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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD)

MedGen UID:
220387
Concept ID:
C1263846
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Synonyms: ADHD; Attention deficit; Attention deficit disorder; Attention deficits; Childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder; HYPERACTIVITY OF CHILDHOOD
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Sources: HPO, OMIM, Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in heterozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, an autosomal dominant disorder is caused when a single copy of the mutant allele is present. Males and females are affected equally, and can both transmit the disorder with a risk of 50% for each child of inheriting the mutant allele.
Autosomal dominant inheritance (HPO, OMIM, Orphanet)
SNOMED CT: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, predominantly hyperactive impulsive type (7461003); Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (406506008); ADHD - Attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (406506008); Hyperkinetic disorder (406506008); Hyperkinetic syndrome (406506008); Overactive child syndrome (406506008); Attention deficit hyperkinetic disorder (406506008); Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, hyperactive impulsive type (7461003)
 
Genes (locations): DRD4 (11p15.5); DRD5 (4p16.1)
OMIM®: 143465
HPO: HP:0007018

Definition

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavioral disorder that typically begins in childhood and is characterized by a short attention span (inattention), an inability to be calm and stay still (hyperactivity), and poor impulse control (impulsivity). Some people with ADHD have problems with only inattention or with hyperactivity and impulsivity, but most have problems related to all three features.In people with ADHD, the characteristic behaviors are frequent and severe enough to interfere with the activities of daily living such as school, work, and relationships with others. Because of an inability to stay focused on tasks, people with inattention may be easily distracted, forgetful, avoid tasks that require sustained attention, have difficulty organizing tasks, or frequently lose items.Hyperactivity is usually shown by frequent movement. Individuals with this feature often fidget or tap their foot when seated, leave their seat when it is inappropriate to do so (such as in the classroom), or talk a lot and interrupt others.Impulsivity can result in hasty actions without thought for the consequences. Individuals with poor impulse control may have difficulty waiting for their turn, deferring to others, or considering their actions before acting.More than two-thirds of all individuals with ADHD have additional conditions, including insomnia, mood or anxiety disorders, learning disorders, or substance use disorders. Affected individuals may also have autism spectrum disorder, which is characterized by impaired communication and social interaction, or Tourette syndrome, which is a disorder characterized by repetitive and involuntary movements or noises called tics.In most affected individuals, ADHD continues throughout life, but in about one-third of individuals, signs and symptoms of ADHD go away by adulthood.
[from GHR]

Clinical features

From HPO
Hyperactivity
MedGen UID:
98406
Concept ID:
C0424295
Finding
Hyperactivity is a state of constantly being unusually or abnormally active, including in situations in which it is not appropriate.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
MedGen UID:
220387
Concept ID:
C1263846
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavioral disorder that typically begins in childhood and is characterized by a short attention span (inattention), an inability to be calm and stay still (hyperactivity), and poor impulse control (impulsivity). Some people with ADHD have problems with only inattention or with hyperactivity and impulsivity, but most have problems related to all three features.In people with ADHD, the characteristic behaviors are frequent and severe enough to interfere with the activities of daily living such as school, work, and relationships with others. Because of an inability to stay focused on tasks, people with inattention may be easily distracted, forgetful, avoid tasks that require sustained attention, have difficulty organizing tasks, or frequently lose items.Hyperactivity is usually shown by frequent movement. Individuals with this feature often fidget or tap their foot when seated, leave their seat when it is inappropriate to do so (such as in the classroom), or talk a lot and interrupt others.Impulsivity can result in hasty actions without thought for the consequences. Individuals with poor impulse control may have difficulty waiting for their turn, deferring to others, or considering their actions before acting.More than two-thirds of all individuals with ADHD have additional conditions, including insomnia, mood or anxiety disorders, learning disorders, or substance use disorders. Affected individuals may also have autism spectrum disorder, which is characterized by impaired communication and social interaction, or Tourette syndrome, which is a disorder characterized by repetitive and involuntary movements or noises called tics.In most affected individuals, ADHD continues throughout life, but in about one-third of individuals, signs and symptoms of ADHD go away by adulthood.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVAttention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Conditions with this feature

