GTR Home > Conditions/Phenotypes > Age-related macular degeneration 1


Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is a progressive degeneration of photoreceptors and underlying retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells in the macula region of the retina. It is a highly prevalent disease and a major cause of blindness in the Western world. Drusen, pale excrescences of variable size, and other deposits accumulate below the RPE on the Bruch membrane; clinical and histopathologic investigations have shown that these extracellular deposits are the hallmark of early ARMD. As ARMD advances, areas of geographic atrophy of the RPE can cause visual loss, or choroidal neovascularization can occur to cause wet, or exudative, ARMD with accompanying central visual loss (summary by De et al., 2007). Genetic Heterogeneity of Age-Related Macular Degeneration ARMD2 (153800) is associated with mutation in the ABCR gene (601691) on chromosome 1p, and ARMD3 (608895) is caused by mutation in the FBLN5 gene (604580) on chromosome 14q31. Up to 50% of the attributable risk of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD4; 610698) appears to be explained by a polymorphism in the CFH gene (134370.0008). ARMD5 (613761) and ARMD6 (613757) are associated with mutation in the ERCC6 (609413) and RAX2 (610362) genes, respectively. ARMD7 (610149) and ARMD8 (613778), which both represent susceptibility linked to chromosome 10q26, are associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the HTRA1 (602194) and ARMS2 (611313) genes, respectively. ARMD9 (611378) is associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the C3 gene (120700). ARMD10 (611488) maps to chromosome 9q32 and may be associated with a polymorphism in the TLR4 gene (603030). ARMD11 (611953) is association with variation in the CST3 gene (604312); ARMD12 (613784) with variation in the CX3CR1 gene (601470); and ARMD13 (615439) with variation in the CFI gene (217030). ARMD14 (615489) is associated with variation in or near the C2 (613927) and CFB (138470) genes on chromosome 6p21. ARMD15 (615591) is associated with variation in the C9 gene (120940). There is evidence for a form of ARMD caused by mutation in the mitochondrial gene MTTL1 (590050). A haplotype carrying deletion of the complement factor H-related genes CFHR1 (134371) and CFHR3 (605336) is also associated with reduced risk of ARMD. Lotery and Trump (2007) reviewed the molecular biology of age-related macular degeneration and tabulated the genes associated with ARMD, including those with only positive findings versus genes for which conflicting results have been found. [from OMIM]

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Genes See tests for all associated and related genes

  • Also known as: AD2, APO-E, ApoE4, LDLCQ5, LPG, APOE
    Summary: apolipoprotein E

  • Also known as: CFHL, CFHL1, CFHL1P, CFHR1P, FHR1, H36-1, H36-2, HFL1, HFL2, CFHR1
    Summary: complement factor H related 1

  • Also known as: CFHL3, DOWN16, FHR-3, FHR3, HLF4, CFHR3
    Summary: complement factor H related 3

  • Also known as: ARMD1, FBLN6, FIBL-6, FIBL6, HMCN1
    Summary: hemicentin 1

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