Caenorhabditis elegans essential gene apn-1, encoding endonuclease IV, has intrinsic apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease and 3'-diesterase activities; affects base excision repair.
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Complete gene on genome diagram:
[Wormbase] apn-1 encodes a member of the AP (apurinic or apyrimidinic) endonuclease family.
Wormbase predicts one model, but Caenorhabditis elegans cDNA sequences in GenBank, dbEST, Trace and SRA, filtered against clone rearrangements, coaligned on the genome and clustered in a minimal non-redundant way by the manually supervised AceView program, support at least 2 spliced variants
AceView synopsis, each blue text links to tables and details
According to AceView, this gene is expressed at high level
, 1.9 times the average gene in this release, from L1 larvae to adult [Kohara cDNAs]. The expression profile for the gene, derived from the proportion of animals at each stage in each Kohara library is: embryos 1%, L1 or L2 larvae 21%, L3 to adult (including dauer) 78%. The sequence
of this gene is defined by 8 cDNA clones
and 17 elements defined by RNA-seq, some from mixed (seen 2 times), l2 (once). We annotate structural defects or features
in 8 cDNA clones.
Alternative mRNA variants and regulation:
The gene contains 2 distinct gt-ag introns
. Transcription produces 2 alternatively spliced mRNAs
. Variant a is transpliced to SL3, SL2, SL1, SL4, SL5. There are 2 probable alternative promotors
and 5 validated alternative polyadenylation sites
(see the diagram
). 420 bp of this gene are antisense to spliced gene 2I340
, raising the possibility of regulated alternate expression.
There are 5 articles
specifically referring to this gene in PubMed. In addition we point below
to one abstract. This essential gene is associated to a phenotype
(affects base excision repair, embryonic lethal, partial). Proteins are expected to localize
Protein coding potential:
The 2 spliced mRNAs putatively encode good proteins
, altogether 2 different isoforms (2 complete
), some containing Xylose isomerase-type TIM barrel domain
Please quote: AceView: a comprehensive cDNA-supported gene and transcripts annotation, Genome Biology 2006, 7(Suppl 1):S12
Map on chromosome II, links to other databases and other names
This essential gene apn-1 maps on chomosome II at position +0.57 (interpolated). In AceView, it covers 1.90 kb
, from 8047494 to 8049389 (WS190), on the direct strand.
Links to: WormBase
The gene is also known in Wormgenes/AceView by its positional name 2I339, in Wormbase by its cosmid.number name T05H10.2.
Compact gene diagram
Sequences: click on the numbers to get the DNA
Alternative mRNAs are shown aligned from 5' to 3' on a virtual genome where introns have been shrunk to a minimal length. Exon size is proportional to length, intron height reflects the number of cDNAs supporting each intron, the small numbers show the support of the introns in deep sequencing (with details in mouse-over) . Introns of the same color are identical, of different colors are different. 'Good proteins' are pink, partial or not-good proteins are yellow, uORFs are green. 5' cap or3' poly A flags show completeness of the transcript.
Mouse over the ending of each transcript gives tissues from which the supporting cDNAs were extracted. Details on tissue of origin for each intron and exon is available from the intron and exons table
Click on any transcript to open the specific mRNA page, to see the exact cDNA clone support and eventual SNPs and to get details on tissues, sequences, mRNA and protein annotations. Proteins supported by a single continuous cDNA sequence lead to underlining the name/ending of the variant. Names not underlined result from cDNA concatenation in the coding region and should be experimentally checked.
are depicted by broken lines; the height of the top of each intron reflects the relative number of clones supporting this intron. ]^[ A pink broken line
denotes an intron with standard boundaries (gt-ag or gc-ag) that is exactly supported (i.e. a cDNA sequence exactly matches the genome over 16 bp, 8 on both sides of the intron). ] ^ ] A blue broken line
denotes non-standard introns, exactly supported, but with non-standard at-ac or any other boundaries. ]-[ Pink
and ] - ] blue
straight lines represent 'fuzzy' introns of the standard and non-standard types respectively, those introns do not follow the 16 bp rule. Black straight lines ]-[denote gaps in the alignments.
Wide filled pink areas represent putative protein coding regions, narrow empty pink boxes represent the 5'UTR (on the left) and 3' UTR (on the right). Flags identify validated endings: cap site on the 5' side, polyadenylation site on the 3' side. Filled flags correspond to frequent events while empty flags have lesser supporting cDNAs (yet all are validated); at the 3' side, black flags are associated to the main AATAAA signal, blue flags
to any single letter variant of the main . More explanations are given in the gene help file
Gene neighbors and Navigator on chromosome II
Annotated mRNA diagrams
The mRNAs diagrams with the aligned cDNA sequence accessions and their mismatches are available in the mRNA pages accessible from the tab at the top of the page, or here:
In Flash: .a, .b
or in GIF: .a, .b
Please see these 5 articles in PubMed
In addition we found 1 papers for which we do not have a PubMed identifier
- GB:U40707_2 Submitted (14-NOV-1995) Dindial Ramotar, Pharmacology, Laval University (CHUL), 2705 Laurier Boulevard RC-706A, Ste-Foy, Quebec G1V4G2, Canada
To mine knowledge about the gene, please click the 'Gene Summary' or the 'Function, regulation, related genes ' tab at the top of the page. The 'Gene Summary' page includes all we learnt about the gene, functional annotations of neighboring genes, maps, links to other sites and the bibliography. The 'Function, regulation, related genes ' page includes Diseases (D), Pathways, GO annotations, conserved domains (C), interactions (I) reference into function, and pointers to all genes with the same functional annotation.
To compare alternative variants, their summarized annotations, predicted proteins, introns and exons, or to access any sequence, click the 'Alternative mRNAs features' tab. To see a specific mRNA variant diagram, sequence and annotation, click the variant name in the 'mRNA' tab. To examine expression data from all cDNAs clustered in this gene by AceView, click the 'Expression tissue'.
If you know more about this gene, or found errors, please share your knowledge. Thank you !