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    TNF tumor necrosis factor [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 7124, updated on 1-Jul-2024

    Summary

    Official Symbol
    TNFprovided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    tumor necrosis factorprovided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:11892
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000232810 MIM:191160; AllianceGenome:HGNC:11892
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    DIF; TNFA; TNFSF2; TNLG1F; TNF-alpha
    Summary
    This gene encodes a multifunctional proinflammatory cytokine that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily. This cytokine is mainly secreted by macrophages. It can bind to, and thus functions through its receptors TNFRSF1A/TNFR1 and TNFRSF1B/TNFBR. This cytokine is involved in the regulation of a wide spectrum of biological processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, lipid metabolism, and coagulation. This cytokine has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including autoimmune diseases, insulin resistance, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis ankylosing spondylitis, tuberculosis, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, and cancer. Mutations in this gene affect susceptibility to cerebral malaria, septic shock, and Alzheimer disease. Knockout studies in mice also suggested the neuroprotective function of this cytokine. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2020]
    Annotation information
    Note: This gene has been reviewed for its involvement in coronavirus biology, and is involved in cytokine storm inflammatory response.
    Expression
    Biased expression in bone marrow (RPKM 14.7), lymph node (RPKM 3.9) and 9 other tissues See more
    Orthologs
    NEW
    Try the new Gene table
    Try the new Transcript table

    Genomic context

    See TNF in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    6p21.33
    Exon count:
    4
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    RS_2023_10 current GRCh38.p14 (GCF_000001405.40) 6 NC_000006.12 (31575565..31578336)
    RS_2023_10 current T2T-CHM13v2.0 (GCF_009914755.1) 6 NC_060930.1 (31428617..31431388)
    105.20220307 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 6 NC_000006.11 (31543342..31546113)

    Chromosome 6 - NC_000006.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene NFKB inhibitor like 1 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC100287329 Neighboring gene lymphotoxin alpha Neighboring gene P300/CBP strongly-dependent group 1 enhancer GRCh37_chr6:31545791-31546990 Neighboring gene H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr6:31549801-31550555 Neighboring gene lymphotoxin beta Neighboring gene leukocyte specific transcript 1 Neighboring gene natural cytotoxicity triggering receptor 3

    Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

    Expression

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

    Bibliography

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

    What's a GeneRIF?

    Phenotypes

    Associated conditions

    Description Tests
    Inherited susceptibility to asthma
    MedGen: C1869116 OMIM: 600807 GeneReviews: Not available
    Compare labs
    Malaria, susceptibility to
    MedGen: C1970028 OMIM: 611162 GeneReviews: Not available
    Compare labs
    Migraine with or without aura, susceptibility to, 1
    MedGen: C3887485 OMIM: 157300 GeneReviews: Not available
    Compare labs

    EBI GWAS Catalog

    Description
    Genome-wide association study of atypical psychosis.
    EBI GWAS Catalog
    Genome-wide meta-analysis increases to 71 the number of confirmed Crohn's disease susceptibility loci.
    EBI GWAS Catalog
    Genomewide association study of an AIDS-nonprogression cohort emphasizes the role played by HLA genes (ANRS Genomewide Association Study 02).
    EBI GWAS Catalog
    Identification of candidate loci at 6p21 and 21q22 in a genome-wide association study of cardiac manifestations of neonatal lupus.
    EBI GWAS Catalog

    HIV-1 interactions

    Replication interactions

    Interaction Pubs
    HIV-1 replication is enhanced by TLR2 stimulation or TNF treatment in Langerhans cells PubMed
    Clinical samples of cerebrospinal fluid and serum from patients infected with HIV-1 subtypes B and C exhibited upregulated levels of TNF and IFNG PubMed
    HIV-1 infected clinical samples have plasma extracellular vesicles that contain elevated ADAM10, ADAM17, and TNF when compared to healthy donors PubMed

