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    TXN thioredoxin [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 7295, updated on 10-Oct-2019

    Summary

    Official Symbol
    TXNprovided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    thioredoxinprovided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:12435
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000136810 MIM:187700
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    TRX; TRDX; TRX1
    Summary
    The protein encoded by this gene acts as a homodimer and is involved in many redox reactions. The encoded protein is active in the reversible S-nitrosylation of cysteines in certain proteins, which is part of the response to intracellular nitric oxide. This protein is found in the cytoplasm. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
    Expression
    Ubiquitous expression in esophagus (RPKM 218.4), colon (RPKM 150.6) and 24 other tissues See more
    Orthologs

    Genomic context

    See TXN in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    9q31.3
    Exon count:
    5
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    109.20190905 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 9 NC_000009.12 (110243810..110256507, complement)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 9 NC_000009.11 (113006092..113018920, complement)

    Chromosome 9 - NC_000009.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene tRNA-Arg (anticodon TCG) 6-1 Neighboring gene chromosome 9 open reading frame 152 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC107987114 Neighboring gene thioredoxin domain containing 8

    Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

    Expression

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

    Bibliography

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

    What's a GeneRIF?

    HIV-1 interactions

    Replication interactions

    Interaction Pubs
    HIV-1 assembly incorporates TXN (Trx1) and TXNRD1 (TrxR1) into viral particles PubMed

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env Using specific anti-Trx monoclonal antibody significantly reduces HIV-1 entry and infection in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs), suggesting Trx plays a great role in HIV-1 infection of MDMs PubMed
    env The ability of thioredoxin, a protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), to reduce the disulfide bond in CD4 is enhanced in the presence of HIV-1 gp120 and thioredoxin also reduces disulfide bonds in gp120 directly in the absence of CD4 PubMed
    env Cleavage of the CD4 domain 2 disulfide bond (Cys130-Cys159) by thioredoxin enhances HIV-1 gp120/gp41-mediated cell-cell fusion and virus entry PubMed
    env Thioredoxin cleaves the gp120 disulfide bond (Cys296-Cys331) in the V3 domain and the cleavage is enhanced by CD4-expressing cells PubMed
    Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 env Cleavage of the CD4 domain 2 disulfide bond (Cys130-Cys159) by thioredoxin enhances HIV-1 gp120/gp41-mediated cell-cell fusion and virus entry PubMed
    Nef nef HIV-1 Nef stabilizes the association of thioredoxin with ASK1, thereby inhibiting the catalytic activity of ASK1, Fas- and TNFalpha-mediated apoptosis, and activation of c-Jun amino-terminal kinase PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

