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    VRK2 VRK serine/threonine kinase 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 7444, updated on 17-Jun-2019

    Summary

    Official Symbol
    VRK2provided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    VRK serine/threonine kinase 2provided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:12719
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000028116 MIM:602169
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Summary
    This gene encodes a member of the vaccinia-related kinase (VRK) family of serine/threonine protein kinases. The encoded protein acts as an effector of signaling pathways that regulate apoptosis and tumor cell growth. Variants in this gene have been associated with schizophrenia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that differ in their subcellular localization and biological activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]
    Expression
    Ubiquitous expression in adrenal (RPKM 6.3), appendix (RPKM 5.7) and 25 other tissues See more
    Orthologs

    Genomic context

    See VRK2 in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    2p16.1
    Exon count:
    22
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    109.20190607 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 2 NC_000002.12 (57907651..58163993)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 2 NC_000002.11 (58273777..58387055)

    Chromosome 2 - NC_000002.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105377628 Neighboring gene actin gamma 1 pseudogene 22 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105374726 Neighboring gene formin-2-like Neighboring gene VRK2 intron CAGE-defined low expression enhancer Neighboring gene FA complementation group L Neighboring gene eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit F pseudogene 3 Neighboring gene long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1795

    Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

    Expression

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

    Bibliography

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    Phenotypes

    NHGRI GWAS Catalog

    Description
    Biological insights from 108 schizophrenia-associated genetic loci.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Common variants conferring risk of schizophrenia.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Genetic determinants of common epilepsies: a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog

    HIV-1 interactions

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Pr55(Gag) gag The amplified luminescent proximity homogeneous assay (AlphaScreen) identifies the interaction of HIV-1 Gag with VRK2 PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

    Pathways from BioSystems

    • Cell Cycle, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Cell Cycle, organism-specific biosystem
      Cell Cycle
    • Cell Cycle, Mitotic, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Cell Cycle, Mitotic, organism-specific biosystemThe replication of the genome and the subsequent segregation of chromosomes into daughter cells are controlled by a series of events collectively known as the cell cycle. DNA replication is carried o...
    • Clearance of Nuclear Envelope Membranes from Chromatin, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Clearance of Nuclear Envelope Membranes from Chromatin, organism-specific biosystemIn mitotic prophase, chromatin detaches from the nuclear envelope, and this contributes to the nuclear envelope breakdown. VRK1 (and possibly VRK2) mediated phosphorylation of BANF1 (BAF), a protein ...
    • Initiation of Nuclear Envelope Reformation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Initiation of Nuclear Envelope Reformation, organism-specific biosystemReassembly of the nuclear envelope is initiated at late anaphase/early telophase when BANF1 (BAF) accumulates on the decondensing chromosome mass close to the spindle ('core' region), together with E...
    • M Phase, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      M Phase, organism-specific biosystemMitosis, or the M phase, involves nuclear division and cytokinesis, where two identical daughter cells are produced. Mitosis involves prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Fin...
    • Mitotic Anaphase, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Mitotic Anaphase, organism-specific biosystemIn anaphase, the paired chromosomes separate at the centromeres, and move to the opposite sides of the cell. The movement of the chromosomes is facilitated by a combination of kinetochore movement al...
    • Mitotic Metaphase and Anaphase, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Mitotic Metaphase and Anaphase, organism-specific biosystemMetaphase is marked by the formation of the metaphase plate. The metaphase plate is formed when the spindle fibers align the chromosomes along the middle of the cell. Such an organization helps to ...
    • Mitotic Prophase, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Mitotic Prophase, organism-specific biosystemDuring prophase, the chromatin in the nucleus condenses, and the nucleolus disappears. Centrioles begin moving to the opposite poles or sides of the cell. Some of the fibers that extend from the cen...
    • Nuclear Envelope Breakdown, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Nuclear Envelope Breakdown, organism-specific biosystemThe nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD) happens in late prophase of mitosis and involves disassembly of the nuclear pore complex, depolymerization of the nuclear lamina, and clearance of nuclear envelo...
    • Nuclear Envelope Reassembly, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Nuclear Envelope Reassembly, organism-specific biosystemThe reassembly of the nuclear envelope (NE) around separated sister chromatids begins in late anaphase and is completed in telophase. Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) reassemble and insert into the refo...