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Asp asp ASP-YL9 peptide (89YLYNSLLQL97) induces release of IL-2, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, or MIP-1beta in antigen-specific CD8+ T-cells PubMed
    asp The expression of ASP is upregulated by TNF-alpha in Molt-4 cells in a dose-dependent manner PubMed
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env HIV-1 IIIB Env (gp120) upregulates production of TNF (TNF-a), IL-17A, CCL2 (MCP1), CCL5 (RANTES), IL6, IL10, CXCL8 (IL8), CXCL1 (GRO-a), and CCL1 (I309) in stimulated monocyte derived macrophages PubMed
    env HIV-1 JRFL Env (gp120) upregulates TNFa in ARPE-19 cells PubMed
    env Curcumin, a potent and safe anti-inflammatory compound, inhibits HIV-1 gp120-mediated upregulation of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6, and the chemokines IL-8, RANTES, and IP-10 in primary human genital epithelial cells PubMed
    env Cytokines induced in vitro by HIV-1 gp120 in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) include interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) and IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-6, IL-10, IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120 stimulates human cells to release TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, and granulocyte-macrophage-CSF, and this effect can be blocked with soluble CD4 PubMed
    env Co-treatment with HIV-1 gp120, TNF-alpha, and ZVAD induces necroptosis in HT-29 cells PubMed
    env B cells from peripheral blood and lymph nodes of HIV-infected individuals secrete significant levels of TNF-alpha in the presence of HIV-1 gp120 PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120-treated vaginal epithelial cells show upregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF, TNF-alpha) expression as compared to untreated control PubMed
    env The binding of soluble HIV-1 gp120 to TLR2 or TLR4 results in upregulation of the TNF-alpha and IL-8 production through NF-kappaB activation PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120 enhances TNF-alpha-induced VCAM-1 gene expression in coronary macrovascular endothelial cells PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120 inhibits CpG-A-induced secretion of TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IP-10 proteins in plasmacytoid dendritic cells and PBMCs PubMed
    env NK cells that respond with IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha cytokine production to HIV-1 gp120 peptides have reduced CD16 and NKp46 expression and have increased levels of CD57 PubMed
    env Frequent IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha NK cell responses to HIV-1 gp120 are dominant during chronic HIV-1 infection PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120 induces human glial cells to release more TNF-alpha and IL-1beta than untreated cells PubMed
    env Inhibition of NRF2 by siRNA results in increased NOX2, NFkappaB (p65/p50), TNF-alpha, and MMP-9 proteins in astrocytes exposed to HIV-1 gp120 PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120 stimulates the release of TNF-alpha from TPA-differentiated HL-60 cells; treatment with TNF-alpha neutralizing antibody and anti-TNF-alpha receptor type II (TNFR-II) antibody, inhibits gp120-induced upregulation of mu opioid receptor PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120 inhibits TLR9-mediated upregulation of CD83 and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6, and chemokine IP10 in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120 triggers apoptosis in primary osteoblasts and osteoblast-derived cell lines (HOBIT) through TNFalpha activation PubMed
    env HIV gp120 and TNF-alpha synergistically reduce endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and cause endothelial dysfunction via ICAM-1 PubMed
    env Stimulation of human monocyte-derived macrophages with HIV-1 gp120 results in the CCR5-mediated activation of Lyn and the concomitant Lyn-dependent activation of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase ERK-1/2, which leads to production of TNF-alpha PubMed
    env Genistein, tyrosine kinase inhibitor, suppresses HIV-1 gp120-induced TNF-alpha secretion by primary macrophage PubMed
    env In CD4-positive Jurkat cells, HIV-1 gp120 enhances TNF-induced NF-kappa B activation PubMed
    env Treatment of HIV-1-infected monocytes with TNF-alpha increases the sensitivity of the interaction of the HIV-1 antigen gp120 with cytotoxic sera from HIV-1 infected individuals PubMed
    env Enhanced TNF-alpha responses are observed when peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are costimulated with HIV-1 gp120 and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) PubMed
    env CD4 downregulation by the treatment of macrophages with HIV-1 gp120 is mediated through the induction of endogenous TNF-alpha PubMed
    env Apoptosis of CD8+ cells is mediated by the interaction between TNF-alpha bound to the membrane of macrophages (mbTNF) and a receptor on CD8+ T cells (TNF-receptor II, or TNFRII), which is upregulated by treatment with recombinant HIV-1 gp120 or SDF-1 PubMed
    env Pretreatment of HIV-1 infected cells with TNF alpha augments syncytia formation mediated by the interaction of HIV-1 gp120 with cell surface CD4 molecules PubMed