DiGeorge sequence
MedGen UID:
4297
Concept ID:
C0012236
Disease or Syndrome
Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have a range of findings including the following: Congenital heart disease (74% of individuals), particularly conotruncal malformations (tetralogy of Fallot, interrupted aortic arch, ventricular septal defect, and truncus arteriosus). Palatal abnormalities (69%), particularly velopharyngeal incompetence, submucosal cleft palate, bifid uvula, and cleft palate. Characteristic facial features (present in the majority of individuals of northern European heritage). Learning difficulties (70%-90%). An immune deficiency (regardless of the clinical presentation) (77%). Additional findings include the following: Hypocalcemia (50%). Significant feeding and swallowing problems; constipation with or without structural gastrointestinal anomalies (intestinal malrotation, imperforate anus, and Hirschsprung disease). Renal anomalies (31%). Hearing loss (both conductive and sensorineural). Laryngotracheoesophageal anomalies. Growth hormone deficiency. Autoimmune disorders. Seizures (idiopathic or associated with hypocalcemia). CNS anomalies including tethered cord. Skeletal abnormalities (scoliosis with or without vertebral anomalies, clubbed feet, polydactyly, and craniosynostosis). Ophthalmologic abnormalities (strabismus, posterior embryotoxon, tortuous retinal vessels, scleracornea, and anophthalmia). Enamel hypoplasia. Malignancies (rare). Developmental delay (in particular delays in emergence of language), intellectual disability, and learning differences (non-verbal learning disability where the verbal IQ is significantly greater than the performance IQ) are common. Autism or autistic spectrum disorder is found in approximately 20% of children and psychiatric illness (specifically schizophrenia) is present in 25% of adults; however, attention deficit disorder, anxiety, perseveration, and difficulty with social interactions are also common.
Prader-Willi syndrome
MedGen UID:
46057
Concept ID:
C0032897
Disease or Syndrome
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterized by severe hypotonia and feeding difficulties in early infancy, followed in later infancy or early childhood by excessive eating and gradual development of morbid obesity (unless eating is externally controlled). Motor milestones and language development are delayed. All individuals have some degree of cognitive impairment. A distinctive behavioral phenotype (with temper tantrums, stubbornness, manipulative behavior, and obsessive-compulsive characteristics) is common. Hypogonadism is present in both males and females and manifests as genital hypoplasia, incomplete pubertal development, and, in most, infertility. Short stature is common (if not treated with growth hormone); characteristic facial features, strabismus, and scoliosis are often present.
Tourette Syndrome
MedGen UID:
21219
Concept ID:
C0040517
Disease or Syndrome
Tourette syndrome is a neurobehavioral disorder manifest particularly by motor and vocal tics and associated with behavioral abnormalities. Tics are sudden, brief, intermittent, involuntary or semi-voluntary movements (motor tics) or sounds (phonic or vocal tics). They typically consist of simple, coordinated, repetitive movements, gestures, or utterances that mimic fragments of normal behavior. Motor tics may range from simple blinking, nose twitching, and head jerking to more complex throwing, hitting, or making rude gestures. Phonic tics include sniffling, throat clearing, blowing, coughing, echolalia, or coprolalia. Males are affected about 3 times more often than females, and onset usually occurs between 3 and 8 years of age. By age 18 years, more than half of affected individuals are free of tics, but they may persist into adulthood (review by Jankovic, 2001).
Cyclical vomiting syndrome
MedGen UID:
57509
Concept ID:
C0152164
Disease or Syndrome
Cyclic vomiting syndrome is a disorder that causes recurrent episodes of nausea, vomiting, and tiredness (lethargy). This condition is diagnosed most often in young children, but it can affect people of any age.The episodes of nausea, vomiting, and lethargy last anywhere from an hour to 10 days. An affected person may vomit several times per hour, potentially leading to a dangerous loss of fluids (dehydration). Additional symptoms can include unusually pale skin (pallor), abdominal pain, diarrhea, headache, fever, and an increased sensitivity to light (photophobia) or to sound (phonophobia). In most affected people, the signs and symptoms of each attack are quite similar. These attacks can be debilitating, making it difficult for an affected person to go to work or school.Episodes of nausea, vomiting, and lethargy can occur regularly or apparently at random, or can be triggered by a variety of factors. The most common triggers are emotional excitement and infections. Other triggers can include periods without eating (fasting), temperature extremes, lack of sleep, overexertion, allergies, ingesting certain foods or alcohol, and menstruation.If the condition is not treated, episodes usually occur four to 12 times per year. Between attacks, vomiting is absent, and nausea is either absent or much reduced. However, many affected people experience other symptoms during and between episodes, including pain, lethargy, digestive disorders such as gastroesophageal reflux and irritable bowel syndrome, and fainting spells (syncope). People with cyclic vomiting syndrome are also more likely than people without the disorder to experience depression, anxiety, and panic disorder. It is unclear whether these health conditions are directly related to nausea and vomiting.Cyclic vomiting syndrome is often considered to be a variant of migraines, which are severe headaches often associated with pain, nausea, vomiting, and extreme sensitivity to light and sound. Cyclic vomiting syndrome is likely the same as or closely related to a condition called abdominal migraine, which is characterized by attacks of stomach pain and cramping. Attacks of nausea, vomiting, or abdominal pain in childhood may be replaced by migraine headaches as an affected person gets older. Many people with cyclic vomiting syndrome or abdominal migraine have a family history of migraines.Most people with cyclic vomiting syndrome have normal intelligence, although some affected people have developmental delay or intellectual disability. Autism spectrum disorder, which affects communication and social interaction, have also been associated with cyclic vomiting syndrome. Additionally, muscle weakness (myopathy) and seizures are possible. People with any of these additional features are said to have cyclic vomiting syndrome plus.
Adrenoleukodystrophy
MedGen UID:
57667
Concept ID:
C0162309
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) affects the nervous system white matter and the adrenal cortex. Three main phenotypes are seen in affected males: The childhood cerebral form manifests most commonly between ages four and eight years. It initially resembles attention-deficit disorder or hyperactivity; progressive impairment of cognition, behavior, vision, hearing, and motor function follow the initial symptoms and often lead to total disability within six months to two years. Most individuals have impaired adrenocortical function at the time that neurologic disturbances are first noted. Adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) manifests most commonly in an individual in his twenties or middle age as progressive stiffness and weakness of the legs, sphincter disturbances, sexual dysfunction, and often, impaired adrenocortical function; all symptoms are progressive over decades. "Addison disease only" presents with primary adrenocortical insufficiency between age two years and adulthood and most commonly by age 7.5 years, without evidence of neurologic abnormality; however, some degree of neurologic disability (most commonly AMN) usually develops by middle age. More than 20% of female carriers develop mild-to-moderate spastic paraparesis in middle age or later. Adrenal function is usually normal.
