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NCBI Mus musculus Annotation Release 109

The RefSeq genome records for Mus musculus were annotated by the NCBI Eukaryotic Genome Annotation Pipeline, an automated pipeline that annotates genes, transcripts and proteins on draft and finished genome assemblies. This report presents statistics on the annotation products, the input data used in the pipeline and intermediate alignment results.

The annotation products are available in the sequence databases and on the FTP site.

This report provides:

For more information on the annotation process, please visit the NCBI Eukaryotic Genome Annotation Pipeline page.

Annotation Release information

This annotation should be referred to as NCBI Mus musculus Annotation Release 109

Annotation release ID: 109
Date of Entrez queries for transcripts and proteins: Sep 9 2020
Date of submission of annotation to the public databases: Sep 22 2020
Software version: 8.5


The following assemblies were included in this annotation run:
Assembly nameAssembly accessionSubmitterAssembly dateReference/AlternateAssembly content
GRCm39GCF_000001635.27Genome Reference Consortium06-24-2020Reference22 assembled chromosomes; unplaced scaffolds

Gene and feature statistics

Counts and length of annotated features are provided below for each assembly.

Feature counts

Genes and pseudogenes help50,561
  transcribed pseudogenes474
  non-transcribed pseudogenes9,869
  genes with variants18,531
  immunoglobulin/T-cell receptor gene segments490
  with > 5% ab initio help113
  with filled gap(s) help0
  known RefSeq (NM_) help37,907
  model RefSeq (XM_)54,579
non-coding RNAs help38,629
  with > 5% ab initio help0
  with filled gap(s) help0
  known RefSeq (NR_) help7,443
  model RefSeq (XR_) help29,867
pseudo transcripts help533
  with > 5% ab initio help0
  with filled gap(s) help0
  known RefSeq (NR_) help461
  model RefSeq (XR_) help72
  with > 5% ab initio help155
  with major correction(s) help30
  known RefSeq (NP_) help37,920
  model RefSeq (XP_) help54,579

Detailed reports

The counts below do not include pseudogenes.

Alignment of the annotated proteins to a set of high-quality proteins

The final set of annotated proteins was searched with BLASTP against the UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot curated proteins, using the annotated proteins as the query and the high-quality proteins as the target. Out of 22173 coding genes, 21594 genes had a protein with an alignment covering 50% or more of the query and 19854 had an alignment covering 95% or more of the query.

Definition of query and target coverage. The query coverage is the percentage of the annotated protein length that is included in the alignment. The target coverage is the percentage of the target length that is included in the alignment.

Below is a cumulative graph displaying the number of genes with alignments above a given query or target coverage threshold. For comparison, corresponding statistics for other organisms annotated by the NCBI eukaryotic annotation pipeline were added to the graph.

Query: annotated proteins
Target: UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot curated proteins

Masking of genomic sequence

Transcript and protein alignments are performed on the repeat-masked genome. Below are the percentages of genomic sequence masked by WindowMasker and RepeatMasker for each assembly. RepeatMasker results are only used for organisms for which a comprehensive repeat library is available.

For this annotation run, transcripts and proteins were aligned to the genome masked with RepeatMasker only.
Assembly nameAssembly accession% Masked with RepeatMasker% Masked with WindowMasker

Transcript and protein alignments

The annotation pipeline relies heavily on alignments of experimental evidence for gene prediction. Below are the sets of transcripts and proteins that were retrieved from Entrez, aligned to the genome by Splign or ProSplign and passed to Gnomon, NCBI's gene prediction software.

Depending on the other evidence available, long 454 reads (with average length above 250 nt) may be aligned as traditional evidence and reported in the Transcript alignments section or aligned with RNA-Seq reads and reported in the RNA-Seq alignments section.

Transcript alignments

RefSeq transcript alignment quality report

The known RefSeq transcripts (NM_ and NR_ accessions) are a set of hiqh-quality transcripts maintained by the RefSeq group at NCBI. Alignment statistics for this group of transcripts, such as percent and number of sequences not aligning at all, percent best alignments split between multiple scaffolds, and percent alignments not covering the full CDS are indicative of the genome quality and are provided below.

Primary Assembly
Number of sequences retrieved from Entrez45,948
Number (%) of sequences not aligning1 (0.00%)
Number (%) of sequences with multiple best alignments (split genes)2 (0.00%)
Number (%) of sequences with CDS coverage < 95% help19 (0.05%)

RNA-Seq alignments

The following RNA-Seq reads from the Sequence Read Archive were also used for gene prediction:

  Hide alignments statistics, by sample (SAME, SAMN, SAMD, DRS)
  Show alignments statistics, by run (ERR, SRR, DRR)

Protein alignments

Assembly-assembly alignments of current to previous assembly

When the assembly changes between two rounds of annotation, genes in the current and the previous annotation are mapped to each other using the genomic alignments of the current assembly to the previous assembly so that gene identifiers can be preserved. The success of the remapping depends largely on how well the two assembly versions align to each other.

Below are the percent coverage of one assembly by the other and the average percent identity of the alignments. The 'First pass' alignments are reciprocal best hits, while the 'Total' alignments also include 'Second pass' or non-reciprocal best alignments. For more information about the assembly-assembly alignment process, please visit the NCBI Genome Remapping Service page.

First PassTotal
GRCm39 (Current) Coverage: 99.93%GRCm39 (Current) Coverage: 99.96%
GRCm38.p6 (Previous) Coverage: 96.83%GRCm38.p6 (Previous) Coverage: 99.84%
Percent Identity: 99.99%Percent Identity: 99.97%

Comparison of the current and previous annotations

The annotation produced for this release (109) was compared to the annotation in the previous release (108) for each assembly annotated in both releases. Scores for current and previous gene and transcript features were calculated based on overlap in exon sequence and matches in exon boundaries. Pairs of current and previous features were categorized based on these scores, whether they are reciprocal best matches, and changes in attributes (gene biotype, completeness, etc.). If the assembly was updated between the two releases, alignments between the current and the previous assembly were used to match the current and previous gene and transcript features in mapped regions.

The table below summarizes the changes in the gene set for each assembly as a percent of the number of genes in the current annotation release, and provides links to the details of the comparison in tabular format and in a Genome Workbench project.

GRCm39 (Current) to GRCm38.p6 (Previous)
Identical help68%
Minor changes help26%
Major changes help3%
New help3%
Deprecated help2%
Other help<1%
Download the reporttabular, Genome Workbench


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