    env Exposure of macrophages to purified CCR5- or CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 induces secretion of high levels of macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha (MIP-1alpha), MIP-1beta, RANTES, and tumor necrosis factor alpha PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120 partially inhibits the negative beta-adrenergic modulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced production of tumor necrosis factor alpha in microglial cells PubMed
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160, precursor env HIV-1 gp160 inhibits lipoteichoic acid (LTA)-mediated TNF secretion from RAW cells PubMed
    env Pretreatment of CD4+ T cells with HIV-1 gp160 results in marked inhibition of TNF-alpha secretion PubMed
    env Pretreatment of cells with HIV-1 gp160 results in marked inhibition of tyrosine phosphorylation of p59(fyn), PLC-gamma1, ras activation, and TNF-alpha secretion in anti-CD3 mAb activated CD4+ T cells PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp160-induced apoptosis is affected in part by the release of TNF-alpha and is associated with attenuated Bcl-2 mRNA expression PubMed
    Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 env Exposure of TZM-bl-2 cells to HIV gp41 increases TNF (TNF-alpha) mRNA PubMed
    env The HIV-1 gp41 transmembrane domain inhibits TLR2-induced activation of ERK1/2, and secretion of TNF-alpha, MCP-1, and IL-6 PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp41 stimulates microglial cell production of cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6) and chemokines (RANTES and MIP-1alpha) PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp41 or gp120 synthetic peptides induce the production of interleukin (IL)-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF); in contrast, gp41 or gp120 synthetic peptides are able to depress the production of interferon (IFN)-alpha, IFN-gamma, and IL-2 PubMed
    Nef nef HIV-1 infected clinical samples have plasma extracellular vesicles that contain ADAM10, ADAM17, and TNF when compared to healthy donors PubMed
    nef HIV-1 and SIVcpz Nef proteins enhance TNF-alpha, IKK-beta, and RelA/p65-induced NF-kappaB activation in 293T cells PubMed
    nef The activating effect of exogenous HIV-1 Nef on PBMC proliferation and on monocyte-derived macrophages is associated with an upregulation of TNF-alpha and IL-6 production PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef expression by immature human and macaque dendritic cells (DCs) upregulates IL-6, IL-12, TNF-alpha, CXCL8, CCL3, and CCL4 release, but without upregulating co-stimulatory and other molecules characteristic of mature DCs PubMed
    nef Primary quiescent CD4+ T lymphocytes release both TNF-alpha and IL-2 in response to the treatment with exosomes from cells infected by HIV-1, but not by delta-Nef HIV-1 or Nef (62EEEE/AAAA65) HIV-1 strains PubMed
    nef The proportion of HIV-1 Nef-specific CD8+ T cells endowed with TNF-alpha+, IFN-gamma+, CD107A+, and MIP-1beta+ is significantly higher in patients with the lowest virus set point than those with the highest virus set point PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef inhibits TNF-alpha release and enhances the expression of MKP-1 in human macrophages. TNF-alpha release is also inhibited in macrophages from HIV-infected patients PubMed
    nef HIV-1 myristoylated Nef-induced TNF-alpha release leads to downregulation of CD36 expression by myristoylated Nef in monocyte-derived macrophages PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef-mediated activation of TACE cleaves pro-TNF alpha in endosomal compartments PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef inhibits IFN-gamm-induced apoptosis and upregulates TNF-alpha, IL-6 and MIP-3alpha production by Caco-2 cells while downregulating IL-10 production PubMed
    nef Both the myristoylation site and the acidic cluster in HIV-1 Nef are required for the activation of NF-kappaB, which induces upregulation of TNFalpha and IL6 expression PubMed
    nef Stimulation of CD8+ T cells with HIV-1 Nef peptides upregulates perforin and TNF-alpha expression PubMed
    nef Nef inhibits ASK1/p38MAPK-dependent Mycobacterium tuberculosis-induced TNF-alpha production by inhibiting binding of ATF2 to the TNF-alpha promoter PubMed
    nef Mycobacterium tuberculosis-induced TNF-alpha production depends upon the Ets, Egr, Sp1, CRE or AP1 binding sites on the TNF-alpha promoter, whereas Nef-mediated promoter activation depends only on the CRE and AP1 binding sites PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef impairs the recruitment of TNF-alpha-positive compartments at the site of phagocytosis PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef significantly increases TNF-alpha release from Nef-treated homeostatic or inflamed mucosal cell lines. Nef abrogates the IFN-gamma-induced modulation of TNF-alpha secretion in these cells PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef and ALK show similar effects by increasing different cytokines/chemokines, such as IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and RANTES, that may be relevant for HAD pathogenesis PubMed
    nef Expression of HIV-1 Nef in a CD4+ human T-cell hybridoma enhances the surface levels of the membrane-bound cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and LIGHT; the enhancement of TNF and LIGHT depends on the presence of a functional dileucine motif in Nef PubMed
    nef Intracisternal HIV-1 Nef injection upregulates levels of IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma in rat cerebrospinal fluid PubMed
    nef Nef-induced expression of TNF-alpha is observed in rat hippocampus grafted with Nef-transduced macrophages PubMed