Aarskog syndrome
MedGen UID:
61234
Concept ID:
C0175701
Disease or Syndrome
Aarskog-Scott syndrome, also known as faciogenital dysplasia, is an X-linked disorder characterized by short stature, hypertelorism, shawl scrotum, and brachydactyly, although there is wide phenotypic variability and other features, such as joint hyperextensibility, short nose, widow's peak, and inguinal hernia, may also occur. Most patients do not have mental retardation, but some may have neurobehavioral features. Carrier females may present with subtle features, such as widow's peak or short stature (summary by Orrico et al., 2010).
Williams syndrome
MedGen UID:
59799
Concept ID:
C0175702
Disease or Syndrome
Williams syndrome (WS) is characterized by cardiovascular disease (elastin arteriopathy, peripheral pulmonary stenosis, supravalvar aortic stenosis, hypertension), distinctive facies, connective tissue abnormalities, intellectual disability (usually mild), a specific cognitive profile, unique personality characteristics, growth abnormalities, and endocrine abnormalities (hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, hypothyroidism, and early puberty). Feeding difficulties often lead to poor weight gain in infancy. Hypotonia and hyperextensible joints can result in delayed attainment of motor milestones.
FG syndrome
MedGen UID:
113106
Concept ID:
C0220769
Disease or Syndrome
The phenotypic spectrum of MED12-related disorders, which is still being defined, includes at a minimum the phenotypes of FG syndrome type 1 (FGS1), Lujan syndrome (LS), and X-linked Ohdo syndrome. FGS1 and LS share the clinical findings of cognitive impairment, hypotonia, and abnormalities of the corpus callosum. FGS1 is further characterized by absolute or relative macrocephaly, tall forehead, downslanted palpebral fissures, small and simple ears, constipation and/or anal anomalies, broad thumbs and halluces, and characteristic behavior. LS is further characterized by large head, tall thin body habitus, long thin face, prominent nasal bridge, high narrow palate, and short philtrum. Carrier females in families with FGS1 and LS are typically unaffected. X-linked Ohdo syndrome (referred to as XLOS in this GeneReview) is characterized by intellectual disability, blepharophimosis, and facial coarsening. A number of individuals with nonsyndromic intellectual disability – including some affected females – have been described.
Sialuria
MedGen UID:
137980
Concept ID:
C0342853
Disease or Syndrome
Sialuria is a rare inborn error of metabolism in which excessive free sialic acid is synthesized. Clinical features include hepatosplenomegaly, coarse facial features, and varying degrees of developmental delay (summary by Enns et al., 2001).
Phenylketonuria
MedGen UID:
199655
Concept ID:
C0751434
Disease or Syndrome
Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) deficiency results in intolerance to the dietary intake of the essential amino acid phenylalanine and produces a spectrum of disorders. The risk of adverse outcome varies based on the degree of PAH deficiency. Without effective therapy, most individuals with severe PAH deficiency, known as classic PKU, develop profound and irreversible intellectual disability. Affected individuals on an unrestricted diet who have phenylalanine levels above normal but below 1,200 µmol/L (20 mg/dL) are at much lower risk for impaired cognitive development in the absence of treatment.
Autism, susceptibility to, X-linked 4
MedGen UID:
162886
Concept ID:
C0795888
Finding
Autism, the prototypic pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), is usually apparent by 3 years of age. It is characterized by a triad of limited or absent verbal communication, a lack of reciprocal social interaction or responsiveness, and restricted, stereotypical, and ritualized patterns of interests and behavior (Bailey et al., 1996; Risch et al., 1999). 'Autism spectrum disorder,' sometimes referred to as ASD, is a broader phenotype encompassing the less severe disorders Asperger syndrome (see ASPG1; 608638) and pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). 'Broad autism phenotype' includes individuals with some symptoms of autism, but who do not meet the full criteria for autism or other disorders. Mental retardation coexists in approximately two-thirds of individuals with ASD, except for Asperger syndrome, in which mental retardation is conspicuously absent (Jones et al., 2008). Genetic studies in autism often include family members with these less stringent diagnoses (Schellenberg et al., 2006). Levy et al. (2009) provided a general review of autism and autism spectrum disorder, including epidemiology, characteristics of the disorder, diagnosis, neurobiologic hypotheses for the etiology, genetics, and treatment options.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
MedGen UID:
220387
Concept ID:
C1263846
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavioral disorder that typically begins in childhood and is characterized by a short attention span (inattention), an inability to be calm and stay still (hyperactivity), and poor impulse control (impulsivity). Some people with ADHD have problems with only inattention or with hyperactivity and impulsivity, but most have problems related to all three features.In people with ADHD, the characteristic behaviors are frequent and severe enough to interfere with the activities of daily living such as school, work, and relationships with others. Because of an inability to stay focused on tasks, people with inattention may be easily distracted, forgetful, avoid tasks that require sustained attention, have difficulty organizing tasks, or frequently lose items.Hyperactivity is usually shown by frequent movement. Individuals with this feature often fidget or tap their foot when seated, leave their seat when it is inappropriate to do so (such as in the classroom), or talk a lot and interrupt others.Impulsivity can result in hasty actions without thought for the consequences. Individuals with poor impulse control may have difficulty waiting for their turn, deferring to others, or considering their actions before acting.More than two-thirds of all individuals with ADHD have additional conditions, including insomnia, mood or anxiety disorders, learning disorders, or substance use disorders. Affected individuals may also have autism spectrum disorder, which is characterized by impaired communication and social interaction, or Tourette syndrome, which is a disorder characterized by repetitive and involuntary movements or noises called tics.In most affected individuals, ADHD continues throughout life, but in about one-third of individuals, signs and symptoms of ADHD go away by adulthood.
Blepharofacioskeletal syndrome
MedGen UID:
371716
Concept ID:
C1834038
Disease or Syndrome
Schilbach-Rott syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypotelorism, epicanthal folds, cleft palate, dysmorphic facies, and hypospadias in males. The phenotype is variable; mild mental retardation has been reported (summary by Shkalim et al., 2009).
