GTR Home > Conditions/Phenotypes > Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, musculocontractural type


The Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS) are a group of heritable connective tissue disorders that share the common features of skin hyperextensibility, articular hypermobility, and tissue fragility (Beighton et al., 1998). The major characteristics of the musculocontractural form of EDS include distinctive craniofacial dysmorphism, congenital contractures of thumbs and fingers, clubfeet, severe kyphoscoliosis, muscular hypotonia, hyperextensible thin skin with easy bruisability and atrophic scarring, wrinkled palms, joint hypermobility, and ocular involvement (summary by Malfait et al., 2010). Janecke et al. (2015) reviewed the clinical findings in 34 reported EDSMC patients, 31 with CHST14 mutations and 3 with DSE (605942) mutations (see 615539), and stated that the disorder can be recognized based on the presence of distal arthrogryposis, including adducted thumbs or clenched fists and talipes equinovarus, as well as hands with atypically shallow palmar creases and tapering fingers, and neonatal muscular hypotonia. Characteristic craniofacial features include brachycephaly, large fontanel, hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, microcorneae, strabismus, prominent nasolabial folds, short philtrum, thin upper lip, small mouth, high palate, microretrognathia, and prominent and often low-set and posteriorly rotated ears. In addition, EDSMC patients show muscular hypoplasia and weakness, which has been confirmed by ultrasound and electromyography, and intellectual development appears to be normal. Genetic Heterogeneity of Musculocontractural Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Ehlers-Danlos syndrome musculocontractural type 2 (EDSMC2; 615539) is caused by mutation in the DSE gene (605942) on chromosome 6q22. [from OMIM]

Genes See tests for all associated and related genes

  • Also known as: ATCS, D4ST1, EDSMC1, HNK1ST, CHST14
    Summary: carbohydrate sulfotransferase 14

Clinical features


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