Caenorhabditis elegans gene ace-2, abnormal ACEtylcholinesterase, encoding acetylcholinesterase class B, associates into glycolipid-anchored dimers.
SUMMARY back to top
The gene ace-2 encodes acetylcholinesterase class B, and produces about 45% of the nematode acetylcholinesterase activity [Johnson and Russell, 1983]. The C terminus of ACE-2 is hydrophobic, of H type; it associates into glycolipid-anchored dimers [Combes et al, 2000]. ace-2 is partly redundant functionnally with ace-1: the double mutant ace-1 ace-2 has uncoordinated locomotion, moving slowly forward and hypercontracted backward [Kolson and Russell, 1985]. Absence of the three classes A B C of acetylcholinesterases together, in the ace-1 ace-2 ace-3 triple mutant, leads to paralysis and late embryonic/early larval lethality [Johnson et al, 1988]. ace-2 is expressed at low level in larvae, in overlap with ace-1, but also specifically in the pharyngeo-intestinal valve where ace-1 is not expressed [Combes et al, 2000][Wormbase] An acetylcholineesterase involved in the termination of cholinergic nerve transmission; it is predominantly expressed in motoneurons.
Wormbase predicts one model, but Caenorhabditis elegans cDNA sequences in GenBank, dbEST, Trace and SRA, filtered against clone rearrangements, coaligned on the genome and clustered in a minimal non-redundant way by the manually supervised AceView program, support at least 4 spliced variants

AceView synopsis, each blue text links to tables and details
Expression: According to AceView, this gene is expressed at high level, 1.4 times the average gene in this release, in L1, L2 and L3 larvae [Kohara cDNAs]. The sequence of this gene is defined by 5 cDNA clones and 14 elements defined by RNA-seq, some from l1 (seen once), l2 (once). We annotate structural defects or features in one cDNA clone.
Alternative mRNA variants and regulation: The gene contains 11 distinct introns (10 gt-ag, 1 gc-ag). Transcription produces 4 alternatively spliced mRNAs. Variant a is transpliced to SL1. There are 3 probable alternative promotors, 2 non overlapping alternative last exons and 4 validated alternative polyadenylation sites (see the diagram). The mRNAs appear to differ by truncation of the 3' end.
Function: There are 21 articles specifically referring to this gene in PubMed. In addition we point below to 21 abstracts. This gene is associated to a phenotype (abnormal ACEtylcholinesterase). Proteins are expected to localize in membrane. The gene interacts with 4 other genes (ACE-1, ACE-3, DYS-1, UNC-17+CHA-1).
Protein coding potential: 2 spliced mRNAs putatively encode good proteins, altogether 2 different isoforms (1 complete, 1 COOH complete), some containing carboxylesterase, type B domain [Pfam], some transmembrane domains [Psort2]. The remaining 2 mRNA variants (2 spliced; 1 partial) appear not to encode good proteins.