Microcephaly with or without chorioretinopathy, lymphedema, or mental retardation
MedGen UID:
320559
Concept ID:
C1835265
Disease or Syndrome
Microcephaly with or without chorioretinopathy, lymphedema, or mental retardation is an autosomal dominant disorder that involves an overlapping but variable spectrum of central nervous system and ocular developmental anomalies. Microcephaly ranges from mild to severe and is often associated with mild to moderate developmental delay and a characteristic facial phenotype with upslanting palpebral fissures, broad nose with rounded tip, long philtrum with thin upper lip, prominent chin, and prominent ears. Chorioretinopathy is the most common eye abnormality, but retinal folds, microphthalmia, and myopic and hypermetropic astigmatism have also been reported, and some individuals have no overt ocular phenotype. Congenital lymphedema, when present, is typically confined to the dorsa of the feet, and lymphoscintigraphy reveals the absence of radioactive isotope uptake from the webspaces between the toes (summary by Ostergaard et al., 2012). Robitaille et al. (2014) found that MCLMR includes a broader spectrum of ocular disease, including retinal detachment with avascularity of the peripheral retina, and noted phenotypic overlap with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR; see EVR1, 133780). Birtel et al. (2017) observed intrafamilial and intraindividual variability in retinal phenotype, and noted that syndromic manifestations in some patients are too subtle to be detected during a routine ophthalmologic evaluation. Variable expressivity and reduced penetrance have also been observed in some families (Jones et al., 2014; Li et al., 2016). Autosomal recessive forms of microcephaly with chorioretinopathy have been reported (see 251270). See also Mirhosseini-Holmes-Walton syndrome (autosomal recessive microcephaly with pigmentary retinopathy and mental retardation; 268050), which has been mapped to chromosome 8q21.3-q22.1.
Primary autosomal recessive microcephaly 5
MedGen UID:
373344
Concept ID:
C1837501
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly-5 (MCPH5) is characterized by decreased occipitofrontal circumference (OFC), usually less than 3 standard deviations (SD) of the mean, present at birth and associated with mental retardation and speech delay. Other features may include short stature or mild seizures. MCPH5 is associated with a simplification of the cerebral cortical gyral pattern in some cases, which is considered within the phenotypic spectrum of primary microcephaly (review by Woods et al., 2005; Saadi et al., 2009; Passemard et al., 2009). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary microcephaly (MCPH), see MCPH1 (251200).
Mental retardation, autosomal recessive 2
MedGen UID:
334541
Concept ID:
C1843942
Disease or Syndrome
Creatine deficiency, X-linked
MedGen UID:
337451
Concept ID:
C1845862
Disease or Syndrome
The cerebral creatine deficiency syndromes (CCDS), inborn errors of creatine metabolism, include the two creatine biosynthesis disorders, guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency and L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) deficiency, and the creatine transporter (CRTR) deficiency. Intellectual disability and seizures are common to all three CCDS. The majority of individuals with GAMT deficiency have a behavior disorder that can include autistic behaviors and self-mutilation; about 40% have movement disorder. Onset is between ages three months and three years. Only 14 individuals with AGAT deficiency have been reported. The phenotype of CRTR deficiency in affected males ranges from mild intellectual disability and speech delay to severe intellectual disability, seizures, movement disorder and behavior disorder; age at diagnosis ranges from two to 66 years. Clinical phenotype of females heterozygous for CRTR deficiency ranges from asymptomatic to severe phenotype resembling male phenotype.
Spinocerebellar ataxia 14
MedGen UID:
343106
Concept ID:
C1854369
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14) is characterized by slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia, dysarthria, and nystagmus. Axial myoclonus, cognitive impairment, tremor, and sensory loss may also be observed. Parkinsonian features including rigidity and tremor have been described in some families. Findings seen in other ataxia disorders (e.g., dysphagia, dysphonia) may also occur in SCA14. Age of onset ranges from childhood to the sixth decade. Life span is not shortened.
Tuberous sclerosis 1
MedGen UID:
344288
Concept ID:
C1854465
Disease or Syndrome
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) involves abnormalities of the skin (hypomelanotic macules, confetti skin lesions, facial angiofibromas, shagreen patches, fibrous cephalic plaques, ungual fibromas); brain (subependymal nodules, cortical dysplasias, and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas [SEGAs], seizures, intellectual disability / developmental delay, psychiatric illness); kidney (angiomyolipomas, cysts, renal cell carcinomas); heart (rhabdomyomas, arrhythmias); and lungs (lymphangioleiomyomatosis [LAM], multifocal micronodular pneumonocyte hyperplasia). Central nervous system tumors are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality; renal disease is the second leading cause of early death.
Williams-Beuren region duplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
347562
Concept ID:
C1857844
Disease or Syndrome
7q11.23 duplication syndrome is characterized by distinctive facial features; cardiovascular disease (dilation of the ascending aorta in 46%); neurologic abnormalities (hypotonia, adventitious movements, and abnormal gait and station); speech sound disorders including motor speech disorders (childhood apraxia of speech and/or dysarthria) and phonologic disorders; behavior problems including anxiety disorders (especially social anxiety disorder [social phobia]), selective mutism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional disorders, physical aggression, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD); delayed motor, speech, and social skills in early childhood; and intellectual ability ranging from intellectual disability (~18%) to borderline intellectual ability (~20%) to low average to high average (the remainder). Approximately 30% of individuals with the 7q11.23 duplication have one or more congenital anomalies.
Craniofacial dysmorphism, skeletal anomalies, and mental retardation syndrome
MedGen UID:
347111
Concept ID:
C1859252