    Interactions

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    General gene information

    Markers

    Homology

    Clone Names

    • FLJ97061

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    ATP binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein domain specific binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein kinase binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein serine/threonine kinase activity IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein serine/threonine kinase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    cellular response to oxidative stress IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    peptidyl-serine phosphorylation IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein autophosphorylation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein phosphorylation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of MAPK cascade IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of interleukin-1-mediated signaling pathway IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    viral process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    cytoplasm IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytoplasm IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    endoplasmic reticulum IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    endoplasmic reticulum membrane IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    integral component of membrane IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    mitochondrial membrane IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    nucleus IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    nucleus IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein-containing complex IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 

    General protein information

    Preferred Names
    serine/threonine-protein kinase VRK2
    Names
    vaccinia related kinase 2
    vaccinia virus B1R-related kinase 2
    NP_001123952.1
    NP_001123953.1
    NP_001123954.1
    NP_001123955.1
    NP_001275765.1
    NP_001275766.1
    NP_001275767.1
    NP_001275768.1
    NP_006287.2
    XP_005264597.1
    XP_006712153.1
    XP_006712154.1
    XP_006712155.1
    XP_006712156.1
    XP_011531394.1
    XP_016860347.1
    XP_016860348.1
    XP_016860349.1
    XP_016860350.1
    XP_016860351.1
    XP_016860352.1
    XP_016860354.1
    XP_016860355.1

    NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_029717.2 RefSeqGene

      Range
      143902..257180
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_001130480.2NP_001123952.1  serine/threonine-protein kinase VRK2 isoform 1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001123952.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 5' UTR compared to variant 1. Variants 1, 2, 3, and 8 encode the same isoform (1, also known as VRK2A).
      Source sequence(s)
      AB000450, AK223540, AK311205, DB227029
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS1859.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q86Y07
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      COG0515
      Location:29421
      SPS1; Serine/threonine protein kinase [Signal transduction mechanisms]
      cd14123
      Location:16314
      STKc_VRK2; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine protein kinase, Vaccinia Related Kinase 2
    2. NM_001130481.2NP_001123953.1  serine/threonine-protein kinase VRK2 isoform 1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001123953.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (3) differs in the 5' UTR compared to variant 1. Variants 1, 2, 3, and 8 encode the same isoform (1, also known as VRK2A).
      Source sequence(s)
      AK311205, AY228367, BC027854
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS1859.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q86Y07
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      COG0515
      Location:29421
      SPS1; Serine/threonine protein kinase [Signal transduction mechanisms]
      cd14123
      Location:16314
      STKc_VRK2; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine protein kinase, Vaccinia Related Kinase 2
    3. NM_001130482.2NP_001123954.1  serine/threonine-protein kinase VRK2 isoform 2

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001123954.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (4) differs in the 5' UTR, lacks a portion of the 5' coding region, and initiates translation at a downstream in-frame start codon, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (2) has a shorter N-terminus than isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AK223540, AK311205, AY228369, DB227029
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS46292.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q86Y07
      Related
      ENSP00000398323.2, ENST00000440705.6
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      COG0515
      Location:6398
      SPS1; Serine/threonine protein kinase [Signal transduction mechanisms]
      cl21453
      Location:1291
      PKc_like; Protein Kinases, catalytic domain
    4. NM_001130483.2NP_001123955.1  serine/threonine-protein kinase VRK2 isoform 3