Please quote: AceView: a comprehensive cDNA-supported gene and transcripts annotation, Genome Biology 2006, 7(Suppl 1):S12.
Map on chromosome I, links to other databases and other names
Map: This gene ace-2 maps on chomosome I at position -4.04 (interpolated). In AceView, it covers 8.55 kb, from 3309919 to 3301371 (WS190), on the reverse strand.
Links to: WormBase, RNAiDB.
Other names: The gene is also known in Wormgenes/AceView by its positional name 1D872, in Wormbase by its cosmid.number name Y44E3A.2.
Closest AceView homologs in other species ?
The closest human gene, according to BlastP, is the AceView gene BCHE (e=8 10-99).
The closest mouse genes, according to BlastP, are the AceView genes Bche, Acheand2700038N03Rik.
The closest A.thaliana genes, according to BlastP, are the AceView genes AT3G02410, ATPCME, AT5G47000
          Complete gene on genome diagram: back to top
Please choose between the zoomable GIF version., and the HTML5/SVG version.
This diagram shows in true scale the gene on the genome, the mRNAs and the cDNA clones.
Compact gene diagram back to top
Gene ace-2 5' 3' encoded on minus strand of chromosome I from 3,308,009 to 3,301,359 a d b c 1 2kb 0 279 bp exon 279 bp exon 879 bp [gt-ag] intron 4 GenBank accessions 204 bp exon 104 bp [gt-ag] intron 5 GenBank accessions 176 bp exon 255 bp [gt-ag] intron 5 GenBank accessions 229 bp exon 46 bp [gt-ag] intron 3 GenBank accessions 237 bp exon 885 bp [gt-ag] intron 4 GenBank accessions 425 bp exon 525 bp [gt-ag] intron 5 GenBank accessions 174 bp exon 513 bp [gt-ag] intron 6 GenBank accessions 161 bp exon 172 bp [gt-ag] intron 6 GenBank accessions 952 bp exon 15 accessions, some from l1 (seen once) l2 (once) Transpliced 5' end, 1 accession Validated 3' end, 7 accessions Validated 3' end, 1 accession Validated 3' end, 1 accession 952 bp exon 181 bp exon 181 bp exon 181 bp exon 2152 bp [gt-ag] intron 1 GenBank accession 276 bp exon 276 bp exon 1 accession 276 bp exon 12 bp exon 874 bp [gc-ag] intron 1 GenBank accession 393 bp exon 2 accessions 393 bp exon 219 bp exon 219 bp exon 204 bp [gt-ag] intron 1 GenBank accession 1 accession 276 bp exon Alternative mRNAs are shown aligned from 5' to 3' on a virtual genome where introns have been shrunk to a minimal length. Exon size is proportional to length, intron height reflects the number of cDNAs supporting each intron, the small numbers show the support of the introns in deep sequencing (with details in mouse-over) . Introns of the same color are identical, of different colors are different. 'Good proteins' are pink, partial or not-good proteins are yellow, uORFs are green. 5' cap or3' poly A flags show completeness of the transcript.
Sequences: click on the numbers to get the DNA back to top
mRNA variant mRNA matching the genome Best predicted protein 5' UTR 3' UTR uORF Upstream sequence Transcription
Downstream sequence
a 2837 bp 629 aa 120 bp 827 bp 63 bp 2kb including Promoter 6216 bp 1kb
b 405 bp 91 aa 129 bp 2kb 1279 bp 1kb
c 495 bp 58 aa 318 bp 2kb 699 bp 1kb
d 457 bp 31 aa 114 bp 247 bp 2kb 2609 bp 1kb

Gene neighbors and Navigator on chromosome I back to top
sulp-6 D C R P 1D869 C I P C 1D862 D C I R P ace-2 C 1D888 C R 1D896 5kb 0 sulp-6, 16 accessions 2 variants 1D869, 5 accessions 1D896_2, 4 accessions 2 variants pqn-72, 20 accessions 7 variants 1D862, 44 accessions, 4 variants ace-2, 19 accessions, 4 variants 1D888, 62 accessions, 3 variants 1D896, 13 accessions, 3 variants ZOOM OUT                 D:disease, C:conserved, I:interactions, R:regulation, P:publications         Read more...
Annotated mRNA diagrams back to top
Bibliography back to top
Please see these 21 articles in PubMed.
In addition we found 21 papers for which we do not have a PubMed identifier
? Gene Summary Gene on genome mRNA:.a, .b, .c, .d Alternative mRNAs features, proteins, introns, exons, sequences Expression Tissue Function, regulation, related genes DCI

To mine knowledge about the gene, please click the 'Gene Summary' or the 'Function, regulation, related genes ' tab at the top of the page. The 'Gene Summary' page includes all we learnt about the gene, functional annotations of neighboring genes, maps, links to other sites and the bibliography. The 'Function, regulation, related genes ' page includes Diseases (D), Pathways, GO annotations, conserved domains (C), interactions (I) reference into function, and pointers to all genes with the same functional annotation.
To compare alternative variants, their summarized annotations, predicted proteins, introns and exons, or to access any sequence, click the 'Alternative mRNAs features' tab. To see a specific mRNA variant diagram, sequence and annotation, click the variant name in the 'mRNA' tab. To examine expression data from all cDNAs clustered in this gene by AceView, click the 'Expression tissue'.

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