[Wormbase] dpy-21 encodes a novel, conserved protein with a proline-rich N terminus; dpy-21 affects RNA levels of X-linked dosage-compensated genes, body length in hermaphrodites, and fertility and male tail development in males; DPY-21 interacts in vivo with DPY-27 and SDC-3, members of the dosage compensation complex, and like members of the dosage compensation complex, is diffusely localized in nuclei of XX embryos containing <40 cells, but then specifically localizes to X chromosomes of XX embryos with >40 cells, remaining on the X throughout development; in XO embryos, DPY-21 is dispersed throughout the nucleus in multiple foci that are not coincident with the X chromosome; in hermaphrodites, localization of DPY-21 to the X chromosome requires activity of SDC-2, SDC-3, DPY-26, DPY-27, and DPY-28; DPY-21 is not, however, required reciprocally for the stability or localization of these other dosage compensation proteins; in addition, unlike SDC-3 and other members of the dosage compensation complex, DPY-21 is not recruited to the autosomal her-1 regulatory region, suggesting that DPY-21 is not part of the gene-specific complex that represses her-1 expression in hermaphrodites.
Wormbase predicts one model from 2 genes, but Caenorhabditis elegans cDNA sequences in GenBank, dbEST, Trace and SRA, filtered against clone rearrangements, coaligned on the genome and clustered in a minimal non-redundant way by the manually supervised AceView program, support at least 3 spliced variants
AceView synopsis, each blue text links to tables and details
According to AceView, this gene is expressed at high level
, 2.6 times the average gene in this release, at all stages of development [Kohara cDNAs]. The expression profile for the gene, derived from the proportion of animals at each stage in each Kohara library is: embryos 22%, L1 or L2 larvae 9%, L3 to adult 69%. See the in situ hybridization pattern in Kohara NextDB
. The sequence
of this gene is defined by 16 cDNA clones
and 18 elements defined by RNA-seq, some from mixed (seen 7 times), embryo (5), l2 (once). We annotate structural defects or features
in 6 cDNA clones.
Alternative mRNA variants and regulation:
The gene contains 12 distinct gt-ag introns
. Transcription produces 3 alternatively spliced mRNAs
. Variant a is transpliced to SL2. There are 2 probable alternative promotors
and 2 validated alternative polyadenylation sites
(see the diagram
). The mRNAs appear to differ by truncation of the 5' end, presence or absence of a cassette exon
, overlapping exons with different boundaries.
There are 10 articles
specifically referring to this gene in PubMed. In addition we point below
to 47 abstracts. This gene is associated to a phenotype
(DumPY : shorter than wild-type). The gene interacts
with 8 other genes (HER-1, LET-2, LIN-14, LIN-15A, LIN-15B, SDC-3, TRA-1, XOL-1).
Protein coding potential:
The 3 spliced mRNAs putatively encode good proteins
, altogether 3 different isoforms (1 complete, 2 partial
), some containing a coiled coil stretch [Psort2]
Please quote: AceView: a comprehensive cDNA-supported gene and transcripts annotation, Genome Biology 2006, 7(Suppl 1):S12
Map on chromosome V, links to other databases and other names
This gene dpy-21 maps on chomosome V at position +13.19 (interpolated). In AceView, it covers 12.89 kb
, from 17949149 to 17936256 (WS190), on the reverse strand.
Links to: WormBase
The gene is also known in Wormgenes/AceView by its positional name 5S418, in Wormbase by its cosmid.number name Y59A8B.1, in NextDB, the Nematode expression pattern database, as CEYK3009.
Alternative mRNAs are shown aligned from 5' to 3' on a virtual genome where introns have been shrunk to a minimal length. Exon size is proportional to length, intron height reflects the number of cDNAs supporting each intron, the small numbers show the support of the introns in deep sequencing (with details in mouse-over) . Introns of the same color are identical, of different colors are different. 'Good proteins' are pink, partial or not-good proteins are yellow, uORFs are green. 5' cap or3' poly A flags show completeness of the transcript.
Mouse over the ending of each transcript gives tissues from which the supporting cDNAs were extracted. Details on tissue of origin for each intron and exon is available from the intron and exons table
Click on any transcript to open the specific mRNA page, to see the exact cDNA clone support and eventual SNPs and to get details on tissues, sequences, mRNA and protein annotations. Proteins supported by a single continuous cDNA sequence lead to underlining the name/ending of the variant. Names not underlined result from cDNA concatenation in the coding region and should be experimentally checked.
are depicted by broken lines; the height of the top of each intron reflects the relative number of clones supporting this intron. ]^[ A pink broken line
denotes an intron with standard boundaries (gt-ag or gc-ag) that is exactly supported (i.e. a cDNA sequence exactly matches the genome over 16 bp, 8 on both sides of the intron). ] ^ ] A blue broken line
denotes non-standard introns, exactly supported, but with non-standard at-ac or any other boundaries. ]-[ Pink
and ] - ] blue
straight lines represent 'fuzzy' introns of the standard and non-standard types respectively, those introns do not follow the 16 bp rule. Black straight lines ]-[denote gaps in the alignments.
Wide filled pink areas represent putative protein coding regions, narrow empty pink boxes represent the 5'UTR (on the left) and 3' UTR (on the right). Flags identify validated endings: cap site on the 5' side, polyadenylation site on the 3' side. Filled flags correspond to frequent events while empty flags have lesser supporting cDNAs (yet all are validated); at the 3' side, black flags are associated to the main AATAAA signal, blue flags
to any single letter variant of the main . More explanations are given in the gene help file