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Series GSE169122 Query DataSets for GSE169122
Status Public on Nov 23, 2021
Title The Birth, Distribution and Evolution of Primate Cerebral Inhibitory Neurons
Organism Macaca mulatta
Experiment type Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing
Summary Neuroanatomists have long speculated that expanded primate brains contain an increased morphological diversity of inhibitory neurons (doi:10.1038/nrn3444, DeFelipe et al.) and recent studies have identified primate-specific neuronal populations at the molecular level(doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2781-z, Krienen et al.). However, we know little about the developmental mechanisms that specify evolutionarily novel cell types in the brain. Here, we reconstructed gene expression trajectories specifying inhibitory neurons spanning the neurogenic period in macaque and mouse by analyzing the transcriptomes of 250,181 cells. We find that the initial classes of inhibitory neurons generated prenatally are largely conserved among mammals. Nonetheless, we identify two contrasting developmental mechanisms for specifying evolutionarily novel cell types during prenatal development. First, we show that recently-identified primate-specific TAC3 striatal interneurons are specified by a unique transcriptional program in progenitors followed by induction of a distinct suite of neuropeptides and neurotransmitter receptors in newborn neurons. Second, we find that multiple classes of transcriptionally-conserved olfactory-bulb bound precursors are redirected to expanded primate white matter and striatum, including a novel peristriatal class, striatum laureatum neurons, that resemble dopaminergic periglomerular cells of the olfactory bulb. We propose an evolutionary model in which conserved initial classes of neurons supplying the smaller primate olfactory bulb are reused in the enlarged striatum and cortex. Together, our results provide a unified developmental taxonomy of initial classes of mammalian inhibitory neurons and reveal multiple developmental mechanisms for neural cell type evolution.

Overall design 10X Genomics Chromium single cell 3’ capture RNA-sequencing of 9 macaque embryos between embryonic day 40 and 100
Web link
Contributor(s) Schmitz MT, Pollen AA
Citation(s) 35322231
NIH grant(s)
Grant ID Grant title Affiliation Name
F31 NS124333 Reduction of the Olfactory Bulb and Reuse of its Inhibitory Neurons in the Primate Cerebrum University of California San Francisco Matthew T Schmitz
Submission date Mar 17, 2021
Last update date Jul 05, 2022
Contact name Alex A Pollen
Organization name UCSF
Department Neurology
Lab Alex Pollen
Street address 35 Medical Center Way
City San Francisco
State/province CA
ZIP/Postal code 94132
Country USA
Platforms (3)
GPL19129 Illumina HiSeq 2500 (Macaca mulatta)
GPL23949 Illumina HiSeq 4000 (Macaca mulatta)
GPL27943 Illumina NovaSeq 6000 (Macaca mulatta)
Samples (70)
GSM5183791 E40_CGE-LGE
GSM5183792 E40_MGE
GSM5183793 E40_PFC
BioProject PRJNA715715
SRA SRP311340

Download family Format
SOFT formatted family file(s) SOFTHelp
MINiML formatted family file(s) MINiMLHelp
Series Matrix File(s) TXTHelp

Supplementary file Size Download File type/resource
GSE169122_MacaqueDevInhibitoryNeurons.h5ad.gz 10.9 Gb (ftp)(http) H5AD
GSE169122_X.csv.gz 275.5 Mb (ftp)(http) CSV
GSE169122_obs.csv.gz 3.2 Mb (ftp)(http) CSV
GSE169122_var.csv.gz 181.6 Kb (ftp)(http) CSV
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Raw data are available in SRA
Processed data are available on Series record

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