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebro-facio-thoracic dysplasia is a rare condition characterized by abnormal development (dysplasia) of the brain (cerebro) and structures in the face (facio) and torso (thoracic). The problems with development lead to the key features of cerebro-facio-thoracic dysplasia, which include severe intellectual disability, distinctive facial features, and abnormalities of the ribs and spinal bones (vertebrae).In addition to intellectual disability, individuals with cerebro-facio-thoracic dysplasia have delayed development of speech and movement (motor) skills, and in some, these skills never develop. Nearly one-quarter of affected individuals never learn to speak and almost half are unable to walk. Weak muscle tone (hypotonia) and difficulty feeding occur in some affected infants. People with cerebro-facio-thoracic dysplasia can have behavioral problems, such as anxiety, autism spectrum disorder, or self-injuring behavior; however, many people with the condition are described as friendly and good-natured.Distinctive facial features common in cerebro-facio-thoracic dysplasia include a wide, short skull (brachycephaly); highly arched eyebrows or eyebrows that grow together in the middle (synophrys); widely spaced eyes (hypertelorism); a wide nasal bridge; low-set ears; an upper lip with pronounced curves (Cupid's bow upper lip); and small teeth (microdontia). Some affected individuals have overgrowth of the gums (gingival hyperplasia), an opening in the roof of the mouth (cleft palate), or a split in the upper lip (cleft lip).Problems with bone development in the torso (thorax) commonly leads to bone abnormalities such as two or more ribs that are joined together (fused) or ribs that are abnormally shaped with two prongs at one end (bifid ribs). Many people with cerebro-facio-thoracic dysplasia have abnormal side-to-side curvature of the spine (scoliosis) due to malformation of the vertebrae; some vertebrae may also be fused. Additionally, the shoulder blades can be affected in people with this condition.A wide variety of other features can occur in cerebro-facio-thoracic dysplasia, such as abnormalities involving the eyes, skin, or hair. Heart defects, digestive problems, or genitourinary problems (such as abnormal kidneys or reproductive organs) can also occur. Affected individuals may also have bone or joint abnormalities in other parts of the body.
2-aminoadipic 2-oxoadipic aciduria
MedGen UID:
395350
Concept ID:
C1859817
Finding
Tuberous sclerosis 2
MedGen UID:
348170
Concept ID:
C1860707
Disease or Syndrome
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) involves abnormalities of the skin (hypomelanotic macules, confetti skin lesions, facial angiofibromas, shagreen patches, fibrous cephalic plaques, ungual fibromas); brain (subependymal nodules, cortical dysplasias, and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas [SEGAs], seizures, intellectual disability / developmental delay, psychiatric illness); kidney (angiomyolipomas, cysts, renal cell carcinomas); heart (rhabdomyomas, arrhythmias); and lungs (lymphangioleiomyomatosis [LAM], multifocal micronodular pneumonocyte hyperplasia). Central nervous system tumors are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality; renal disease is the second leading cause of early death.
Muenke syndrome
MedGen UID:
355217
Concept ID:
C1864436
Disease or Syndrome
Muenke syndrome is defined by the presence of the specific FGFR3 pathogenic variant – c.749C>G – that results in the protein change p.Pro250Arg. Muenke syndrome is characterized by considerable phenotypic variability: features may include coronal synostosis (more often bilateral than unilateral); synostosis of other sutures, all sutures (pan synostosis), or no sutures; or macrocephaly. Bilateral coronal synostosis typically results in brachycephaly (reduced anteroposterior dimension of the skull), although turribrachycephaly (a "tower-shaped" skull) or a cloverleaf skull can be observed. Unilateral coronal synostosis results in anterior plagiocephaly (asymmetry of the skull and face). Other craniofacial findings typically include: temporal bossing; widely spaced eyes, ptosis or proptosis (usually mild); midface retrusion (usually mild); and highly arched palate or cleft lip and palate. Strabismus is common. Other findings can include: hearing loss (in 33%-100% of affected individuals); developmental delay (~33%); epilepsy; intracranial anomalies; intellectual disability; carpal bone and/or tarsal bone fusions; brachydactyly, broad toes, broad thumbs, and/or clinodactyly; and radiographic findings of thimble-like (short and broad) middle phalanges and/or cone-shaped epiphyses. Phenotypic variability is considerable even within the same family. Of note, some individuals who have the p.Pro250Arg pathogenic variant may have no signs of Muenke syndrome on physical or radiographic examination.
Legius syndrome
MedGen UID:
370709
Concept ID:
C1969623
Disease or Syndrome
Legius syndrome is characterized by multiple café au lait macules without neurofibromas or other tumor manifestations of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Additional clinical manifestations reported commonly include intertriginous freckling, lipomas, macrocephaly, and learning disabilities / ADHD / developmental delays. Current knowledge of the natural history of Legius syndrome is based on the clinical manifestations of fewer than 200 individuals with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis; better delineation of the clinical manifestations and natural history of Legius syndrome will likely occur as more affected individuals are identified.
2p15-16.1 microdeletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
390902
Concept ID:
C2675875
Disease or Syndrome
Chromosome 2p16.1-p15 deletion syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, and variable but distinctive dysmorphic features, including microcephaly, bitemporal narrowing, smooth and long philtrum, hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, broad nasal root, thin upper lip, and high palate. Many patients have behavioral disorders, including autistic features, as well as structural brain abnormalities, such as pachygyria or hypoplastic corpus callosum. Those with deletions including the BCL11A gene (606557) also have persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HbF), which is asymptomatic and does not affected hematologic parameters or susceptibility to infection (summary by Funnell et al., 2015). Point mutation in the BCL11A gene causes intellectual developmental disorder with persistence of fetal hemoglobin (617101), which shows overlapping features. See also fetal hemoglobin quantitative trait locus-5 (HBFQTL5; 142335).
Thyroid hormone resistance, generalized, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
424846
Concept ID:
C2937288
Disease or Syndrome
Chromosome 17q11.2 deletion syndrome, 1.4 MB
MedGen UID:
462278
Concept ID:
C3150928
Disease or Syndrome
Approximately 5 to 20% of all patients with neurofibromatosis type I (162200) carry a heterozygous deletion of approximately 1.4 Mb involving the NF1 gene and contiguous genes lying in its flanking regions (Riva et al., 2000; Jenne et al., 2001), which is caused by nonallelic homologous recombination of NF1 repeats A and C (Dorschner et al., 2000). The 'NF1 microdeletion syndrome' is often characterized by a more severe phenotype than that observed in the majority of NF1 patients. In particular, patients with NF1 microdeletion often show variable facial dysmorphism, mental retardation, developmental delay, an excessive number of early-onset neurofibromas (Venturin et al., 2004), and an increased risk for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (De Raedt et al., 2003).
Chromosome 15q11.2 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
467404
Concept ID:
C3180937
Disease or Syndrome
A heterozygous deletion of chromosome 15q11.2 may increase the susceptibility to neuropsychiatric or neurodevelopmental problems, including delayed psychomotor development, speech delay, autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and possibly seizures (summary by Doornbos et al., 2009 and Burnside et al., 2011). See also chromosome 15q11.2 duplication syndrome (608636).
Chromosome 15q25 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
481985
Concept ID:
C3280355
Disease or Syndrome
