Genome binding/occupancy profiling by high throughput sequencing
Regulatory decisions in Drosophila require Polycomb group (PcG) proteins to maintain the silent state and Trithorax group (TrxG) proteins to oppose silencing. Since PcG and TrxG are ubiquitous and lack apparent sequence specificity, a long-standing model is that targeting occurs via protein interactions; for instance, between repressors and PcG proteins. Instead, we found that Pc-repressive complex 1 (PRC1) purifies with coactivators Fs(1)h [female sterile (1) homeotic] and Enok/Br140 during embryogenesis. Fs(1)h is a TrxG member and the ortholog of BRD4, a bromodomain protein that binds to acetylated histones and is a key transcriptional coactivator in mammals. Enok and Br140, another bromodomain protein, are orthologous to subunits of a mammalian MOZ/MORF acetyltransferase complex. Here we confirm PRC1-Br140 and PRC1-Fs(1)h interactions and identify their genomic binding sites. PRC1-Br140 bind developmental genes in fly embryos, with analogous co-occupancy of PRC1 and a Br140 ortholog, BRD1, at bivalent loci in human embryonic stem (ES) cells. We propose that identification of PRC1-Br140 "bivalent complexes" in fly embryos supports and extends the bivalency model posited in mammalian cells, in which the coexistence of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 at developmental promoters represents a poised transcriptional state. We further speculate that local competition between acetylation and deacetylation may play a critical role in the resolution of bivalent protein complexes during development.
36 samples in total: human data set: 8 samples; HUES64 cells IP for BRD1 and RING1B fly data set: 28 samples; Genomic binding/occupancy profiling of Fs(1)h, Br140, H3K27ac and H3K27me3 by high throughput sequencing