    nef HIV-1 nef gene expression in human glial cells inhibits tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis and promotes cell proliferation through the activation of MAPK and JNK PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef increases the level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha release from primary human-monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) infected with HIV-1 PubMed
    nef The presence of recombinant HIV-1 Nef and ethanol upregulates the level of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production in primary human brain micro vascular endothelial cells PubMed
    Pr55(Gag) gag The proportion of HIV-1 Gag-specific CD8+ T cells endowed with TNF-alpha+, IFN-gamma+, CD107A+, and MIP-1beta+ is significantly higher in patients with the lowest virus set point than those with the highest virus set point PubMed
    gag Stimulation of CD8+ T cells with HIV-1 Gag peptides upregulates perforin and TNF-alpha expression PubMed
    gag HIV-1 Gag virus-like particles expressed by recombinant baculoviruses activate human PBMC to release TNF-alpha in a dose and time dependent manner PubMed
    gag Stimulation of HIV-1 infected human adipocytes by TNF-alpha and IL-1beta increases the levels of HIV-1 Gag production PubMed
    gag The Matrix protein of HIV-1 Gag enhances the cytokine-induced production of TNF-alpha PubMed
    Tat tat The gene expression of TNF is significantly upregulated in clade B Tat treated SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells, but downregulated in clade C Tat treated SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells PubMed
    tat Human microglia cells treated with HIV-1 clade C Tat show more significant upregulation of IL-6 and TNF-alpha, and higher NF-kappaB activation as compared to clade B Tat-treated cells PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat upregulates the production of cytokines, including TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-alpha1, and IFN-gamma, in human monocyte derived-dendritic cells and in primary human Muller glia PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat inhibitor didehydro-Cortistatin A (dCA), an analog of a natural steroidal alkaloid, potently inhibits Tat-mediated modulation of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha and MCP-1 PubMed
    tat Upregulation of TNF-alpha by HIV-1 Tat is implicated in the toxic effects of Tat, including neuronal death and astroglial dysfunction PubMed
    tat Upregulation of TNF-alpha by HIV-1 Tat leads to activation of NF-kappa B, leading to NF-kappa B induced activation of the HIV-1 LTR promoter PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat-induced release of TNF-alpha and IL-10 is TLR4-dependent in monocytes PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat-induced upregulation of PD-L1 on monocyte-derived dendritic cells involves a TNF-alpha-mediated mechanism through the TLR4 pathway PubMed
    tat Co-treatment with HIV-1 Tat, TNF-alpha, and ZVAD induces necroptosis in HT-29 cells PubMed
    tat Sulfated polymannuroguluronate (SPMG) significantly reverses HIV-1 Tat-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 in THP-1 cells PubMed
    tat Exogenous Nef and TNF-alpha synergistically activate NF-kappaB and AP-1 resulting in enhancing HIV-1 Tat transactivation of the LTR and viral replication in both chronically infected promonocytic cells and acutely infected primary macrophages PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat significantly decreases TNF-alpha and IL-6 secretion but increases IL-4 levels in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat inhibits CpG-A-induced secretion of TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IP-10 proteins in plasmacytoid dendritic cells and PBMCs PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat- and oxovanadate-treated microglial cells synergistically induce release of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta proteins, which involves CD45 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways PubMed
    tat LRRK2 is involved in HIV-1 Tat-induced cytokine TNF-alpha, IL-6, and MCP-1 expression in microglia cells PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat-mediated stimulation of TNF-alpha production through the activation of PKC beta(II) and delta isoforms requires p38 MAP kinase, ERK1/2 MAP kinase and NF-kappaB transcription factor in human macrophages PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat in combination with IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha increases CXCL10 mRNA and protein in human astrocytes through the activation of the p38, Jnk, and Akt signaling pathways and their downstream transcription factors, NF-kappaB and STAT-1alpha PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat from subtype E virus isolates inhibits TNF gene transcription and protein production in CD4(+) Jurkat T cells, and this repression is associated with the tryptophan at residue 32 of Tat PubMed
    tat Over-expression of PPARalpha or PPARgamma attenuates Tat-induced up-regulation of inflammatory mediators, such as interleukin (IL)-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, CCL2, and E-selectin PubMed
    tat Wild-type Tat but not Cys-22 and oxidized Tat induces CD1A-expressing monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC) maturation and increases the production of cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-12, MIP-1alpha, and MIP-1beta PubMed
