Caenorhabditis elegans gene ace-3, abnormal ACEtylcholinesterase, encoding acetylcholinesterase class C, glycolipid-anchored.
SUMMARY back to top
The gene ace-3 encodes acetylcholinesterase class C [Kolson and Russell, 1985; Johnson et al, 1988; Combes et al, 2000]. It produces 5% of the total AChE activity. The H subunit associates into dimers of glycolipid-anchored catalytic subunits, highly resistant to the usual AChE inhibitors. It hydrolyze butyrylthiocholine faster than acetylthiocholine. Absence of the three classes A B C of acetylcholinesterases together, in the ace-1 ace-2 ace-3 triple mutant, leads to paralysis and late embryonic/early larval lethality [Johnson et al, 1988]. ace-3 is expressed at all stages of development[Wormbase] ace-3 encodes one of four C. elegans acetylcholinesterases (AChE); ACE-3 represents ~5% of the total AChE activity in C. elegans and in vitro, hydrolyzes acetylthio-, butyrylthio-, and propionylthiocholine substrates with equal efficiency; although loss-of-function mutations in ace-3 result in no obvious defects, animals doubly mutant with ace-1 or ace-2 have slight defects in backward locomotion and animals triply mutant for ace-1, -2, and -3 arrest as unhatched, yet fully developed, embryos; ace-3 is the downstream gene in an operon with a fourth AChE-encoding gene, ace-4, and transcriptional reporter fusions with ace-4 upstream sequences direct expression in pharyngeal muscles pm3, 4, 5, and 7, the two CAN (canal associated neuron) cells, midbody dorsal body wall muscles in larvae, and several neurons in the head and anal ganglion.
Wormbase predicts one model

AceView synopsis, each blue text links to tables and details
According to AceView, this gene is well expressed, 1.2 times the average gene in this release, at all stages of development [Kohara cDNAs]. The expression profile for the gene, derived from the proportion of animals at each stage in each Kohara library is: embryos 26%, L1 or L2 larvae 16%, L3 to adult 57%. The sequence of this gene is defined by 8 cDNA clones and 8 elements defined by RNA-seq, some from embryo (seen 2 times), mixed (2), l1 (once).
The gene contains 7 distinct gt-ag introns. Transcription produces one spliced mRNA, 1 alternatively spliced variant and 1 unspliced form.
Function: There are 11 articles specifically referring to this gene in PubMed. In addition we point below to 16 abstracts. This gene is associated to a phenotype (abnormal ACEtylcholinesterase). Proteins are expected to localize in membrane. The gene interacts with 3 other genes (ACE-1, ACE-2, UNC-17+CHA-1).
Protein coding potential: The spliced and the unspliced mRNAs putatively encode good proteins, altogether 2 different isoforms (1 complete, 1 COOH complete), some containing carboxylesterase, type B domain [Pfam].

Please quote: AceView: a comprehensive cDNA-supported gene and transcripts annotation, Genome Biology 2006, 7(Suppl 1):S12.
Map on chromosome II, links to other databases and other names
Map: This gene ace-3 maps on chomosome II at position +23.60 (interpolated). In AceView, it covers 4.60 kb, from 14205521 to 14210117 (WS190), on the direct strand.
Links to: WormBase, RNAiDB.
Other names: The gene is also known in Wormgenes/AceView by its positional name 2O499, in Wormbase by its cosmid.number name Y48B6A.8.
Closest AceView homologs in other species ?
The closest human genes, according to BlastP, are the AceView genes BCHE, ACHE.
The closest mouse genes, according to BlastP, are the AceView genes Bche (e=2 10-92), Acheand2700038N03Rik (e=3 10-90).
The closest A.thaliana genes, according to BlastP, are the AceView genes AT1G68620, ATPCME, AT3G02410, AT1G26120
          Complete gene on genome diagram: back to top
Please choose between the zoomable GIF version., and the HTML5/SVG version.
This diagram shows in true scale the gene on the genome, the mRNAs and the cDNA clones.
Compact gene diagram back to top
Gene ace-3 5' 3' encoded on plus strand of chromosome II from 14,205,536 to 14,210,117 a b 1kb 0 136 bp exon 136 bp exon 57 bp [gt-ag] intron 5 GenBank accessions 101 bp exon 759 bp [gt-ag] intron 5 GenBank accessions 222 bp exon 59 bp [gt-ag] intron 7 GenBank accessions 327 bp exon 244 bp [gt-ag] intron 4 GenBank accessions 660 bp exon 536 bp [gt-ag] intron 3 GenBank accessions 159 bp exon 44 bp [gt-ag] intron 4 GenBank accessions 185 bp exon 681 bp [gt-ag] intron 4 GenBank accessions 427 bp exon 15 accessions, some from embryo (seen 2 times) l1 (once), mixed (once) Validated 3' end, 8 accessions 427 bp exon 709 bp exon 1 accession from mixed 709 bp exon Alternative mRNAs are shown aligned from 5' to 3' on a virtual genome where introns have been shrunk to a minimal length. Exon size is proportional to length, intron height reflects the number of cDNAs supporting each intron, the small numbers show the support of the introns in deep sequencing (with details in mouse-over) . Introns of the same color are identical, of different colors are different. 'Good proteins' are pink, partial or not-good proteins are yellow, uORFs are green. 5' cap or3' poly A flags show completeness of the transcript.
Sequences: click on the numbers to get the DNA back to top
mRNA variant mRNA matching the genome Best predicted protein 5' UTR 3' UTR Upstream sequence Transcription
Downstream sequence
a 2217 bp 607 aa 64 bp 329 bp 2kb possibly including promoter 4597 bp 1kb
b 709 bp 73 aa 487 bp 2kb 709 bp 1kb

Gene neighbors and Navigator on chromosome II back to top
C R ace-4 D C P ace-3 D C I P 2O505 C hot-7 R 2O498 D C P 2O512 D C R P 2O518 5kb 0 2O479, 51 accessions, 5 variants ace-4, 22 accessions ace-3, 16 accessions, 2 variants 2O505, 8 accessions, 3 variants hot-7, 5 accessions 2O504, 3 accessions, 2 variants 2O506, 7 accessions 2O498, 1 accession 2O512, 19 accessions, 3 variants 2O518, 47 accessions, 5 variants ZOOM OUT                 D:disease, C:conserved, I:interactions, R:regulation, P:publications         Read more...
Annotated mRNA diagrams back to top
Bibliography back to top
Please see these 11 articles in PubMed.
In addition we found 16 papers for which we do not have a PubMed identifier
? Gene Summary Gene on genome mRNA:.a, .b Alternative mRNAs features, proteins, introns, exons, sequences Expression Tissue Function, regulation, related genes DCI

To mine knowledge about the gene, please click the 'Gene Summary' or the 'Function, regulation, related genes ' tab at the top of the page. The 'Gene Summary' page includes all we learnt about the gene, functional annotations of neighboring genes, maps, links to other sites and the bibliography. The 'Function, regulation, related genes ' page includes Diseases (D), Pathways, GO annotations, conserved domains (C), interactions (I) reference into function, and pointers to all genes with the same functional annotation.
To compare alternative variants, their summarized annotations, predicted proteins, introns and exons, or to access any sequence, click the 'Alternative mRNAs features' tab. To see a specific mRNA variant diagram, sequence and annotation, click the variant name in the 'mRNA' tab. To examine expression data from all cDNAs clustered in this gene by AceView, click the 'Expression tissue'.

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