GTR Home > Conditions/Phenotypes > Diabetes mellitus type 2


Type 2 diabetes is a disorder characterized by abnormally high blood sugar levels. In this form of diabetes, the body stops using and making insulin properly. Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas that helps regulate blood sugar levels. Specifically, insulin controls how much glucose (a type of sugar) is passed from the blood into cells, where it is used as an energy source. When blood sugar levels are high (such as after a meal), the pancreas releases insulin to move the excess glucose into cells, which reduces the amount of glucose in the blood.Most people who develop type 2 diabetes first have insulin resistance, a condition in which the body's cells use insulin less efficiently than normal. As insulin resistance develops, more and more insulin is needed to keep blood sugar levels in the normal range. To keep up with the increasing need, insulin-producing cells in the pancreas (called beta cells) make larger amounts of insulin. Over time, the beta cells become less able to respond to blood sugar changes, leading to an insulin shortage that prevents the body from reducing blood sugar levels effectively. Most people have some insulin resistance as they age, but inadequate exercise and excessive weight gain make it worse, greatly increasing the likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes.Type 2 diabetes can occur at any age, but it most commonly begins in middle age or later. Signs and symptoms develop slowly over years. They include frequent urination (polyuria), excessive thirst (polydipsia), fatigue, blurred vision, tingling or loss of feeling in the hands and feet (diabetic neuropathy), sores that do not heal well, and weight loss. If blood sugar levels are not controlled through medication or diet, type 2 diabetes can cause long-lasting (chronic) health problems including heart disease and stroke; nerve damage; and damage to the kidneys, eyes, and other parts of the body. [from GTR]

Available tests

123 tests are in the database for this condition.

Check Related conditions for additional relevant tests.

Genes See tests for all associated and related genes

  • Also known as: ABC36, HHF1, HI, HRINS, MRP8, PHHI, SUR, SUR1, SUR1delta2, TNDM2, ABCC8
    Summary: ATP binding cassette subfamily C member 8

    Summary: AKT serine/threonine kinase 2

  • Also known as: , CDKAL1
    Summary: CDK5 regulatory subunit associated protein 1 like 1

  • Also known as: ARHR2, COLED, M6S1, NPP1, NPPS, PC-1, PCA1, PDNP1, ENPP1
    Summary: ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1

  • Also known as: GGR, GL-R, GCGR
    Summary: glucagon receptor

  • Also known as: FGQTL3, GK, GLK, HHF3, HK4, HKIV, HXKP, LGLK, MODY2, GCK
    Summary: glucokinase

  • Also known as: GDH2, GPDM, mGPDH, GPD2
    Summary: glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 2

  • Also known as: HMG-R, HMGA1A, HMGIY, HMGA1
    Summary: high mobility group AT-hook 1

  • Also known as: HNF-1A, HNF1, IDDM20, LFB1, MODY3, TCF-1, TCF1, HNF1A
    Summary: HNF1 homeobox A

  • Also known as: FJHN, HNF-1-beta, HNF-1B, HNF1beta, HNF2, HPC11, LF-B3, LFB3, MODY5, TCF-2, TCF2, VHNF1, HNF1B
    Summary: HNF1 homeobox B

  • Also known as: FRTS4, HNF4, HNF4a7, HNF4a8, HNF4a9, HNF4alpha, MODY, MODY1, NR2A1, NR2A21, TCF, TCF14, HNF4A
    Summary: hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha

  • Also known as: IMP-2, IMP2, VICKZ2, IGF2BP2
    Summary: insulin like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 2

  • Also known as: HIRS-1, IRS1
    Summary: insulin receptor substrate 1

  • Also known as: IRS-2, IRS2
    Summary: insulin receptor substrate 2

  • Also known as: BIR, HHF2, IKATP, KIR6.2, MODY13, PHHI, TNDM3, KCNJ11
    Summary: potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily J member 11

  • Also known as: HDLCQ12, HL, HTGL, LIPH, LIPC
    Summary: lipase C, hepatic type

  • Also known as: IB1, JIP-1, JIP1, PRKM8IP, MAPK8IP1
    Summary: mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1

  • Also known as: FGQTL2, MEL-1B-R, MT2, MTNR1B
    Summary: melatonin receptor 1B

  • Also known as: BETA2, BHF-1, MODY6, NEUROD, bHLHa3, NEUROD1
    Summary: neuronal differentiation 1

  • Also known as: KPD, MODY9, PAX4
    Summary: paired box 4

  • Also known as: GSF, IDX-1, IPF1, IUF1, MODY4, PAGEN1, PDX-1, STF-1, PDX1
    Summary: pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1

  • Also known as: CIMT1, GLM1, NR1C3, PPARG1, PPARG2, PPARgamma, PPARG
    Summary: peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma

  • Also known as: GM, PP1G, PPP1R3, PPP1R3A
    Summary: protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 3A

  • Also known as: PTP1B, PTPN1
    Summary: protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 1

  • Also known as: ADSF, FIZZ3, RETN1, RSTN, XCP1, RETN
    Summary: resistin

  • Also known as: GLUT2, SLC2A2
    Summary: solute carrier family 2 member 2

  • Also known as: ZNT8, ZnT-8, SLC30A8
    Summary: solute carrier family 30 member 8

  • Also known as: TCF-4, TCF4, TCF7L2
    Summary: transcription factor 7 like 2

  • Also known as: CTRCT41, WFRS, WFS, WFSL, WFS1
    Summary: wolframin ER transmembrane glycoprotein

Clinical features


Show allHide all

IMPORTANT NOTE: NIH does not independently verify information submitted to the GTR; it relies on submitters to provide information that is accurate and not misleading. NIH makes no endorsements of tests or laboratories listed in the GTR. GTR is not a substitute for medical advice. Patients and consumers with specific questions about a genetic test should contact a health care provider or a genetics professional.

Support Center