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Public health impact and cost effectiveness of mass vaccination with live attenuated human rotavirus vaccine (RIX4414) in India: model based analysis.

Rose J, et al. BMJ. 2009.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To examine the public health impact of mass vaccination with live attenuated human rotavirus vaccine (RIX4414) in a birth cohort in India, and to estimate the cost effectiveness and affordability of such a programme.

DESIGN: Decision analytical Markov model encompassing all direct medical costs. Infection risk and severity depended on age, number of previous infections, and vaccination history; probabilities of use of inpatient and outpatient health services depended on symptom severity.

DATA SOURCES: Published clinical, epidemiological, and economic data. When possible, parameter estimates were based on data specific for India. Population Simulated Indian birth cohort followed for five years.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Decrease in rotavirus gastroenteritis episodes (non-severe and severe), deaths, outpatient visits, and admission to hospital; incremental cost effectiveness ratio of vaccination expressed as net cost in 2007 rupees per life year saved.

RESULTS: In the base case, vaccination prevented 28,943 (29.7%) symptomatic episodes, 6981 (38.2%) severe episodes, 164 deaths (41.0%), 7178 (33.3%) outpatient visits, and 812 (34.3%) admissions to hospital per 100,000 children. Vaccination cost 8023 rupees (about pound100, euro113, $165) per life year saved, less than India's per capita gross domestic product, a common criterion for cost effectiveness. The net programme cost would be equivalent to 11.6% of the 2006-7 budget of the Indian Department of Health and Family Welfare. Model results were most sensitive to variations in access to outpatient care for those with severe symptoms. If this parameter was increased to its upper limit, the incremental cost effectiveness ratio for vaccination still fell between one and three times the per capita gross domestic product, meeting the World Health Organization's criterion for "cost effective" interventions. Uncertainty analysis indicated a 94.7% probability that vaccination would be cost effective according to a criterion of one times per capita gross domestic product per life year saved, and a 97.8% probability that it would be cost effective according to a criterion of three times per capita gross domestic product.

CONCLUSIONS: Across a wide range of assumptions, mass RIX4414 vaccination in India would probably prevent substantial morbidity and mortality at a cost per life year saved below typical thresholds of cost effectiveness. The opportunity costs of such a programme in this or similar settings, however, should be weighed up carefully.

PMID

19783581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

PMCID

PMC2752498

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