The gene ace-3 encodes acetylcholinesterase class C [Kolson and Russell, 1985; Johnson et al, 1988; Combes et al, 2000]. It produces 5% of the total AChE activity. The H subunit associates into dimers of glycolipid-anchored catalytic subunits, highly resistant to the usual AChE inhibitors. It hydrolyze butyrylthiocholine faster than acetylthiocholine. Absence of the three classes A B C of acetylcholinesterases together, in the ace-1 ace-2 ace-3 triple mutant, leads to paralysis and late embryonic/early larval lethality [Johnson et al, 1988]. ace-3 is expressed at all stages of development[Wormbase] ace-3 encodes one of four C. elegans acetylcholinesterases (AChE); ACE-3 represents ~5% of the total AChE activity in C. elegans and in vitro, hydrolyzes acetylthio-, butyrylthio-, and propionylthiocholine substrates with equal efficiency; although loss-of-function mutations in ace-3 result in no obvious defects, animals doubly mutant with ace-1 or ace-2 have slight defects in backward locomotion and animals triply mutant for ace-1, -2, and -3 arrest as unhatched, yet fully developed, embryos; ace-3 is the downstream gene in an operon with a fourth AChE-encoding gene, ace-4, and transcriptional reporter fusions with ace-4 upstream sequences direct expression in pharyngeal muscles pm3, 4, 5, and 7, the two CAN (canal associated neuron) cells, midbody dorsal body wall muscles in larvae, and several neurons in the head and anal ganglion.
Wormbase predicts one model.
AceView synopsis, each blue text links to tables and details
According to AceView, this gene is well expressed, 1.2 times the average gene in this release, at all stages of development [Kohara cDNAs]. The expression profile for the gene, derived from the proportion of animals at each stage in each Kohara library is: embryos 26%, L1 or L2 larvae 16%, L3 to adult 57%. The sequence of this gene is defined by 8 cDNA clones and 8 elements defined by RNA-seq, some from embryo (seen 2 times), mixed (2), l1 (once).
The gene contains 7 distinct gt-ag introns. Transcription produces one spliced mRNA, 1 alternatively spliced variant and 1 unspliced form. Function: There are 11 articles specifically referring to this gene in PubMed. In addition we point below to 16 abstracts. This gene is associated to a phenotype (abnormal ACEtylcholinesterase). Proteins are expected to localize in membrane. The gene interacts with 3 other genes (ACE-1, ACE-2, UNC-17+CHA-1). Protein coding potential: The spliced and the unspliced mRNAs putatively encode good proteins, altogether 2 different isoforms (1 complete, 1 COOH complete), some containing carboxylesterase, type B domain [Pfam].
Alternative mRNAs are shown aligned from 5' to 3' on a virtual genome where introns have been shrunk to a minimal length. Exon size is proportional to length, intron height reflects the number of cDNAs supporting each intron, the small numbers show the support of the introns in deep sequencing (with details in mouse-over) . Introns of the same color are identical, of different colors are different. 'Good proteins' are pink, partial or not-good proteins are yellow, uORFs are green. 5' cap or3' poly A flags show completeness of the transcript. Read more...
Mouse over the ending of each transcript gives tissues from which the supporting cDNAs were extracted. Details on tissue of origin for each intron and exon is available from the intron and exons table.
Click on any transcript to open the specific mRNA page, to see the exact cDNA clone support and eventual SNPs and to get details on tissues, sequences, mRNA and protein annotations. Proteins supported by a single continuous cDNA sequence lead to underlining the name/ending of the variant. Names not underlined result from cDNA concatenation in the coding region and should be experimentally checked.
Introns are depicted by broken lines; the height of the top of each intron reflects the relative number of clones supporting this intron. ]^[ A pink broken line denotes an intron with standard boundaries (gt-ag or gc-ag) that is exactly supported (i.e. a cDNA sequence exactly matches the genome over 16 bp, 8 on both sides of the intron). ] ^ ] A blue broken line denotes non-standard introns, exactly supported, but with non-standard at-ac or any other boundaries. ]-[ Pink and ] - ] blue straight lines represent 'fuzzy' introns of the standard and non-standard types respectively, those introns do not follow the 16 bp rule. Black straight lines ]-[denote gaps in the alignments.
Exons: Wide filled pink areas represent putative protein coding regions, narrow empty pink boxes represent the 5'UTR (on the left) and 3' UTR (on the right). Flags identify validated endings: cap site on the 5' side, polyadenylation site on the 3' side. Filled flags correspond to frequent events while empty flags have lesser supporting cDNAs (yet all are validated); at the 3' side, black flags are associated to the main AATAAA signal, blue flags to any single letter variant of the main . More explanations are given in the gene help file
The mRNAs diagrams with the aligned cDNA sequence accessions and their mismatches are available in the mRNA pages accessible from the tab at the top of the page, or here:
In Flash: .a, .b.
or in GIF: .a, .b
To mine knowledge about the gene, please click the 'Gene Summary' or the 'Function, regulation, related genes ' tab at the top of the page. The 'Gene Summary' page includes all we learnt about the gene, functional annotations of neighboring genes, maps, links to other sites and the bibliography. The 'Function, regulation, related genes ' page includes Diseases (D), Pathways, GO annotations, conserved domains (C), interactions (I) reference into function, and pointers to all genes with the same functional annotation.
To compare alternative variants, their summarized annotations, predicted proteins, introns and exons, or to access any sequence, click the 'Alternative mRNAs features' tab. To see a specific mRNA variant diagram, sequence and annotation, click the variant name in the 'mRNA' tab. To examine expression data from all cDNAs clustered in this gene by AceView, click the 'Expression tissue'.
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