Gene ace-1 encodes acetylcholinesterase class A [Johnson and Russell, 1983], and produces about half of the acetylcholinesterase activity. The C-terminal end of ACE-1 is homologous to the C terminus of T subunits of vertebrate AChEs. ACE-1 oligomerizes into amphiphilic tetramers and is secreted [Arpagaus et al, 1994; Combes et al, 2000]. It is partly redundant functionnally with ace-2: the double mutant ace-1 ace-2 has uncoordinated locomotion, moving slowly forward and hypercontracted backward [Kolson and Russell, 1985]. Absence of the three classes A B C of acetylcholinesterases together, in the ace-1 ace-2 ace-3 triple mutant, leads to paralysis and late embryonic/early larval lethality [Johnson et al, 1988]. ace-1 is expressed at all stages of development in muscles and some nerve cells including motoneurons, but as seen from mosaic analysis, it is the muscular expression of ace-1 that is primarily required for locomotor function [Herman and Kari, 1985][Wormbase] ace-1 encodes a class A acetylcholinesterase that functions redundantly with ACE-2 with respect to total class A acetylcholinesterase activity, and that genetically interacts with ace-2 and ace-3; ace-1 is expressed in the body wall muscle, sphincter muscle, head neurons, a few pharyngeal muscle cells, and the diagonal and spicule muscles of the male.
Wormbase predicts one model, but Caenorhabditis elegans cDNA sequences in GenBank, dbEST, Trace and SRA, filtered against clone rearrangements, coaligned on the genome and clustered in a minimal non-redundant way by the manually supervised AceView program, support at least 2 spliced variants.
AceView synopsis, each blue text links to tables and details Expression: According to AceView, this gene is expressed at high level, 1.5 times the average gene in this release, at all stages of development [Kohara cDNAs]. The expression profile for the gene, derived from the proportion of animals at each stage in each Kohara library is: embryos 10%, L1 or L2 larvae 14%, L3 to adult 77%. See the in situ hybridization pattern in Kohara NextDB. The sequence of this gene is defined by 9 cDNA clones and 11 elements defined by RNA-seq, some from mixed (seen 4 times), embryo (once), l1 (once). We annotate structural defects or features in one cDNA clone. Alternative mRNA variants and regulation: The gene contains 9 distinct gt-ag introns. Transcription produces 2 alternatively spliced mRNAs. Variant b is transpliced to SL1. The mRNAs appear to differ by overlapping exons with different boundaries.
Efficacy of translation may be reduced by the presence of a shorter translated product (uORF) initiating at an AUG upstream of the main open reading frame (in variant a). Function: There are 24 articles specifically referring to this gene in PubMed. In addition we point below to 20 abstracts. This gene is associated to a phenotype (abnormal ACEtylcholinesterase). Proteins are expected to localize in extracellular space. The gene interacts with 5 other genes (ACE-2, ACE-3, DYS-1, SNF-6, UNC-17+CHA-1). Protein coding potential: The 2 spliced mRNAs putatively encode good proteins, altogether 2 different isoforms (1 complete, 1 partial), some containing carboxylesterase, type B domain [Pfam]; the complete protein appears to be secreted.
Please quote: AceView: a comprehensive cDNA-supported gene and transcripts annotation, Genome Biology 2006, 7(Suppl 1):S12. Map on chromosome X, links to other databases and other names Map: This gene ace-1 maps on chomosome X at position +24.00 (measured by recombination), +22.88 (interpolated). In AceView, it covers 6.57 kb, from 16367149 to 16373715 (WS190), on the direct strand. Links to:WormBase, NextDB, RNAiDB. Other names: The gene is also known in Wormgenes/AceView by its positional name XQ987, in Wormbase by its cosmid.number name W09B12.1, in NextDB, the Nematode expression pattern database, as CEYK3455. Closest AceView homologs in other species ? The closest A.thaliana gene, according to BlastP, is the AceView gene norboy (e=2 10-04)
Alternative mRNAs are shown aligned from 5' to 3' on a virtual genome where introns have been shrunk to a minimal length. Exon size is proportional to length, intron height reflects the number of cDNAs supporting each intron, the small numbers show the support of the introns in deep sequencing (with details in mouse-over) . Introns of the same color are identical, of different colors are different. 'Good proteins' are pink, partial or not-good proteins are yellow, uORFs are green. 5' cap or3' poly A flags show completeness of the transcript. Read more...
Mouse over the ending of each transcript gives tissues from which the supporting cDNAs were extracted. Details on tissue of origin for each intron and exon is available from the intron and exons table.
Click on any transcript to open the specific mRNA page, to see the exact cDNA clone support and eventual SNPs and to get details on tissues, sequences, mRNA and protein annotations. Proteins supported by a single continuous cDNA sequence lead to underlining the name/ending of the variant. Names not underlined result from cDNA concatenation in the coding region and should be experimentally checked.
Introns are depicted by broken lines; the height of the top of each intron reflects the relative number of clones supporting this intron. ]^[ A pink broken line denotes an intron with standard boundaries (gt-ag or gc-ag) that is exactly supported (i.e. a cDNA sequence exactly matches the genome over 16 bp, 8 on both sides of the intron). ] ^ ] A blue broken line denotes non-standard introns, exactly supported, but with non-standard at-ac or any other boundaries. ]-[ Pink and ] - ] blue straight lines represent 'fuzzy' introns of the standard and non-standard types respectively, those introns do not follow the 16 bp rule. Black straight lines ]-[denote gaps in the alignments.
Exons: Wide filled pink areas represent putative protein coding regions, narrow empty pink boxes represent the 5'UTR (on the left) and 3' UTR (on the right). Flags identify validated endings: cap site on the 5' side, polyadenylation site on the 3' side. Filled flags correspond to frequent events while empty flags have lesser supporting cDNAs (yet all are validated); at the 3' side, black flags are associated to the main AATAAA signal, blue flags to any single letter variant of the main . More explanations are given in the gene help file
The mRNAs diagrams with the aligned cDNA sequence accessions and their mismatches are available in the mRNA pages accessible from the tab at the top of the page, or here:
In Flash: .a, .b.
or in GIF: .a, .b
To mine knowledge about the gene, please click the 'Gene Summary' or the 'Function, regulation, related genes ' tab at the top of the page. The 'Gene Summary' page includes all we learnt about the gene, functional annotations of neighboring genes, maps, links to other sites and the bibliography. The 'Function, regulation, related genes ' page includes Diseases (D), Pathways, GO annotations, conserved domains (C), interactions (I) reference into function, and pointers to all genes with the same functional annotation.
To compare alternative variants, their summarized annotations, predicted proteins, introns and exons, or to access any sequence, click the 'Alternative mRNAs features' tab. To see a specific mRNA variant diagram, sequence and annotation, click the variant name in the 'mRNA' tab. To examine expression data from all cDNAs clustered in this gene by AceView, click the 'Expression tissue'.
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