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Indoxyl sulfate upregulates expression of ICAM-1 and MCP-1 by oxidative stress-induced NF-kappaB activation.

Tumur Z, et al. Am J Nephrol. 2010.


BACKGROUND/AIM: Indoxyl sulfate, a uremic toxin, is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The present study aimed to determine whether indoxyl sulfate increases the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) by reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in vascular endothelial cells.

METHODS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were incubated with indoxyl sulfate. The expression of ICAM-1 and MCP-1 in HUVEC was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. Phospho-NF-kappaB p65 (Ser 536), an active form of the NF-kappaB subunit, was determined by Western blotting.

RESULTS: Indoxyl sulfate significantly increased the mRNA expression of ICAM-1 and MCP-1 in HUVEC in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Inhibitors of NF-kappaB (ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate and isohelenin) and an antioxidant (N-acetyl-L-cysteine) suppressed the indoxyl sulfate-induced expression of ICAM-1 and MCP-1 in HUVEC. Indoxyl sulfate increased phospho- NF-kappaB p65 in HUVEC, and N-acetyl-L-cysteine suppressed it.

CONCLUSIONS: Indoxyl sulfate upregulates the expression of ICAM-1 and MCP-1 by ROS-induced activation of NF-kappaB in vascular endothelial cells. Thus, indoxyl sulfate may play an important role in the development of CVD in CKD by increasing the endothelial expression of ICAM-1 and MCP-1.

2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.


20389059 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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