Cognitive impairment with or without cerebellar ataxia
MedGen UID:
482045
Concept ID:
C3280415
Disease or Syndrome
SCN8A-related epilepsy with encephalopathy is characterized by developmental delay, seizure onset in the first 18 months of life (mean 4 months), and intractable epilepsy characterized by multiple seizure types (generalized tonic-clonic seizures, infantile spasms, and absence and focal seizures). Epilepsy syndromes can include Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, West syndrome, and epileptic encephalopathies (e.g., Dravet syndrome). Hypotonia and movement disorders including dystonia, ataxia, and choreoathetosis are common. Psychomotor development varies from normal prior to seizure onset (with subsequent slowing or regression after seizure onset) to abnormal from birth. Intellectual disability, present in all, ranges from mild to severe (in ~50% of affected individuals). Autistic features are noted in some. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) of unknown cause has been reported in approximately 10% of published cases. To date SCN8A-related epilepsy with encephalopathy has been reported in the literature in about 50 individuals.
Epilepsy, focal, with speech disorder and with or without mental retardation
MedGen UID:
812732
Concept ID:
C3806402
Disease or Syndrome
GRIN2A-related speech disorders and epilepsy are characterized by speech disorders in all affected individuals and a range of epilepsy syndromes present in about 90%. Severe speech disorders observed can include dysarthria and speech dyspraxia, and both receptive and expressive language delay/regression; more mildly affected individuals may display subtly impaired intelligibility of conversational speech. Epilepsy features include seizure onset usually between ages three and six years, focal epilepsy with language and/or global developmental regression, and electroencephalogram (EEG) showing continuous spike-and-wave discharges in sleep or very active centrotemporal discharges. Seizure types include seizures associated with aura of perioral paresthesia, focal or focal motor seizures (often evolving to generalized tonic-clonic), and atypical absence seizures. Epilepsy syndromes can include: Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS), epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spike-and-wave during sleep (ECSWS), childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (CECTS), atypical childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (ACECTS), autosomal dominant rolandic epilepsy with speech dyspraxia (ADRESD), and infantile-onset epileptic encephalopathy.
Chromosome 3q13.31 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
815820
Concept ID:
C3809490
Disease or Syndrome
The chromosome 3q13.31 deletion syndrome is characterized by marked developmental delay, characteristic facies with a short philtrum and protruding lips, and abnormal male genitalia (Molin et al., 2012). Patients with Primrose syndrome (PRIMS; 259050) exhibit features overlapping those of the chromosome 3q13.31 deletion syndrome but also have ossified ear cartilage, severe muscle wasting, and abnormalities of glucose metabolism resulting in insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus in adulthood. Primrose syndrome is caused by mutation in the ZBTB20 gene (606025) on chromosome 3q13.
Chromosome 22q13 duplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
816174
Concept ID:
C3809844
Disease or Syndrome
Mental retardation, autosomal dominant 29
MedGen UID:
863578
Concept ID:
C4015141
Disease or Syndrome
SETBP1 disorder is a condition that involves speech and language problems, intellectual disability, and distinctive facial features.In people with SETBP1 disorder, problems with expressive language skills (vocabulary and the production of speech) are generally more severely affected than receptive language skills (the ability to understand speech). Speech development is limited to a few words or no speech. Affected individuals often communicate using gestures or by mimicking the expressions of others.Individuals with SETBP1 disorder have intellectual disability that can range from mild to moderate. They may also have behavioral problems, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autistic behaviors that affect communication and social interaction. Affected individuals may have weak muscle tone (hypotonia); delayed development of motor skills, such as sitting, standing, and walking; or recurrent seizures (epilepsy).Distinctive facial features in people with SETBP1 disorder can include a long face, a high forehead, eyebrows that grow together in the middle (synophrys), short eye openings (short palpebral fissures), skin folds covering the inner corner of the eyes (epicanthal folds), droopy eyelids (ptosis), puffiness of the skin around the eyes (periorbital fullness), small nostrils, a high nasal bridge, a broad tip of the nose, a thin upper lip, a high arch in the roof of the mouth (high-arched palate), and a small chin.
Desanto-shinawi syndrome
MedGen UID:
908218
Concept ID:
C4225239
Disease or Syndrome
WAC-related intellectual disability (ID) is typically characterized by variable degrees of developmental delay and/or intellectual disability. Behavioral abnormalities including anxiety, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and/or autism spectrum disorder are observed in the majority of older children and adults. Most affected infants have significant but nonspecific features at birth such as neonatal hypotonia and feeding problems. Some affected individuals come to medical attention with respiratory or vision problems. Facial features may be mildly dysmorphic, but are nonspecific. To date, 18 individuals have been identified with WAC-related ID.
Mental retardation, autosomal dominant 33
MedGen UID:
899389
Concept ID:
C4225375
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Mental retardation, X-linked, syndromic 33
MedGen UID:
895979
Concept ID:
C4225418
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked syndromic mental retardation-33 is an X-linked recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, and characteristic facial features (summary by O'Rawe et al., 2015).
Language delay and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder/cognitive impairment with or without cardiac arrhythmia
MedGen UID:
934645
Concept ID:
C4310678
Disease or Syndrome
LADCI is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe expressive and receptive language delay apparent from early childhood. Affected individuals have additional developmental or behavioral abnormalities, including attention deficit, hyperactivity, or mild intellectual disability. Some patients develop cardiac arrhythmias reminiscent of sick sinus syndrome (summary by Lodder et al., 2016 and Shamseldin et al., 2016).
Okur-chung neurodevelopmental syndrome
MedGen UID:
934706
Concept ID:
C4310739
Disease or Syndrome
Okur-Chung neurodevelopmental syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability with poor speech, behavioral abnormalities, cortical malformations in some patients, and variable dysmorphic facial features. Additional features, including microcephaly, gastrointestinal problems, and low levels of immunoglobulins, may be observed in some patients (Okur et al., 2016).
Mental retardation, autosomal dominant 44
MedGen UID:
934707
Concept ID:
C4310740
Disease or Syndrome
