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The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

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Volume 2017 (1)


Inhaled Nitric Oxide for Respiratory Failure in Preterm Infants
KJ Barrington et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1, CD000509.
iNO does not appear to be effective as rescue therapy for the very ill preterm infant. Early routine use of iNO in preterm infants with respiratory disease does not prevent serious brain injury or improve survival without BPD. Later use of iNO to prevent BPD could be effective, but current 95% confi ...
  • Review Article
Early Administration of Inhaled Corticosteroids for Preventing Chronic Lung Disease in Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Neonates
VS Shah et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1, CD001969.
Based on this updated review, there is increasing evidence from the trials reviewed that early administration of inhaled steroids to VLBW neonates is effective in reducing the incidence of death or CLD at 36 weeks' PMA among either all randomised infants or among survivors. Even though there is stat ...
  • Review Article
Beta-Blockers for Hypertension
CS Wiysonge et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1, CD002003.
Most outcome RCTs on beta-blockers as initial therapy for hypertension have high risk of bias. Atenolol was the beta-blocker most used. Current evidence suggests that initiating treatment of hypertension with beta-blockers leads to modest CVD reductions and little or no effects on mortality. These b ...
  • Review Article
Blood Transfusion for Preventing Primary and Secondary Stroke in People With Sickle Cell Disease
LJ Estcourt et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1, CD003146.
There is no evidence for managing adults, or children who do not have HbSS sickle cell disease.In children who are at higher risk of stroke and have not had previous long-term transfusions, there is moderate quality evidence that long-term red cell transfusions reduce the risk of stroke, and low qua ...
  • Review Article
Dietary Fibre for the Prevention of Recurrent Colorectal Adenomas and Carcinomas
Y Yao et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1, CD003430.
There is a lack of evidence from existing RCTs to suggest that increased dietary fibre intake will reduce the recurrence of adenomatous polyps in those with a history of adenomatous polyps within a two to eight year period. However, these results may be unreliable and should be interpreted cautiousl ...
  • Review Article
  • Trending
Long-Term Hormone Therapy for Perimenopausal and Postmenopausal Women
J Marjoribanks et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1, CD004143.
Women with intolerable menopausal symptoms may wish to weigh the benefits of symptom relief against the small absolute risk of harm arising from short-term use of low-dose HT, provided they do not have specific contraindications. HT may be unsuitable for some women, including those at increased risk ...
  • Review Article
Axillary Treatment for Operable Primary Breast Cancer
N Bromham et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1, CD004561.
This review confirms the benefit of SLNB and axillary sampling as alternatives to ALND for axillary staging, supporting the view that ALND of the clinically and radiologically uninvolved axilla is no longer acceptable practice in people with breast cancer.
  • Review Article
Polyclonal and Monoclonal Antibodies for Induction Therapy in Kidney Transplant Recipients
P Hill et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1, CD004759.
ATG reduces acute rejection but has uncertain effects on death, graft survival, malignancy and NODAT, and increases CMV infection, thrombocytopenia and leucopenia. Given a 45% acute rejection risk without ATG induction, seven patients would need treatment to prevent one having rejection, while incur ...
  • Review Article
Body Positioning for Spontaneously Breathing Preterm Infants With Apnoea
RA Ballout et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1, CD004951.
We found insufficient evidence to determine effects of body positioning on apnoea, bradycardia and oxygen saturation in preterm infants. No new studies have been conducted since the original review was published. Large, multi-centre studies are warranted to provide conclusive evidence, but it may be ...
  • Review Article
Planned Early Birth Versus Expectant Management (Waiting) for Prelabour Rupture of Membranes at Term (37 Weeks or More)
P Middleton et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1, CD005302.
There is low quality evidence to suggest that planned early birth (with induction methods such as oxytocin or prostaglandins) reduces the risk of maternal infectious morbidity compared with expectant management for PROM at 37 weeks' gestation or later, without an apparent increased risk of caesarean ...
  • Review Article
Dietary Advice Interventions in Pregnancy for Preventing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
J Tieu et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1, CD006674.
Very low-quality evidence from five trials suggests a possible reduction in GDM risk for women receiving dietary advice versus standard care, and low-quality evidence from four trials suggests no clear difference for women receiving low- versus moderate- to high-GI dietary advice. A possible reducti ...