    tat Monocytes treated with HIV-1 clade B Tat show significant upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-alpha, as compared to clade C Tat-treated cultures PubMed
    tat Recombinant CD40L synergizes with HIV-1 Tat to increase TNF-alpha release from primary human monocytes and microglia in an NF-kappaB-dependent manner. This synergism is attributed to a Tat-mediated up-regulation of CD40 PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat increases CXCL10 expression in IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha stimulated human astrocytes via NADPH oxidase PubMed
    tat Induction of TNF-alpha by HIV-1 Tat requires activation of NF-kappa B and also involves protein kinase A, tyrosine kinase, phospholipase C, protein kinase C, MAPK, and release of calcium from inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor-regulated stores PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat interacts with TNF-alpha to induce monocyte metalloproteinase-9 production PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat interacts with TNF-alpha to potentiate NF-kappa B activation by downregulation of manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat inhibits TNF-alpha-induced repression of tumor necrosis factor receptor p55 and amplifies TNF-alpha activity in stably tat-transfected HeLa cells PubMed
    tat IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma synergize with HIV-1 Tat to promote in nude mice the development of angioproliferative Kaposi's sarcoma-like lesions PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat and TNF-alpha interact additively in upregulating IL-8 production PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat synergizes with TNF-alpha to induce the expression of adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and ELAM-1 PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat synergizes with TNF-alpha to enhance IL-6 secretion and activate human central nervous system-derived endothelial cells PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat upregulates tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) expression, an effect mediated in U937 cells through the inhibition of CD26 PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat-induced calcium mobilization and TNF-alpha production in primary human monocytes are entirely regulated by DHP receptors PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat and TNF-alpha synergistically activate the adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells PubMed
    tat Treatment of T lymphocytes with IL-2, IL-6 and TNFalpha increases CDK9 and cyclin T1 protein levels, suggesting a mechanism for activation of HIV-1 Tat function and reactivation of HIV-1 in CD4+ T lymphocytes harboring a latent provirus PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat cooperates with Puralpha, cyclin T1, and CDK9 to activate the TNFalpha promoter and upregulate TNFalpha expression PubMed
    Vpr vpr Vpr enhances TNF secretion from HIV infected MT4C5 & CD4+ T cells and is dependent on Vpr neosynthesis; i.e. results suggest that virion-incorporated Vpr is not sufficient to promote TNF secretion (in MT4C5 cells) PubMed
    vpr HIV-1 Vpr enhances HIV-1 replication in U1 cells by the induction of TNFalpha PubMed
    vpr HIV-1 Vpr expression results in increased IkappaB-alpha levels in the presence of TNF-alpha treatment in differentiated U937 cells PubMed
    vpr HIV-1 Vpr inhibits the NFkappaB signaling pathway in TNF-alpha treated cells and abolishes the phosphorylation of NFkappaB p65 subunit in response to such treatment PubMed
    vpr HIV-1 Vpr enhances TNF-alpha production in LPS-stimulated dendritic cells (DC). Vpr-induced TNF-alpha production in DC is through STAT1 activation PubMed
    vpr HIV-1 Vpr inhibits TNFalpha induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells PubMed
    vpr HIV-1 Vpr modulates expression of TNFalpha, increasing or suppressing TNFalpha expression through varying effects on NF-kappa B activity in different cell lines PubMed
    Vpu vpu HIV-1 Vpu interferes with beta-TrCP to inhibit TNF-alpha-induced activation of NFkappaB PubMed
    capsid gag Herpes simplex virus type 2-Infected monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) produce TNF-alpha, which binds to its receptor TNF-R1 and upregulates the expression of CCR5 on cell surface, leading to enhance HIV-1 p24 release from MDDCs PubMed
    gag PLA-p24-loaded human monocyte-derived dendritic cells enhance the secretion of MIP-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-alpha in comparison with PLA-loaded cells alone PubMed
    gag The increase of p24 in HIV-1 production from P. falciparum-infected red blood cells cocultured with CD4+ T cells is TNF-alpha dependent PubMed
    gag Unactivated memory CD4+ T cells infected by HIV-1 in the presence of IL-2 and IL-15 alone or IL-6/IL-7/TNF-alpha combination, upregulate granzyme B and HIV-1 CA production PubMed
    matrix gag Exposure of TZM-bl-2 cells to HIV MA (p17) increases TNF (TNF-alpha) mRNA PubMed
    gag HIV-1 matrix protein colocalizes with syndecan-2, syndecan-4, and CD44v3 on activated CD4+ T cells to modulate TNF-alpha and IL2 production PubMed
    gag HIV-1 Matrix slightly enhances TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma secretion induced by IL-15 monocyte stimulation and counteracts IL-4 mediated inhibition in the production of these cytokines PubMed
    gag HIV-1 Matrix enhances the cytokine-induced production of TNF-alpha PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

