaired vibration sensation in the lower limbs
MedGen UID:
338617
Concept ID:
C1849134
Finding
A decrease in the ability to perceive vibration in the legs.
Cerebellar atrophy
MedGen UID:
892891
Concept ID:
C4020873
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy (wasting) of the cerebellum.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVSpastic paraplegia 7

Recent clinical studies

Diagnosis

Bereznyakova O, Dupré N
Handb Clin Neurol 2018;155:191-203. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-64189-2.00012-3. PMID: 29891058
Wedding IM, Koht J, Tran GT, Misceo D, Selmer KK, Holmgren A, Frengen E, Bindoff L, Tallaksen CM, Tzoulis C
PLoS One 2014;9(1):e86340. Epub 2014 Jan 22 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086340. PMID: 24466038Free PMC Article
Klebe S, Depienne C, Gerber S, Challe G, Anheim M, Charles P, Fedirko E, Lejeune E, Cottineau J, Brusco A, Dollfus H, Chinnery PF, Mancini C, Ferrer X, Sole G, Destée A, Mayer JM, Fontaine B, de Seze J, Clanet M, Ollagnon E, Busson P, Cazeneuve C, Stevanin G, Kaplan J, Rozet JM, Brice A, Durr A
Brain 2012 Oct;135(Pt 10):2980-93. doi: 10.1093/brain/aws240. PMID: 23065789Free PMC Article

Therapy

Deeken JF, Cormier T, Price DK, Sissung TM, Steinberg SM, Tran K, Liewehr DJ, Dahut WL, Miao X, Figg WD
Pharmacogenomics J 2010 Jun;10(3):191-9. Epub 2009 Dec 29 doi: 10.1038/tpj.2009.57. PMID: 20038957

Prognosis

Chen KB, Chen KC, Chang YL, Chang KL, Chang PC, Chang TT, Chen YC
Molecules 2016 May 5;21(5) doi: 10.3390/molecules21050588. PMID: 27164068Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Chen KB, Chen KC, Chang YL, Chang KL, Chang PC, Chang TT, Chen YC
Molecules 2016 May 5;21(5) doi: 10.3390/molecules21050588. PMID: 27164068Free PMC Article

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