Ischemic tolerance can be induced by numerous preconditioning stimuli, including various Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands. We have shown previously that systemic administration of the TLR4 ligand, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or the TLR9 ligand, unmethylated CpG ODNs prior to transient brain ischemia in mice confers substantial protection against ischemic damage. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of preconditioning, we compared brain and blood genomic profiles in response to preconditioning with these TLR ligands and to preconditioning via exposure to brief ischemia. The experiment is a comparison of multiple treatment groups with sampling at multiple time points. The objective is to identify differentially regulated genes associated with preconditioning. Time points are examined both following preconditioning alone and following subsequent ischemic challenge (middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)). Brain ipsilateral cortex tissue and blood were collected and processed from each animal.