||Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with early T-cell precursor immunophenotype (ETP ALL) is a highly aggressive subtype of ALL of unknown aetiology. To gain insights into the genetic basis of this disease, we performed whole genome sequencing of tumour and normal DNA of 12 children with ETP ALL. Analysis of structural and sequence variants in this discovery cohort, and mutation recurrence screening in a panel of 51 ETP and 43 non ETP ALL samples identified a high frequency of activating mutations in genes regulating cytokine receptor and Ras signalling, including IL7R, NRAS, KRAS, FLT3, BRAF, JAK1 and JAK3 in ETP ALL. Moreover, we identified multiple new targets of mutation in including GATA3, EP300, RUNX1, DNM2, ECT2L, HNRNPA1 and HNRNPR, as well as genes known to be mutated in T-ALL, including NOTCH1, PHF6, and WT1.. Five of 12 ETP ALL cases harboured novel chromosomal translocations, several of which accompanied complex multichromosomal rearrangements and resulted in the expression of chimeric in-frame fusion genes disrupting hematopoietic regulators, including ETV6-INO80D, NAP1L1-MLLT10 and RUNX1-EVX1. These results indicate that although ETP ALL is genetically heterogeneous, activation of Ras and cytokine receptor signalling distinguishes this disease from non-ETP ALL. These findings suggest that targeting this pathway may improve the currently dismal outcome of this disease.