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A synthetic non-histone substrate to study substrate targeting by the Gcn5 HAT and sirtuin HDACs.

Rössl A, et al. J Biol Chem. 2019.

Abstract

Gcn5 and sirtuins are highly conserved histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes that were first characterized as regulators of gene expression. Although histone tails are important substrates of these enzymes, they also target many nonhistone proteins that function in diverse biological processes. However, the mechanisms used by these enzymes to choose their nonhistone substrates are unknown. Previously, we used SILAC-based MS to identify novel nonhistone substrates of Gcn5 and sirtuins in yeast and found a shared target consensus sequence. Here, we use a synthetic biology approach to demonstrate that this consensus sequence can direct acetylation and deacetylation targeting by these enzymes in vivo Remarkably, fusion of the sequence to a nonsubstrate confers de novo acetylation that is regulated by both Gcn5 and sirtuins. We exploit this synthetic fusion substrate as a tool to define subunits of the Gcn5-containing SAGA and ADA complexes required for nonhistone protein acetylation. In particular, we find a key role for the Ada2 and Ada3 subunits in regulating acetylations on our fusion substrate. In contrast, other subunits tested were largely dispensable, including those required for SAGA stability. In an extended analysis, defects in proteome-wide acetylation observed in ada3Δ mutants mirror those in ada2Δ mutants. Altogether, our work argues that nonhistone protein acetylation by Gcn5 is determined in part by specific amino acids surrounding target lysines but that even optimal sequences require both Ada2 and Ada3 for robust acetylation. The synthetic fusion substrate we describe can serve as a tool to further dissect the regulation of both Gcn5 and sirtuin activities in vivo.

© 2019 Rössl et al.

PMID

30804216 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

PMCID

PMC6484106 [Available on 2020-04-19]

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