  • Review Article
Music Interventions for Acquired Brain Injury
WL Magee et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1, CD006787.
Music interventions may be beneficial for gait, the timing of upper extremity function, communication outcomes, and quality of life after stroke. These results are encouraging, but more high-quality randomised controlled trials are needed on all outcomes before recommendations can be made for clinic ...
  • Review Article
Topical Capsaicin (High Concentration) for Chronic Neuropathic Pain in Adults
S Derry et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1, CD007393.
High-concentration topical capsaicin used to treat postherpetic neuralgia, HIV-neuropathy, and painful diabetic neuropathy generated more participants with moderate or substantial levels of pain relief than control treatment using a much lower concentration of capsaicin. These results should be inte ...
  • Review Article
Non-Surgical Interventions for Acute Internal Hordeolum
K Lindsley et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1, CD007742.
We did not find any evidence for or against the effectiveness of non-surgical interventions for the treatment of an internal hordeolum. Controlled clinical trials would be useful to determine which interventions are effective for the treatment of acute internal hordeola.
  • Review Article
Intensive Case Management for Severe Mental Illness
M Dieterich et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1, CD007906.
Based on very low- to moderate-quality evidence, ICM is effective in ameliorating many outcomes relevant to people with severe mental illness. Compared to standard care, ICM may reduce hospitalisation and increase retention in care. It also globally improved social functioning, although ICM's effect ...
  • Review Article
Septum Resection for Women of Reproductive Age With a Septate Uterus
JF Rikken et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1, CD008576.
Hysteroscopic septum resection in women of reproductive age with a septate uterus is performed worldwide to improve reproductive outcomes. At present, there is no evidence to support the surgical procedure in these women. Randomised controlled trials are urgently needed. Two trials are currently und ...
  • Review Article
Training Interventions for Improving Telephone Consultation Skills in Clinicians
A Vaona et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1, CD010034.
Telephone consultation skills are part of a wider set of remote consulting skills whose importance is growing as more and more medical care is delivered from a distance with the support of information technology. Nevertheless, no evidence specifically coming from telephone consultation studies is av ...
  • Review Article
First-Line Combination Therapy Versus First-Line Monotherapy for Primary Hypertension
J Garjón et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1, CD010316.
The numbers of included participants and, hence the number of events, were too small to draw any conclusion about the relative efficacy of monotherapy versus combination therapy as initial treatment for primary hypertension. There is a need for large clinical trials that address the question and rep ...
  • Review Article
Treatments for Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP): An Overview of Systematic Reviews
AL Oaklander et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1, CD010369.
We cannot be certain based on available evidence whether daily oral prednisone improves impairment compared to no treatment. However, corticosteroids are commonly used, based on widespread availability, low cost, very low-quality evidence from observational studies, and clinical experience. The weak ...
  • Review Article
Pharmacological Treatment of Vascular Risk Factors for Reducing Mortality and Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
L Robertson et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1, CD010447.
Due to the limited number of included trials, there is insufficient evidence to draw any conclusions about the effectiveness of cardiovascular prophylaxis in reducing mortality and cardiovascular events in people with AAA. Further good-quality randomised controlled trials that examine many types of ...
  • Review Article
  • Trending
Yoga Treatment for Chronic Non-Specific Low Back Pain
LS Wieland et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1, CD010671.
There is low- to moderate-certainty evidence that yoga compared to non-exercise controls results in small to moderate improvements in back-related function at three and six months. Yoga may also be slightly more effective for pain at three and six months, however the effect size did not meet predefi ...
  • Review Article
  • Trending
Yoga for Improving Health-Related Quality of Life, Mental Health and Cancer-Related Symptoms in Women Diagnosed With Breast Cancer
H Cramer et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1, CD010802.
Moderate-quality evidence supports the recommendation of yoga as a supportive intervention for improving health-related quality of life and reducing fatigue and sleep disturbances when compared with no therapy, as well as for reducing depression, anxiety and fatigue, when compared with psychosocial/ ...
  • Review Article
Vitamin D Supplementation for Sickle Cell Disease
HH Soe et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1, CD010858.
We included only one low-quality clinical study which had a high risk of bias with regards to incomplete outcome data. Therefore, we consider that the evidence is not of sufficient quality to guide clinical practice. Until further evidence becomes available, clinicians should consider the relevant e ...
