Caenorhabditis elegans gene ace-1, abnormal ACEtylcholinesterase, encoding acetylcholinesterase class A precursor.
SUMMARY back to top
Gene ace-1 encodes acetylcholinesterase class A [Johnson and Russell, 1983], and produces about half of the acetylcholinesterase activity. The C-terminal end of ACE-1 is homologous to the C terminus of T subunits of vertebrate AChEs. ACE-1 oligomerizes into amphiphilic tetramers and is secreted [Arpagaus et al, 1994; Combes et al, 2000]. It is partly redundant functionnally with ace-2: the double mutant ace-1 ace-2 has uncoordinated locomotion, moving slowly forward and hypercontracted backward [Kolson and Russell, 1985]. Absence of the three classes A B C of acetylcholinesterases together, in the ace-1 ace-2 ace-3 triple mutant, leads to paralysis and late embryonic/early larval lethality [Johnson et al, 1988]. ace-1 is expressed at all stages of development in muscles and some nerve cells including motoneurons, but as seen from mosaic analysis, it is the muscular expression of ace-1 that is primarily required for locomotor function [Herman and Kari, 1985][Wormbase] ace-1 encodes a class A acetylcholinesterase that functions redundantly with ACE-2 with respect to total class A acetylcholinesterase activity, and that genetically interacts with ace-2 and ace-3; ace-1 is expressed in the body wall muscle, sphincter muscle, head neurons, a few pharyngeal muscle cells, and the diagonal and spicule muscles of the male.
Wormbase predicts one model, but Caenorhabditis elegans cDNA sequences in GenBank, dbEST, Trace and SRA, filtered against clone rearrangements, coaligned on the genome and clustered in a minimal non-redundant way by the manually supervised AceView program, support at least 2 spliced variants

AceView synopsis, each blue text links to tables and details
Expression: According to AceView, this gene is expressed at high level, 1.5 times the average gene in this release, at all stages of development [Kohara cDNAs]. The expression profile for the gene, derived from the proportion of animals at each stage in each Kohara library is: embryos 10%, L1 or L2 larvae 14%, L3 to adult 77%. See the in situ hybridization pattern in Kohara NextDB. The sequence of this gene is defined by 9 cDNA clones and 11 elements defined by RNA-seq, some from mixed (seen 4 times), embryo (once), l1 (once). We annotate structural defects or features in one cDNA clone.
Alternative mRNA variants and regulation: The gene contains 9 distinct gt-ag introns. Transcription produces 2 alternatively spliced mRNAs. Variant b is transpliced to SL1. The mRNAs appear to differ by overlapping exons with different boundaries.
Efficacy of translation may be reduced by the presence of a shorter translated product (uORF) initiating at an AUG upstream of the main open reading frame (in variant a).
Function: There are 24 articles specifically referring to this gene in PubMed. In addition we point below to 20 abstracts. This gene is associated to a phenotype (abnormal ACEtylcholinesterase). Proteins are expected to localize in extracellular space. The gene interacts with 5 other genes (ACE-2, ACE-3, DYS-1, SNF-6, UNC-17+CHA-1).
Protein coding potential: The 2 spliced mRNAs putatively encode good proteins, altogether 2 different isoforms (1 complete, 1 partial), some containing carboxylesterase, type B domain [Pfam]; the complete protein appears to be secreted.