TRIO-related intellectual disability (ID) is characterized by delay in acquisition of motor and language skills, mild to borderline intellectual disability, and neurobehavioral problems (including autistic traits or autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and/or aggression). Neonatal or infantile feeding difficulties including poor suck, impaired bottle feeding, and failure to thrive are common and are often the presenting finding. Other findings can include microcephaly, variable hand and dental abnormalities, and suggestive facial features. Only ten of the 20 individuals with a TRIO pathogenic variant reported to date had sufficient information to make preliminary generalizations about clinical manifestations; it is anticipated that the phenotype of this newly described disorder will continue to evolve.
Short stature, developmental delay, and congenital heart defects
MedGen UID:
934718
Concept ID:
C4310751
Disease or Syndrome
Witteveen-kolk syndrome
MedGen UID:
934771
Concept ID:
C4310804
Disease or Syndrome
15q24 microdeletion is a chromosomal change in which a small piece of chromosome 15 is deleted in each cell. The deletion occurs on the long (q) arm of the chromosome at a position designated q24.15q24 microdeletion is associated with mild to moderate intellectual disability and delayed speech development. Other common signs and symptoms include short stature, weak muscle tone (hypotonia), and skeletal abnormalities including loose (lax) joints. Affected males may have genital abnormalities, which can include an unusually small penis (micropenis) and the opening of the urethra on the underside of the penis (hypospadias). Affected individuals also have distinctive facial features such as a high front hairline, broad eyebrows, widely set eyes (hypertelorism), outside corners of the eyes that point downward (downslanting palpebral fissures), a broad nasal bridge, a full lower lip, and a long, smooth space between the upper lip and nose (philtrum).
Hyperphenylalaninemia, mild, non-bh4-deficient
MedGen UID:
1391882
Concept ID:
C4479270
Disease or Syndrome
Mild non-BH4-deficient hyperphenylalaninemia (HPANBH4) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by increased serum phenylalanine usually detected by newborn screening and associated with highly variable neurologic defects, including movement abnormalities and impaired intellectual development. Laboratory analysis shows dopamine and serotonin deficiencies in the cerebrospinal fluid, and normal BH4 metabolism. Evidence suggests that treatment with neurotransmitter precursors can lead to clinical improvement or even prevent the neurologic defects if started in infancy (summary by Anikster et al., 2017).
Intellectual developmental disorder with gastrointestinal difficulties and high pain threshold
MedGen UID:
1385744
Concept ID:
C4479517
Disease or Syndrome
Jansen-de Vries syndrome (JDVS) is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability with speech delay, and behavioral abnormalities. Most patients have variable additional features, including feeding and gastrointestinal difficulties, high pain threshold and/or hypersensitivity to sound, and dysmorphic features, including mild facial abnormalities, strabismus, and small hands and feet (summary by Jansen et al., 2017).
MENTAL RETARDATION, X-LINKED, SYNDROMIC, HOUGE TYPE
MedGen UID:
1624740
Concept ID:
C4538788
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
The Houge type of X-linked syndromic mental retardation is characterized by delayed development, intellectual disability, speech and language delay, and early-onset seizures. EEG tends to show continuous spike-wave activity or centrotemporal spikes. Some patients may have remission of seizures by adolescence. Carrier females may be mildly affected (summary by Damiano et al., 2017).
MENTAL RETARDATION, AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT 45
MedGen UID:
1616472
Concept ID:
C4539848
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
EPILEPTIC ENCEPHALOPATHY, EARLY INFANTILE, 56
MedGen UID:
1621755
Concept ID:
C4540034
Disease or Syndrome
EIEE56 is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by early-onset seizures in most patients, followed by intellectual disability, variable behavioral abnormalities, and sometimes additional neurologic features, such as ataxia (summary by Guella et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of EIEE, see EIEE1 (308350).
COFFIN-SIRIS SYNDROME 6
MedGen UID:
1615540
Concept ID:
C4540499
Disease or Syndrome
Coffin-Siris syndrome-6 is characterized by short stature, sparse hair, mild to severe intellectual disability, coarse facial features, and variable behavioral anomalies. Some patients have fifth digit clinodactyly with small nails. Other congenital anomalies and seizures may be present. This description is based on reports of 7 unrelated patients (Shang et al., 2015; Van Paemel et al., 2017; Bramswig et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Coffin-Siris syndrome, see CSS1 (135900).
MENTAL RETARDATION, AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT 56
MedGen UID:
1638835
Concept ID:
C4693389
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER WITH OR WITHOUT SEIZURES AND GAIT ABNORMALITIES
MedGen UID:
1645968
Concept ID:
C4693391
Disease or Syndrome
NEDSGA is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy or early childhood, resulting in variable intellectual disability that can range from profound with absent speech to mild with an ability to attend special schools. Most affected individuals show irritability, stiffness, and hypertonia early in life, which progresses to spasticity and impaired gait later. Some patients may develop seizures of variable severity early in life (summary by Martin et al., 2017).
MICROCEPHALY 20, PRIMARY, AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE
MedGen UID:
1641618
Concept ID:
C4693572
Congenital Abnormality
DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY, INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY, OBESITY, AND DYSMORPHISM
MedGen UID:
1641154
Concept ID:
C4693860
Disease or Syndrome
DIDOD is a disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy, intellectual disability or learning difficulties, behavioral abnormalities, dysmorphic features, and obesity. The severity of the phenotype and additional features are variable (summary by Jansen et al., 2018).
MENTAL RETARDATION, AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT 57
MedGen UID:
1648280
Concept ID:
C4748003
Disease or Syndrome
MRD57 is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Most affected individuals have delayed psychomotor development apparent in infancy or early childhood, language delay, and behavioral abnormalities. Additional features may include hypotonia, feeding problems, gastrointestinal issues, and dysmorphic facial features (summary by Reijnders et al., 2018).
PERIVENTRICULAR NODULAR HETEROTOPIA 8
MedGen UID:
1648287
Concept ID:
C4748602
Disease or Syndrome
Periventricular nodular heterotopia-8 (PVNH8) is a neurologic disorder characterized by abnormal neuronal migration during brain development, resulting in delayed psychomotor development. Three patients have been reported (Ge et al., 2016). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of periventricular heterotopia, see PVNH1 (300049).
MENTAL RETARDATION, AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE 66
MedGen UID:
1648460
Concept ID:
C4748732
Disease or Syndrome
MRT66 is a nonsyndromic autosomal recessive intellectual developmental disorder with delayed speech development, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and relatively normal life span (Philips et al., 2017).