    Pathways from BioSystems

    • Cellular Senescence, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Cellular Senescence, organism-specific biosystemCellular senescence involves irreversible growth arrest accompanied by phenotypic changes such as enlarged morphology, reorganization of chromatin through formation of senescence-associated heterochr...
    • Cellular responses to stress, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Cellular responses to stress, organism-specific biosystemCells are subject to external molecular and physical stresses such as foreign molecules that perturb metabolic or signaling processes, and changes in temperature or pH. The ability of cells and tissu...
    • Detoxification of Reactive Oxygen Species, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Detoxification of Reactive Oxygen Species, organism-specific biosystemReactive oxygen species such as superoxide (O2.-), peroxides (ROOR), singlet oxygen, peroxynitrite (ONOO-), and hydroxyl radical (OH.) are generated by cellular processes such as respiration (reviewe...
    • Fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis, organism-specific biosystemShear stress represents the frictional force that the flow of blood exerts at the endothelial surface of the vessel wall and plays a central role in vascular biology and contributes to the progress o...
    • Fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis, conserved biosystemShear stress represents the frictional force that the flow of blood exerts at the endothelial surface of the vessel wall and plays a central role in vascular biology and contributes to the progress o...
    • Folic Acid Network, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Folic Acid Network, organism-specific biosystemThe folic acid-centred micronutrient biological network. The most relevant biochemical processes related to folic acid in the context of metabolism, oxidation and inflammation are represented. Also, ...
    • Folic Acid Network, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Folic Acid Network, organism-specific biosystemThe folic acid-centred micronutrient biological network. The most relevant biochemical processes related to folic acid in the context of metabolism, oxidation and inflammation are represented. Also, ...
    • Gene Expression, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Gene Expression, organism-specific biosystemGene Expression covers the pathways by which genomic DNA is transcribed to yield RNA, the regulation of these transcription processes, and the pathways by which newly-made RNA Transcripts are process...
    • Generic Transcription Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Generic Transcription Pathway, organism-specific biosystemOVERVIEW OF TRANSCRIPTION REGULATION: Detailed studies of gene transcription regulation in a wide variety of eukaryotic systems has revealed the general principles and mechanisms by which cell- or t...
    • Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Immune System, organism-specific biosystemHumans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first crit...
    • Inflammasomes, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Inflammasomes, organism-specific biosystemIn contrast to NOD1/2 some NLRPs function as large macromolecular complexes called 'Inflammasomes'. These multiprotein platforms control activation of the cysteinyl aspartate protease caspase-1 and t...
    • Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystemInnate immunity encompases the nonspecific part of immunity tha are part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
    • Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMetabolic processes in human cells generate energy through the oxidation of molecules consumed in the diet and mediate the synthesis of diverse essential molecules not taken in the diet as well as th...
    • Metabolism of nucleotides, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Metabolism of nucleotides, organism-specific biosystemNucleotides and their derivatives are used for short-term energy storage (ATP, GTP), for intra- and extra-cellular signaling (cAMP; adenosine), as enzyme cofactors (NAD, FAD), and for the synthesis o...
    • Metabolism of proteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Metabolism of proteins, organism-specific biosystemProtein metabolism comprises the pathways of translation, post-translational modification and protein folding.
    • NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting various pathogens and generating innate immune responses. The intracellular NOD-like receptor (NLR) family contains mo...
    • NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting various pathogens and generating innate immune responses. The intracellular NOD-like receptor (NLR) family contains mo...
    • NRF2 pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      NRF2 pathway, organism-specific biosystemNRF2 is part of a group of transcription factors called nuclear receptors. It is activated under oxidative stress conditions and subsequently activates several antioxidative genes and proteins.
    • Nucleotide-binding domain, leucine rich repeat containing receptor (NLR) signaling pathways, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Nucleotide-binding domain, leucine rich repeat containing receptor (NLR) signaling pathways, organism-specific biosystemThe innate immune system is the first line of defense against invading microorganisms, a broad specificity response characterized by the recruitment and activation of phagocytes and the release of an...
    • Oxidative Stress Induced Senescence, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Oxidative Stress Induced Senescence, organism-specific biosystemOxidative stress, caused by increased concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cell, can happen as a consequence of mitochondrial dysfunction induced by the oncogenic RAS (Moiseeva et al...
    • Protein repair, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Protein repair, organism-specific biosystemReactive oxygen species (ROS) such as H2O2, superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals interact with molecules in the cell causing damage that impairs cellular functions. Although cells have mechanisms ...
    • Selenium Micronutrient Network, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Selenium Micronutrient Network, organism-specific biosystemThe selenium-centred micronutrient biological network. The most relevant biochemical processes related to selenium in the context of metabolism, oxidation and inflammation are represented. Also, the ...
    • Selenium Micronutrient Network, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Selenium Micronutrient Network, organism-specific biosystemThe selenium-centred micronutrient biological network. The most relevant biochemical processes related to selenium in the context of metabolism, oxidation and inflammation are represented. Also, the ...
    • Selenium Micronutrient Network, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Selenium Micronutrient Network, organism-specific biosystem
      Selenium Micronutrient Network
    • Signaling events mediated by PTP1B, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Signaling events mediated by PTP1B, organism-specific biosystem
      Signaling events mediated by PTP1B
    • Synthesis and interconversion of nucleotide di- and triphosphates, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Synthesis and interconversion of nucleotide di- and triphosphates, organism-specific biosystemAn array of kinases catalyze the reversible phosphorylation of nucleotide monophosphates to form nucleotide diphosphates and triphosphates.Nucleoside monophosphate kinases catalyze the reversible pho...
    • TNF alpha Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      TNF alpha Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemTumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) is a proinflammatory cytokine involved in various biological processes including regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and immune response. T...
    • TNF receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      TNF receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      TNF receptor signaling pathway
    • TP53 Regulates Metabolic Genes, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      TP53 Regulates Metabolic Genes, organism-specific biosystemWhile the p53 tumor suppressor protein (TP53) is known to inhibit cell growth by inducing apoptosis, senescence and cell cycle arrest, recent studies have found that p53 is also able to influence cel...
    • The NLRP3 inflammasome, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      The NLRP3 inflammasome, organism-specific biosystemThe NLRP3 (Cryopyrin) inflammasome is currently the best characterized. It consists of NLRP3, ASC (PYCARD) and procaspase-1; CARD8 (Cardinal) is also suggested to be a component. It is activated by a...
    • Transcriptional Regulation by TP53, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Transcriptional Regulation by TP53, organism-specific biosystemThe tumor suppressor TP53 (encoded by the gene p53) is a transcription factor. Under stress conditions, it recognizes specific responsive DNA elements and thus regulates the transcription of many gen...
    • p38 MAPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      p38 MAPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      p38 MAPK signaling pathway

    Interactions

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    General gene information

    Markers

    Homology

    Clone Names

    • MGC61975, DKFZp686B1993

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    RNA binding HDA PubMed 
    peptide disulfide oxidoreductase activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein disulfide oxidoreductase activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    thioredoxin-disulfide reductase activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    cell IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cytosol IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
     
    cytosol TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    extracellular exosome HDA PubMed 
    nucleoplasm IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
     
    nucleoplasm TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     

    General protein information

    Preferred Names
    thioredoxin
    Names
    ADF
    ATL-derived factor
    SASP
    TXN delta 3
    surface-associated sulphydryl protein
    testicular tissue protein Li 199
    thioredoxin delta 3

    NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_001244938.2NP_001231867.1  thioredoxin isoform 2

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001231867.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (2) lacks an alternate in-frame exon compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (2) has the same N- and C-termini but is shorter compared to isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AF065241, AL158158, AW160756, BC054866, BQ774337
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS59139.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P10599
      Related
      ENSP00000363639.5, ENST00000374515.9
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cl00388
      Location:784
      Thioredoxin_like; Protein Disulfide Oxidoreductases and Other Proteins with a Thioredoxin fold
    2. NM_003329.4NP_003320.2  thioredoxin isoform 1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_003320.2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longer transcript and encodes the longer isoform (1).
      Source sequence(s)
      AL158158, BC054866, BQ774337
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS35103.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P10599
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      H9ZYJ2
      Related
      ENSP00000363641.5, ENST00000374517.6
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      pfam00085
      Location:7104
      Thioredoxin; Thioredoxin

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109.20190905

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000009.12 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

      Range
      110243810..110256507 complement
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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