NCBI Bos taurus Annotation Release 105

The RefSeq genome records for Bos taurus were annotated by the NCBI Eukaryotic Genome Annotation Pipeline, an automated pipeline that annotates genes, transcripts and proteins on draft and finished genome assemblies. This report presents statistics on the annotation products, the input data used in the pipeline and intermediate alignment results.

The annotation products are available in the sequence databases and on the FTP site.

This report provides:

For more information on the annotation process, please visit the NCBI Eukaryotic Genome Annotation Pipeline page.


Annotation Release information

This annotation should be referred to as NCBI Bos taurus Annotation Release 105

Annotation release ID: 105
Date of Entrez queries for transcripts and proteins: Jan 20 2016
Date of submission of annotation to the public databases: Jan 26 2016
Software version: 6.5

Assemblies

The following assemblies were included in this annotation run:
Assembly nameAssembly accessionSubmitterAssembly dateReference/AlternateAssembly content
Bos_taurus_UMD_3.1.1GCF_000003055.6Center for Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Maryland11-25-2014Reference31 assembled chromosomes; unplaced scaffolds
Btau_5.0.1GCF_000003205.7Cattle Genome Sequencing International Consortium11-19-2015Alternate31 assembled chromosomes; unplaced scaffolds

Gene and feature statistics

Counts and length of annotated features are provided below for each assembly.

Feature counts

FeatureBos_taurus_UMD_3.1.1Btau_5.0.1
Genes and pseudogenes help30,72631,061
  protein-coding21,29521,514
  non-coding5,5205,563
  pseudogenes3,9113,984
  genes with variants10,4153,545
mRNAs48,99028,906
  fully-supported46,92626,856
  with > 5% ab initio help774835
  partial1,9621,314
  with filled gap(s) help16082
  known RefSeq (NM_) help13,24713,256
  model RefSeq (XM_)35,74315,650
Other RNAs help10,4039,630
  fully-supported8,7457,968
  with > 5% ab initio help00
  partial44
  with filled gap(s) help11
  known RefSeq (NR_) help874874
  model RefSeq (XR_) help7,8727,094
CDSs49,18429,101
  fully-supported46,92626,856
  with > 5% ab initio help944994
  partial1,5891,062
  with major correction(s) help1,8282,165
  known RefSeq (NP_) help13,24113,251
  model RefSeq (XP_) help35,74315,650

Detailed reports

Alignment of the annotated proteins to a set of high-quality proteins

The final set of annotated proteins was searched with BLASTP against the UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot curated proteins, using the annotated proteins as the query and the high-quality proteins as the target. Out of 21089 coding genes in the Bos_taurus_UMD_3.1.1 assembly, 20675 genes had a protein with an alignment covering 50% or more of the query and 17736 had an alignment covering 95% or more of the query. Out of 21309 coding genes in the Btau_5.0.1 assembly, 20878 genes had a protein with an alignment covering 50% or more of the query and 17658 had an alignment covering 95% or more of the query.

Definition of query and target coverage. The query coverage is the percentage of the annotated protein length that is included in the alignment. The target coverage is the percentage of the target length that is included in the alignment.

Below is a cumulative graph displaying the number of genes with alignments above a given query or target coverage threshold. For comparison, corresponding statistics for other organisms annotated by the NCBI eukaryotic annotation pipeline were added to the graph.

Query: annotated proteins
Target: UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot curated proteins

Masking of genomic sequence

Transcript and protein alignments are performed on the repeat-masked genome. Below are the percentages of genomic sequence masked by WindowMasker and RepeatMasker for each assembly. RepeatMasker results are only used for organisms for which a comprehensive repeat library is available.

For this annotation run, transcripts and proteins were aligned to the genome masked with WindowMasker only.
Assembly nameAssembly accession% Masked with RepeatMasker% Masked with WindowMasker
Bos_taurus_UMD_3.1.1GCF_000003055.648.37%40.27%
Btau_5.0.1GCF_000003205.748.77%40.62%

Transcript and protein alignments

The annotation pipeline relies heavily on alignments of experimental evidence for gene prediction. Below are the sets of transcripts and proteins that were retrieved from Entrez, aligned to the genome by Splign or ProSplign and passed to Gnomon, NCBI's gene prediction software.