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001123955.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (5) differs in the 5' UTR and contains an alternate exon in the 3' coding region, which results in a frameshift, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (3) has a shorter and distinct C-terminus, compared to isoform 1. Variants 5 and 9 encode the same isoform (3, also known as VRK2B).
      Source sequence(s)
      AK311205, AY228372, DB227029
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS46291.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q86Y07
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cl21453
      Location:16314
      PKc_like; Protein Kinases, catalytic domain
    5. NM_001288836.1NP_001275765.1  serine/threonine-protein kinase VRK2 isoform 4

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001275765.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (6) uses an alternate splice site and contains an alternate exon in the 5' region, compared to variant 1. It initiates translation at a downstream in-frame start codon. The encoded isoform (4) has a shorter N-terminus than isoform 1. Variants 6 and 7 encode the same isoform (4).
      Source sequence(s)
      AK296611, AK311205, DB227029
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q86Y07
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      COG0515
      Location:1303
      SPS1; Serine/threonine protein kinase [Signal transduction mechanisms]
      cl21453
      Location:1196
      PKc_like; Protein Kinases, catalytic domain
    6. NM_001288837.1NP_001275766.1  serine/threonine-protein kinase VRK2 isoform 1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001275766.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (8) represents use of an alternate upstream promoter and differs in the 5' UTR, compared to variant 1. Variants 1, 2, 3, and 8 encode the same isoform (1, also known as VRK2A).
      Source sequence(s)
      AK307113, AK311205, BC036434
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS1859.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q86Y07
      Related
      ENSP00000408002.2, ENST00000435505.6
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      COG0515
      Location:29421
      SPS1; Serine/threonine protein kinase [Signal transduction mechanisms]
      cd14123
      Location:16314
      STKc_VRK2; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine protein kinase, Vaccinia Related Kinase 2
    7. NM_001288838.1NP_001275767.1  serine/threonine-protein kinase VRK2 isoform 3

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001275767.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (9) represents use of an alternate upstream promoter, differs in the 5' UTR, and contains an alternate exon in the 3' coding region, which results in a frameshift, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (3) has a shorter and distinct C-terminus, compared to isoform 1. Variants 5 and 9 encode the same isoform (3, also known as VRK2B).
      Source sequence(s)
      AK292727, AK311205, AY228372, BC036434
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS46291.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q86Y07
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A8K9L2
      Related
      ENSP00000402375.2, ENST00000417641.6
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cl21453
      Location:16314
      PKc_like; Protein Kinases, catalytic domain
    8. NM_001288839.1NP_001275768.1  serine/threonine-protein kinase VRK2 isoform 4

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001275768.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (7) lacks an exon in the 5' region, compared to variant 1, and initiates translation at a downstream in-frame start codon. The encoded isoform (4) has a shorter N-terminus than isoform 1. Variants 6 and 7 encode the same isoform (4).
      Source sequence(s)
      AC007250, AC068193, AC073215, AY228371
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q86Y07
      Related
      ENSP00000404156.3, ENST00000412104.6
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      COG0515
      Location:1303
      SPS1; Serine/threonine protein kinase [Signal transduction mechanisms]
      cl21453
      Location:1196
      PKc_like; Protein Kinases, catalytic domain
    9. NM_006296.6NP_006287.2  serine/threonine-protein kinase VRK2 isoform 1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_006287.2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes the longest isoform (1). Variants 1, 2, 3, and 8 encode the same isoform (1, also known as VRK2A).
      Source sequence(s)
      AC068193, AK223540, AK311205, BC027854
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS1859.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q86Y07
      Related
      ENSP00000342381.4, ENST00000340157.8
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      COG0515
      Location:29421
      SPS1; Serine/threonine protein kinase [Signal transduction mechanisms]
      cd14123
      Location:16314
      STKc_VRK2; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine protein kinase, Vaccinia Related Kinase 2

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000002.12 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

      Range
      57907651..58163993
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. XM_017004859.2XP_016860348.1  serine/threonine-protein kinase VRK2 isoform X4

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q86Y07
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      COG0515
      Location:1303
      SPS1; Serine/threonine protein kinase [Signal transduction mechanisms]
      cl21453
      Location:1196
      PKc_like; Protein Kinases, catalytic domain
    2. XM_017004860.2XP_016860349.1  serine/threonine-protein kinase VRK2 isoform X4