    Pathways from PubChem

    Interactions

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    General gene information

    Markers

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    enables cytokine activity IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    enables cytokine activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables death receptor agonist activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables identical protein binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables identical protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables protease binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables transcription cis-regulatory region binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables tumor necrosis factor receptor binding IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    enables tumor necrosis factor receptor binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables tumor necrosis factor receptor binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    involved_in JNK cascade IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in antiviral innate immune response IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in astrocyte activation NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in calcium-mediated signaling IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in cellular response to amino acid stimulus IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in cellular response to amyloid-beta IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in cellular response to ionizing radiation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in cellular response to lipopolysaccharide IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in cellular response to nicotine IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in cellular response to retinoic acid IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in cellular response to toxic substance IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in cellular response to type II interferon IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in chronic inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in circadian rhythm IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in cognition TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in cortical actin cytoskeleton organization IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in defense response to Gram-positive bacterium IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in detection of mechanical stimulus involved in sensory perception of pain IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in embryonic digestive tract development IEP
    Inferred from Expression Pattern
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in endothelial cell apoptotic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in epithelial cell proliferation involved in salivary gland morphogenesis IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in extracellular matrix organization IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway via death domain receptors IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    involved_in extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway via death domain receptors IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway via death domain receptors NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in glucose metabolic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in humoral immune response IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in inflammatory response IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in inflammatory response to wounding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to DNA damage IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in leukocyte migration involved in inflammatory response IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in leukocyte tethering or rolling IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in liver regeneration IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in macrophage activation involved in immune response IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in microglial cell activation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in microglial cell activation NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in necroptotic signaling pathway IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of DNA-templated transcription IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of L-glutamate import across plasma membrane IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in negative regulation of amyloid-beta clearance ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    acts_upstream_of_or_within negative regulation of apoptotic signaling pathway IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of bicellular tight junction assembly IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of bile acid secretion IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in negative regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of branching involved in lung morphogenesis IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of_or_within negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of cytokine production involved in immune response IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of endothelial cell proliferation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of fat cell differentiation NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of negative regulation of gene expression IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of_or_within negative regulation of gene expression IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of gene expression IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of gene expression IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of glucose import IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in negative regulation of heart rate IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in negative regulation of interleukin-6 production IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of lipid catabolic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of lipid storage NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of negative regulation of miRNA transcription NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of mitotic cell cycle IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in negative regulation of myelination IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in negative regulation of myoblast differentiation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in negative regulation of myosin-light-chain-phosphatase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of neurogenesis TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of osteoblast differentiation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in negative regulation of oxidative phosphorylation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in negative regulation of protein-containing complex disassembly IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of negative regulation of signaling receptor activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    acts_upstream_of_or_within negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of vascular wound healing IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of viral genome replication IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in osteoclast differentiation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B signal transduction IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of DNA biosynthetic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of DNA-binding transcription factor activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of DNA-templated transcription IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of_or_within positive regulation of I-kappaB phosphorylation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of JNK cascade IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of JUN kinase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of positive regulation of MAP kinase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of MAP kinase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of positive regulation of MAPK cascade IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of MAPK cascade IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    acts_upstream_of_or_within positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of action potential IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of amyloid-beta formation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of apoptotic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of apoptotic process IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of blood microparticle formation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of calcidiol 1-monooxygenase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of_or_within positive regulation of calcineurin-NFAT signaling cascade IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of canonical NF-kappaB signal transduction IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of canonical NF-kappaB signal transduction IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of canonical NF-kappaB signal transduction IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of canonical NF-kappaB signal transduction ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of canonical NF-kappaB signal transduction NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of canonical NF-kappaB signal