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Molecular characterization of clonal population structure and biogeography of arctic apomictic Daphnia from Greenland and Iceland.

Weider LJ, et al. Mol Ecol. 1996.


As part of a continuing international project to characterize the population genetic (clonal) structure of arctic members of the Daphnia pulex complex, 34 populations from western Iceland (N = 1373), and 76 populations from western Greenland (N = 2917), were surveyed for allozymic variation at six polymorphic enzyme loci. Mean clonal richness (+/- SE) was 1.91 +/- 0.19 and 1.50 +/- 0.12 for Iceland and Greenland populations, respectively. Mean clonal diversity (+/-1 SE) was 1.20 +/- 0.07 and 1.13 +/- 0.04 for Iceland and Greenland populations, respectively. Four widely distributed clones constituted 92.2% of the total animals surveyed from Iceland, while three locally abundant clones constituted 80.1% of the total animals collected primarily from Disko Island, western Greenland. Selected populations were screened for mitochondrial (mt)DNA variation using PCR-based RFLP analysis of a 2100 bp fragment containing part of the ND4 and ND5 genes. One mtDNA haplotype was very widespread in both western Greenland and western Iceland, although, a number of mutational derivatives were also detected. These data indicate the potential for long-distance dispersal of mtDNA lineages, of the order of hundreds or thousands of kilometers across the arctic. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequence of a 254 base pair (bp) fragment of the control region of the mtDNA molecule revealed two major clades one of which consisted solely of non-melanic lineages, and the other of which consisted almost exclusively of melanic lineages (i.e. one non-melanic lineage also clustered in this clade). Sequence divergence between the two clades averaged 7.3%. Both mitochondrial analyses did not reveal any distinct intraregional clustering of lineages. We discuss our results in reference to previous molecular work done on this arctic Daphnia complex, and we attempt to infer phylogeographic patterning based on geological/glaciological historical events in this region of the arctic.


9147686 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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