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1.

Short-rib thoracic dysplasia 1 with or without polydactyly

Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (Sensenbrenner syndrome; see CED1, 218330). Genetic Heterogeneity of Asphyxiating Thoracic Dysplasia SRTD1 has been mapped to chromosome 15q13. See also SRTD2 (611263), caused by mutation in the IFT80 gene (611177); SRTD3 (613091), caused by mutation in the DYNC2H1 gene (603297); SRTD4 (613819), caused by mutation in the TTC21B gene (612014); SRTD5 (614376), caused by mutation in the WDR19 gene (608151); SRTD6 (263520), caused by mutation in the NEK1 gene (604588); SRTD7 (614091), caused by mutation in the WDR35 gene (613602); SRTD8 (615503), caused by mutation in the WDR60 gene (615462); SRTD9 (266920), caused by mutation in the IFT140 gene (614620); SRTD10 (615630), caused by mutation in the IFT172 gene (607386); SRTD11 (615633), caused by mutation in the WDR34 gene (613363); SRTD13 (616300), caused by mutation in the CEP120 gene (613446); SRTD14 (616546), caused by mutation in the KIAA0586 gene (610178); SRTD15 (617088), caused by mutation in the DYNC2LI1 gene (617083); SRTD16 (617102), caused by mutation in the IFT52 gene (617094); SRTD17 (617405), caused by mutation in the TCTEX1D2 gene (617353); SRTD18 (617866), caused by mutation in the IFT43 gene (614068); SRTD19 (617895), caused by mutation in the IFT81 gene (605489); and SRTD20 (617925), caused by mutation in the INTU gene (610621). See also SRTD12 (Beemer-Langer syndrome; 269860). [from OMIM]

2.

Short-rib thoracic dysplasia 3 with or without polydactyly

Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (Sensenbrenner syndrome; see CED1, 218330). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short-rib thoracic dysplasia, see SRTD1 (208500). [from OMIM]

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