transduction TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of cell adhesion IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of chemokine production IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of chronic inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of cytokine production IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of positive regulation of cytokine production involved in inflammatory response IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of_or_within positive regulation of cytokine production involved in inflammatory response IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of fever generation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of fractalkine production ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    acts_upstream_of positive regulation of gene expression IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of_or_within positive regulation of gene expression IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of gene expression IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of gene expression IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of gene expression IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of gene expression ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of glial cell proliferation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of glial cell proliferation IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of hair follicle development IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of hepatocyte proliferation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of humoral immune response mediated by circulating immunoglobulin IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of inflammatory response TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of interleukin-1 beta production IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of interleukin-18 production IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    acts_upstream_of positive regulation of interleukin-33 production IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of interleukin-6 production IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of interleukin-6 production ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    acts_upstream_of_or_within positive regulation of interleukin-8 production IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of interleukin-8 production IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of_or_within positive regulation of interleukin-8 production IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of interleukin-8 production IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of leukocyte adhesion to arterial endothelial cell IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelial cell IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of membrane protein ectodomain proteolysis IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of positive regulation of miRNA transcription IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of mitotic nuclear division IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of mononuclear cell migration NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of neuroinflammatory response TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of neuron apoptotic process ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of neutrophil activation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of_or_within positive regulation of non-canonical NF-kappaB signal transduction IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of non-canonical NF-kappaB signal transduction IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of osteoclast differentiation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B signal transduction ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of podosome assembly IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of programmed cell death IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of protein catabolic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of protein localization to cell surface IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of protein localization to plasma membrane ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of protein transport IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of protein-containing complex assembly IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of protein-containing complex disassembly IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of receptor signaling pathway via JAK-STAT ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of synaptic transmission ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    acts_upstream_of_or_within positive regulation of synoviocyte proliferation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of_or_within positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of translational initiation by iron IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of type II interferon production IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of vascular associated smooth muscle cell proliferation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of vitamin D biosynthetic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in protein localization to plasma membrane IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in regulation of branching involved in salivary gland morphogenesis IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in regulation of canonical NF-kappaB signal transduction IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in regulation of endothelial cell apoptotic process IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in regulation of establishment of endothelial barrier IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in regulation of fat cell differentiation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in regulation of immunoglobulin production IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in regulation of insulin secretion IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in regulation of membrane lipid metabolic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in regulation of metabolic process ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in regulation of synapse organization ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in regulation of synaptic transmission, glutamatergic TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in response to 3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in response to Gram-negative bacterium IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in response to L-glutamate IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in response to activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in response to ethanol IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in response to fructose IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in response to glucocorticoid IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in response to gold nanoparticle IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in response to hypoxia IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in response to isolation stress IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in response to macrophage colony-stimulating factor IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in response to nutrient levels IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in response to salt stress TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in response to virus IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in response to xenobiotic stimulus IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in sequestering of triglyceride IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in skeletal muscle contraction IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in toll-like receptor 3 signaling pathway IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in tumor necrosis factor-mediated signaling pathway IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    involved_in tumor necrosis factor-mediated signaling pathway IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in tumor necrosis factor-mediated signaling pathway IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in tumor necrosis factor-mediated signaling pathway NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in vascular endothelial growth factor production IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in vasodilation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    is_active_in cell surface IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    located_in cell surface IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in external side of plasma membrane ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    located_in extracellular region TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    is_active_in extracellular space IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    is_active_in extracellular space IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in extracellular space IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in membrane raft IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in neuronal cell body IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    located_in phagocytic cup ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    located_in plasma membrane IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in plasma membrane TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    located_in recycling endosome ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     

