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Homeostatic Expansion of CD4+ T Cells Promotes Cortical and Trabecular Bone Loss, Whereas CD8+ T Cells Induce Trabecular Bone Loss Only.

Weitzmann MN, et al. J Infect Dis. 2017.

Abstract

Background: Bone loss occurs in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection but paradoxically is intensified by HIV-associated antiretroviral therapy (ART), resulting in an increased fracture incidence that is largely independent of ART regimen. Inflammation in the bone microenvironment associated with T-cell repopulation following ART initiation may explain ART-induced bone loss. Indeed, we have reported that reconstitution of CD3+ T cells in immunodeficient mice mimics ART-induced bone loss observed in humans. In this study, we quantified the relative effects of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets on bone.

Methods: T-cell subsets in T-cell receptor β knockout mice were reconstituted by adoptive transfer with CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells subsets were reconstituted in T-cell receptor β knockout mice by adoptive transfer, and bone turnover, bone mineral density, and indices of bone structure and turnover were quantified.

Results: Repopulating CD4+ but not CD8+ T cells significantly diminished bone mineral density. However, micro-computed tomography revealed robust deterioration of trabecular bone volume by both subsets, while CD4+ T cells additionally induced cortical bone loss.

Conclusions: CD4+ T-cell reconstitution, a key function of ART, causes significant cortical and trabecular bone loss. CD8+ T cells may further contribute to trabecular bone loss in some patients with advanced AIDS, in whom CD8+ T cells may also be depleted. Our data suggest that bone densitometry used for assessment of the condition of bone in humans may significantly underestimate trabecular bone damage sustained by ART.

Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

PMID

28968828 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

PMCID

PMC5853557 [Available on 2018-11-27]

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