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Aydinli FE, Çak T, Kirazli MÇ, Çinar BÇ, Pektaş A, Çengel EK, Aksoy S
Braz J Otorhinolaryngol 2018 May - Jun;84(3):280-289. Epub 2016 Nov 17 doi: 10.1016/j.bjorl.2016.10.007. PMID: 27939853
Puts NAJ, Harris AD, Mikkelsen M, Tommerdahl M, Edden RAE, Mostofsky SH
J Neurophysiol 2017 Nov 1;118(5):2568-2578. Epub 2017 Aug 2 doi: 10.1152/jn.00087.2017. PMID: 28768738Free PMC Article
Liebel SW, Nelson JM
Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2017 Dec 1;32(8):980-991. doi: 10.1093/arclin/acx014. PMID: 28168268
Mulraney M, Zendarski N, Mensah F, Hiscock H, Sciberras E
Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2017 Apr;51(4):393-402. Epub 2016 Aug 20 doi: 10.1177/0004867416659365. PMID: 27514404
Jacob P, Srinath S, Girimaji S, Seshadri S, Sagar JV
East Asian Arch Psychiatry 2016 Dec;26(4):148-53. PMID: 28053283

Diagnosis

Kroeger RA
Chronic Illn 2018 Mar;14(1):69-75. Epub 2017 Feb 20 doi: 10.1177/1742395317694701. PMID: 29226701
Puts NAJ, Harris AD, Mikkelsen M, Tommerdahl M, Edden RAE, Mostofsky SH
J Neurophysiol 2017 Nov 1;118(5):2568-2578. Epub 2017 Aug 2 doi: 10.1152/jn.00087.2017. PMID: 28768738Free PMC Article
Liebel SW, Nelson JM
Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2017 Dec 1;32(8):980-991. doi: 10.1093/arclin/acx014. PMID: 28168268
Liu T, Chen Y, Li C, Li Y, Wang J
Oncotarget 2017 Jul 4;8(27):44785-44799. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.14734. PMID: 28108742Free PMC Article
Jacob P, Srinath S, Girimaji S, Seshadri S, Sagar JV
East Asian Arch Psychiatry 2016 Dec;26(4):148-53. PMID: 28053283

Therapy

Lionarons JM, Hellebrekers DMJ, Klinkenberg S, Faber CG, Vles JSH, Hendriksen JGM
Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2019 Jan;23(1):152-157. Epub 2018 Sep 21 doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2018.09.005. PMID: 30287260
Naguy A
Pediatr Neurol 2018 May;82:7-12. Epub 2017 Sep 27 doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2017.09.010. PMID: 29678368
Waldon J, Begum E, Gendron M, Rusak B, Andreou P, Rajda M, Corkum P
J Sleep Res 2016 Oct;25(5):524-533. Epub 2016 May 3 doi: 10.1111/jsr.12402. PMID: 27140929
Breda V, Rovaris DL, Vitola ES, Mota NR, Blaya-Rocha P, Salgado CA, Victor MM, Picon FA, Karam RG, Silva KL, Rohde LA, Bau CH, Grevet EH
Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2016 Jun;50(6):557-65. Epub 2015 Oct 12 doi: 10.1177/0004867415609421. PMID: 26460329
Lin HY, Gau SS
Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2015 Sep 16;19(3):pyv094. doi: 10.1093/ijnp/pyv094. PMID: 26377368Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Lu S, Perez L, Leslein A, Hatsu I
Nutrients 2019 Mar 19;11(3) doi: 10.3390/nu11030659. PMID: 30893802Free PMC Article
Sethi A, Voon V, Critchley HD, Cercignani M, Harrison NA
Brain 2018 May 1;141(5):1545-1557. doi: 10.1093/brain/awy048. PMID: 29547978Free PMC Article
Liebel SW, Nelson JM
Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2017 Dec 1;32(8):980-991. doi: 10.1093/arclin/acx014. PMID: 28168268
Mulraney M, Zendarski N, Mensah F, Hiscock H, Sciberras E
Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2017 Apr;51(4):393-402. Epub 2016 Aug 20 doi: 10.1177/0004867416659365. PMID: 27514404
Lin HY, Gau SS
Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2015 Sep 16;19(3):pyv094. doi: 10.1093/ijnp/pyv094. PMID: 26377368Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Aydinli FE, Çak T, Kirazli MÇ, Çinar BÇ, Pektaş A, Çengel EK, Aksoy S
Braz J Otorhinolaryngol 2018 May - Jun;84(3):280-289. Epub 2016 Nov 17 doi: 10.1016/j.bjorl.2016.10.007. PMID: 27939853
Puts NAJ, Harris AD, Mikkelsen M, Tommerdahl M, Edden RAE, Mostofsky SH
J Neurophysiol 2017 Nov 1;118(5):2568-2578. Epub 2017 Aug 2 doi: 10.1152/jn.00087.2017. PMID: 28768738Free PMC Article
Liu T, Chen Y, Li C, Li Y, Wang J
Oncotarget 2017 Jul 4;8(27):44785-44799. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.14734. PMID: 28108742Free PMC Article
Mulraney M, Zendarski N, Mensah F, Hiscock H, Sciberras E
Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2017 Apr;51(4):393-402. Epub 2016 Aug 20 doi: 10.1177/0004867416659365. PMID: 27514404
Jacob P, Srinath S, Girimaji S, Seshadri S, Sagar JV
East Asian Arch Psychiatry 2016 Dec;26(4):148-53. PMID: 28053283

Recent systematic reviews

Lee YC, Yang HJ, Lee WT, Teng MJ
Disabil Rehabil 2019 Feb;41(3):265-275. Epub 2017 Oct 23 doi: 10.1080/09638288.2017.1391338. PMID: 29057670
Miguelez-Fernandez C, de Leon SJ, Baltasar-Tello I, Peñuelas-Calvo I, Barrigon ML, Capdevila AS, Delgado-Gómez D, Baca-García E, Carballo JJ
Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2018 Dec;10(4):247-265. Epub 2018 Aug 21 doi: 10.1007/s12402-018-0261-1. PMID: 30132248
Cook J, Lloyd-Jones M, Arunogiri S, Ogden E, Bonomo Y
Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2017 Sep;51(9):876-885. Epub 2017 Jun 22 doi: 10.1177/0004867417714878. PMID: 28639480
Korrel H, Mueller KL, Silk T, Anderson V, Sciberras E
J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2017 Jun;58(6):640-654. Epub 2017 Feb 10 doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12688. PMID: 28186338
Laugesen B, Groenkjaer M
JBI Database System Rev Implement Rep 2015 Nov;13(11):169-234. doi: 10.11124/jbisrir-2015-2449. PMID: 26657468

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