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q86Y07
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      COG0515
      Location:1303
      SPS1; Serine/threonine protein kinase [Signal transduction mechanisms]
      cl21453
      Location:1196
      PKc_like; Protein Kinases, catalytic domain
    3. XM_017004862.2XP_016860351.1  serine/threonine-protein kinase VRK2 isoform X4

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q86Y07
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      COG0515
      Location:1303
      SPS1; Serine/threonine protein kinase [Signal transduction mechanisms]
      cl21453
      Location:1196
      PKc_like; Protein Kinases, catalytic domain
    4. XM_006712092.4XP_006712155.1  serine/threonine-protein kinase VRK2 isoform X4

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_006712155.1

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q86Y07
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      COG0515
      Location:1303
      SPS1; Serine/threonine protein kinase [Signal transduction mechanisms]
      cl21453
      Location:1196
      PKc_like; Protein Kinases, catalytic domain
    5. XM_017004863.2XP_016860352.1  serine/threonine-protein kinase VRK2 isoform X4

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q86Y07
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      COG0515
      Location:1303
      SPS1; Serine/threonine protein kinase [Signal transduction mechanisms]
      cl21453
      Location:1196
      PKc_like; Protein Kinases, catalytic domain
    6. XM_006712093.4XP_006712156.1  serine/threonine-protein kinase VRK2 isoform X4

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_006712156.1

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q86Y07
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      COG0515
      Location:1303
      SPS1; Serine/threonine protein kinase [Signal transduction mechanisms]
      cl21453
      Location:1196
      PKc_like; Protein Kinases, catalytic domain
    7. XM_006712091.4XP_006712154.1  serine/threonine-protein kinase VRK2 isoform X3

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_006712154.1

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q86Y07
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cl21453
      Location:16314
      PKc_like; Protein Kinases, catalytic domain
    8. XM_017004858.2XP_016860347.1  serine/threonine-protein kinase VRK2 isoform X2

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q86Y07
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      COG0515
      Location:29397
      SPS1; Serine/threonine protein kinase [Signal transduction mechanisms]
      cl21453
      Location:16314
      PKc_like; Protein Kinases, catalytic domain
    9. XM_017004866.1XP_016860355.1  serine/threonine-protein kinase VRK2 isoform X6

    10. XM_017004865.1XP_016860354.1  serine/threonine-protein kinase VRK2 isoform X6

    11. XM_017004861.2XP_016860350.1  serine/threonine-protein kinase VRK2 isoform X4

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q86Y07
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      COG0515
      Location:1303
      SPS1; Serine/threonine protein kinase [Signal transduction mechanisms]
      cl21453
      Location:1196
      PKc_like; Protein Kinases, catalytic domain
    12. XM_006712090.4XP_006712153.1  serine/threonine-protein kinase VRK2 isoform X2

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_006712153.1

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q86Y07
      Related
      ENSP00000497378.1, ENST00000648897.1
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      COG0515
      Location:29397
      SPS1; Serine/threonine protein kinase [Signal transduction mechanisms]
      cl21453
      Location:16314
      PKc_like; Protein Kinases, catalytic domain
    13. XM_005264540.4XP_005264597.1  serine/threonine-protein kinase VRK2 isoform X1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_005264597.1

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q86Y07
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      COG0515
      Location:29421
      SPS1; Serine/threonine protein kinase [Signal transduction mechanisms]
      cd14123
      Location:16314
      STKc_VRK2; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine protein kinase, Vaccinia Related Kinase 2
    14. XM_011533092.3XP_011531394.1  serine/threonine-protein kinase VRK2 isoform X1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011531394.1

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q86Y07
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      COG0515
      Location:29421
      SPS1; Serine/threonine protein kinase [Signal transduction mechanisms]
      cd14123
      Location:16314
      STKc_VRK2; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine protein kinase, Vaccinia Related Kinase 2
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