    General protein information

    Preferred Names
    tumor necrosis factor
    Names
    APC1 protein
    TNF, macrophage-derived
    TNF, monocyte-derived
    TNF-a
    tumor necrosis factor ligand 1F
    tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 2
    tumor necrosis factor-alpha
    tumor necrotic factor alpha

    NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

    NEW Try the new Transcript table

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_007462.1 RefSeqGene

      Range
      4993..7764
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_000594.4NP_000585.2  tumor necrosis factor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_000585.2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AL662801, BC028148, BP215875, CA306559
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS4702.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      O43647, P01375, Q9P1Q2, Q9UIV3
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A0A1U9X8M9, A0A977WMN2, C1K3N5, E7DB75, Q5STB3
      Related
      ENSP00000398698.2, ENST00000449264.3
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      pfam00229
      Location:103233
      TNF; TNF(tumor Necrosis Factor) family

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: GCF_000001405.40-RS_2023_10

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000006.12 Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

      Range
      31575565..31578336
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    Reference GRCh38.p14 ALT_REF_LOCI_1

    Genomic

    1. NT_167244.2 Reference GRCh38.p14 ALT_REF_LOCI_1

      Range
      2909108..2910915
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    Reference GRCh38.p14 ALT_REF_LOCI_2

    Genomic

    1. NT_113891.3 Reference GRCh38.p14 ALT_REF_LOCI_2

      Range
      3052852..3055623
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    Reference GRCh38.p14 ALT_REF_LOCI_3

    Genomic

    1. NT_167245.2 Reference GRCh38.p14 ALT_REF_LOCI_3

      Range
      2823298..2826069
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    Reference GRCh38.p14 ALT_REF_LOCI_4

    Genomic

    1. NT_167246.2 Reference GRCh38.p14 ALT_REF_LOCI_4

      Range
      2880606..2883377
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    Reference GRCh38.p14 ALT_REF_LOCI_5

    Genomic

    1. NT_167247.2 Reference GRCh38.p14 ALT_REF_LOCI_5

      Range
      2917463..2920234
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    Reference GRCh38.p14 ALT_REF_LOCI_6

    Genomic

    1. NT_167248.2 Reference GRCh38.p14 ALT_REF_LOCI_6

      Range
      2831384..2834157
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    Reference GRCh38.p14 ALT_REF_LOCI_7

    Genomic

    1. NT_167249.2 Reference GRCh38.p14 ALT_REF_LOCI_7

      Range
      2874845..2877616
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

    Genomic

    1. NC_060930.1 Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

      Range
      31428617..31431388
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)