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Breast milk and glucose for pain relief in preterm infants: a noninferiority randomized controlled trial.

Randomized controlled trial
Bueno M, et al. Pediatrics. 2012.


OBJECTIVE: The study goal was to compare the efficacy of expressed breast milk (EBM) versus 25% glucose on pain responses of late preterm infants during heel lancing.

METHODS: In a noninferiority randomized controlled trial, a total of 113 newborns were randomized to receive EBM (experimental group [EG]) or 25% glucose (control group [CG]) before undergoing heel lancing. The primary outcome was pain intensity (Premature Infant Pain Profile [PIPP]) and a 10% noninferiority margin was established. Secondary outcomes were incidence of cry and percentage of time spent crying and adverse events. Intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis was used.

RESULTS: Groups were similar regarding demographics and clinical characteristics, except for birth weight and weight at data collection day. There were lower pain scores in the CG over 3 minutes after lancing (P < .001). A higher number of infants in the CG had PIPP scores indicative of minimal pain or absence of pain (P = .002 and P = .003 on ITT analysis) at 30 seconds after lancing, and the mean difference in PIPP scores was 3 (95% confidence interval: 1.507-4.483). Lower incidence of cry (P = .001) and shorter duration of crying (P = .014) were observed for CG. Adverse events were benign and self-limited, and there was no significant difference between groups (P = .736 and P = .637 on ITT analysis).

CONCLUSIONS: Results based on PIPP scores and crying time indicate poorer effects of EBM compared with 25% glucose during heel lancing. Additional studies exploring the vol and administration of EBM and its combination with other strategies such as skin-to-skin contact and sucking are necessary.


22392169 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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