Please quote: AceView: a comprehensive cDNA-supported gene and transcripts annotation, Genome Biology 2006, 7(Suppl 1):S12.
Map on chromosome X, links to other databases and other names
Map: This gene ace-1 maps on chomosome X at position +24.00 (measured by recombination), +22.88 (interpolated). In AceView, it covers 6.57 kb, from 16367149 to 16373715 (WS190), on the direct strand.
Links to: WormBase, NextDB, RNAiDB.
Other names: The gene is also known in Wormgenes/AceView by its positional name XQ987, in Wormbase by its cosmid.number name W09B12.1, in NextDB, the Nematode expression pattern database, as CEYK3455.
Closest AceView homologs in other species ?
The closest A.thaliana gene, according to BlastP, is the AceView gene norboy (e=2 10-04)
          Complete gene on genome diagram: back to top
Please choose between the zoomable GIF version., and the HTML5/SVG version.
This diagram shows in true scale the gene on the genome, the mRNAs and the cDNA clones.
Compact gene diagram back to top
Gene ace-1 5' 3' encoded on plus strand of chromosome X from 16,367,149 to 16,373,715 a b 1 2kb 0 189 bp exon 189 bp exon 51 bp uORF 189 bp exon 189 bp exon 818 bp [gt-ag] intron 8 GenBank accessions 137 bp exon 137 bp exon 47 bp [gt-ag] intron 9 GenBank accessions 285 bp exon 285 bp exon 356 bp [gt-ag] intron 9 GenBank accessions 247 bp exon 247 bp exon 292 bp [gt-ag] intron 4 GenBank accessions 179 bp exon 179 bp exon 318 bp [gt-ag] intron 2 GenBank accessions 474 bp exon 474 bp exon 1420 bp [gt-ag] intron 4 GenBank accessions 165 bp exon 165 bp exon 45 bp [gt-ag] intron 4 GenBank accessions 191 bp exon 191 bp exon 681 bp [gt-ag] intron 5 GenBank accessions 100 bp exon 100 bp exon 52 bp [gt-ag] intron 6 GenBank accessions 567 bp exon 567 bp exon 18 accessions, some from mixed (seen 4 times) embryo (once) Validated 3' end, 4 accessions 567 bp exon 127 bp exon 127 bp exon 818 bp [gt-ag] intron 8 GenBank accessions 137 bp exon 47 bp [gt-ag] intron 9 GenBank accessions 285 bp exon 356 bp [gt-ag] intron 9 GenBank accessions 247 bp exon 292 bp [gt-ag] intron 4 GenBank accessions 41 bp exon 2 accessions, some from l1 (seen once) Transpliced 5' end, 2 accessions 41 bp exon Alternative mRNAs are shown aligned from 5' to 3' on a virtual genome where introns have been shrunk to a minimal length. Exon size is proportional to length, intron height reflects the number of cDNAs supporting each intron, the small numbers show the support of the introns in deep sequencing (with details in mouse-over) . Introns of the same color are identical, of different colors are different. 'Good proteins' are pink, partial or not-good proteins are yellow, uORFs are green. 5' cap or3' poly A flags show completeness of the transcript.
Sequences: click on the numbers to get the DNA back to top
mRNA variant mRNA matching the genome Best predicted protein 5' UTR 3' UTR uORF Upstream sequence Transcription
Downstream sequence
a 2534 bp 620 aa 150 bp 521 bp 48 bp 2kb possibly including promoter 6563 bp 1kb
b 837 bp 249 aa 88 bp 2kb including Promoter 2350 bp 1kb

Gene neighbors and Navigator on chromosome X back to top
nhr-28 C I R P ace-1 D C I R P sur-7 D C I R P XQ991 D C I R P let-2 5kb 0 taf-3, 26 accessions, 4 variants nhr-28, 49 accessions 3 variants ace-1, 20 accessions, 2 variants sur-7, 61 accessions, 5 variants XQ985, 5 accessions XQ991, 0 accession let-2, 118 accessions 33 variants ZOOM OUT                 D:disease, C:conserved, I:interactions, R:regulation, P:publications         Read more...
Annotated mRNA diagrams back to top
Bibliography back to top
Please see these 24 articles in PubMed.
In addition we found 20 papers for which we do not have a PubMed identifier
? Gene Summary Gene on genome mRNA:.a, .b Alternative mRNAs features, proteins, introns, exons, sequences Expression Tissue Function, regulation, related genes DCI

To mine knowledge about the gene, please click the 'Gene Summary' or the 'Function, regulation, related genes ' tab at the top of the page. The 'Gene Summary' page includes all we learnt about the gene, functional annotations of neighboring genes, maps, links to other sites and the bibliography. The 'Function, regulation, related genes ' page includes Diseases (D), Pathways, GO annotations, conserved domains (C), interactions (I) reference into function, and pointers to all genes with the same functional annotation.
To compare alternative variants, their summarized annotations, predicted proteins, introns and exons, or to access any sequence, click the 'Alternative mRNAs features' tab. To see a specific mRNA variant diagram, sequence and annotation, click the variant name in the 'mRNA' tab. To examine expression data from all cDNAs clustered in this gene by AceView, click the 'Expression tissue'.

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