Genome binding/occupancy profiling by high throughput sequencing
We show that EWS-FLI1, an aberrant transcription factor responsible for the pathogenesis of Ewing sarcoma, reprograms gene regulatory circuits by directly inducing or directly repressing enhancers. At GGAA repeats, which lack regulatory potential in other cell types and are not evolutionarily conserved, EWS- FLI1 multimers potently induce chromatin opening, recruit p300 and WDR5, and create de novo enhancers. GGAA repeat enhancers can loop to physically interact with target promoters, as demonstrated by chromosome conformation capture assays. Conversely, EWS-FLI1 inactivates conserved enhancers containing canonical ETS motifs by displacing wild-type ETS transcription factors and abrogating p300 recruitment.
ChIP-seq for of 4 histone modifications (H3K27ac, H3K4me1, H3K4me3 and H3K27me3), FLI1, p300, WDR5, ELF1 and GABPA in primary Ewing sarcomas, Ewing sarcoma cell lines (A673 and SKMNC cells), and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). EWS-FLI1 was knocked down in Ewing sarcoma cell lines with lentiviral shRNAs (shFLI1 and shGFP control). EWS-FLI1 was expressed in MSCs with lentiviral expression vectors (pLIV EWSFLI1 or pLIV empty vector control).
* Raw data not provided for the MSC and Primary Ewing sarcoma samples. *