Depending on the other evidence available, long 454 reads (with average length above 250 nt) may be aligned as traditional evidence and reported in the Transcript alignments section or aligned with short reads and reported in the Short read transcript alignments section.

Transcript alignments

RefSeq transcript alignment quality report

The known RefSeq transcripts (NM_ and NR_ accessions) are a set of hiqh-quality transcripts maintained by the RefSeq group at NCBI. Alignment statistics for this group of transcripts, such as percent and number of sequences not aligning at all, percent best alignments split between multiple scaffolds, and percent alignments not covering the full CDS are indicative of the genome quality and are provided below.

Bos_taurus_UMD_3.1.1
Primary Assembly
Btau_5.0.1
Primary Assembly
Number of sequences retrieved from Entrez14,21814,218
Number (%) of sequences not aligning7 (0.05%)4 (0.03%)
Number (%) of sequences with multiple best alignments (split genes)319 (2.25%)293 (2.06%)
Number (%) of sequences with CDS coverage < 95% help820 (6.15%)561 (4.21%)

Short read transcript alignments

The following short reads (RNA-Seq) from the Sequence Read Archive were also used for gene prediction:

  Hide alignments statistics, by sample (SAME, SAMN, SAMD, DRS)
  Show alignments statistics, by run (ERR, SRR, DRR)

Protein alignments

Assembly-assembly alignments of current to previous assembly

When the assembly changes between two rounds of annotation, genes in the current and the previous annotation are mapped to each other using the genomic alignments of the current assembly to the previous assembly so that gene identifiers can be preserved. The success of the remapping depends largely on how well the two assembly versions align to each other.

Below are the percent coverage of one assembly by the other and the average percent identity of the alignments. The 'First pass' alignments are reciprocal best hits, while the 'Total' alignments also include 'Second pass' or non-reciprocal best alignments. For more information about the assembly-assembly alignment process, please visit the NCBI Genome Remapping Service page.

First PassTotal
Btau_5.0.1 (Current) Coverage: 96.85%Btau_5.0.1 (Current) Coverage: 97.57%
Btau_4.6.1 (Previous) Coverage: 93.61%Btau_4.6.1 (Previous) Coverage: 98.37%
Percent Identity: 99.88%Percent Identity: 99.83%

Assembly-assembly alignments of alternate to reference assembly

When multiple assemblies of good quality are available for the organism, the annotation of all is done in coordination. The alternate assemblies are aligned to the reference assembly and the best reciprocal best hits are used to identify corresponding regions, that can then be annotated together.

Below are the percent coverage of one assembly by the other and the average percent identity of the alignments. The 'First pass' alignments are reciprocal best hits, while the 'Total' alignments also include 'Second pass' or non-reciprocal best alignments. For more information about the assembly-assembly alignment process, please visit the NCBI Genome Remapping Service page.

First PassTotal
Bos_taurus_UMD_3.1.1 (Alternate) Coverage: 99.80%Bos_taurus_UMD_3.1.1 (Alternate) Coverage: 99.81%
Btau_5.0.1 (Reference) Coverage: 97.46%Btau_5.0.1 (Reference) Coverage: 99.02%
Percent Identity: 99.99%Percent Identity: 99.95%

Comparison of the current and previous annotations

The annotation produced for this release (105) was compared to the annotation in the previous release (104) for each assembly annotated in both releases. Scores for current and previous gene and transcript features were calculated based on overlap in exon sequence and matches in exon boundaries. Pairs of current and previous features were categorized based on these scores, whether they are reciprocal best matches, and changes in attributes (gene biotype, completeness, etc.). If the assembly was updated between the two releases, alignments between the current and the previous assembly were used to match the current and previous gene and transcript features in mapped regions.

The table below summarizes the changes in the gene set for each assembly as a percent of the number of genes in the current annotation release, and provides links to the details of the comparison in tabular format and in a Genome Workbench project.

Bos_taurus_UMD_3.1.1 (Current) to Bos_taurus_UMD_3.1.1 (Previous)Btau_5.0.1 (Current) to Btau_4.6.1 (Previous)
Identical help32%44%
Minor changes help45%27%
Major changes help16%17%
New help7%10%
Deprecated help19%29%
Other help1%2%
Download the reporttabular, Genome Workbenchtabular, Genome Workbench

References

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