  • Review Article
Effectiveness and Safety of Procalcitonin Evaluation for Reducing Mortality in Adults With Sepsis, Severe Sepsis or Septic Shock
BN Andriolo et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1, CD010959.
Up-to-date evidence of very low to moderate quality, with insufficient sample power per outcome, does not clearly support the use of procalcitonin-guided antimicrobial therapy to minimize mortality, mechanical ventilation, clinical severity, reinfection or duration of antimicrobial therapy of patien ...
  • Review Article
Psychosocial Interventions for Recurrent Abdominal Pain in Childhood
RA Abbott et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1, CD010971.
The data from trials to date provide some evidence for beneficial effects of CBT and hypnotherapy in reducing pain in the short term in children and adolescents presenting with RAP. There was no evidence for the effectiveness of yoga therapy or written self-disclosure therapy. There were insufficien ...
  • Review Article
Fulvestrant for Hormone-Sensitive Metastatic Breast Cancer
CI Lee et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1, CD011093.
For postmenopausal women with advanced hormone-sensitive breast cancer, fulvestrant is at least as effective and safe as the comparator endocrine therapies in the included studies. However, fulvestrant may be potentially more effective than current therapies when given at 500 mg, though this higher ...
  • Review Article
Physical Activity and Exercise for Chronic Pain in Adults: An Overview of Cochrane Reviews
LJ Geneen et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1, CD011279.
The quality of the evidence examining physical activity and exercise for chronic pain is low. This is largely due to small sample sizes and potentially underpowered studies. A number of studies had adequately long interventions, but planned follow-up was limited to less than one year in all but six ...
  • Review Article
  • Trending
Exercise-Based Rehabilitation Programmes for Pulmonary Hypertension
NR Morris et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1, CD011285.
In people with PH, exercise-based rehabilitation results in clinically relevant improvements in exercise capacity. Exercise training was not associated with any serious adverse events. Whilst most studies reported improvements in HRQoL, these may not be clinically important. Overall, we assessed the ...
  • Review Article
Short-Acting Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents for Anaemia in Predialysis Patients
D Hahn et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1, CD011690.
Epoetin alpha given at higher doses for extended intervals (two or four weekly) is non-inferior to more frequent dosing intervals in maintaining final Hb levels with no significant differences in adverse effects in non-dialysed CKD patients. However the data are of low methodological quality so that ...
  • Review Article
Symptomatic Treatments for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/Motor Neuron Disease
L Ng et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1, CD011776.
This overview has highlighted the lack of robust evidence in Cochrane Systematic Reviews on interventions to manage symptoms resulting from MND. It is important to recognise that clinical trials may fail to demonstrate efficacy of an intervention for reasons other than a true lack of efficacy, for e ...
  • Review Article
  • Trending
Aspirin for Acute Treatment of Episodic Tension-Type Headache in Adults
S Derry et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1, CD011888.
A single dose of aspirin between 500 mg and 1000 mg provided some benefit in terms of less frequent use of rescue medication and more participants satisfied with treatment compared with placebo in adults with frequent episodic TTH who have an acute headache of moderate or severe intensity. There was ...
  • Review Article
Fibrin Glue for Pilonidal Sinus Disease
J Lund et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1, CD011923.
Current evidence is uncertain regarding any benefits associated with fibrin glue either as monotherapy or as an adjunct to surgery for people with pilonidal sinus disease. We identified only four RCTs and each was small and at risk of bias resulting in very low-quality evidence for the primary outco ...
  • Review Article
Ataluren and Similar Compounds (Specific Therapies for Premature Termination Codon Class I Mutations) for Cystic Fibrosis
AA Aslam et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1, CD012040.
There is currently insufficient evidence to determine the effect of ataluren as a therapy for people with cystic fibrosis with class I mutations. Future trials should carefully assess for adverse events, notably renal impairment and consider the possibility of drug interactions. Cross-over trials sh ...
  • Review Article
Gabapentin for Fibromyalgia Pain in Adults
TE Cooper et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1, CD012188.
We have only very low quality evidence and are very uncertain about estimates of benefit and harm because of a small amount of data from a single trial. There is insufficient evidence to support or refute the suggestion that gabapentin reduces pain in fibromyalgia.
  • Review Article