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    TGFB1 transforming growth factor beta 1 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 7040, updated on 7-Jul-2024

    Summary

    Official Symbol
    TGFB1provided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    transforming growth factor beta 1provided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:11766
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000105329 MIM:190180; AllianceGenome:HGNC:11766
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    CED; LAP; DPD1; TGFB; IBDIMDE; TGFbeta; TGF-beta1
    Summary
    This gene encodes a secreted ligand of the TGF-beta (transforming growth factor-beta) superfamily of proteins. Ligands of this family bind various TGF-beta receptors leading to recruitment and activation of SMAD family transcription factors that regulate gene expression. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate a latency-associated peptide (LAP) and a mature peptide, and is found in either a latent form composed of a mature peptide homodimer, a LAP homodimer, and a latent TGF-beta binding protein, or in an active form consisting solely of the mature peptide homodimer. The mature peptide may also form heterodimers with other TGFB family members. This encoded protein regulates cell proliferation, differentiation and growth, and can modulate expression and activation of other growth factors including interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha. This gene is frequently upregulated in tumor cells, and mutations in this gene result in Camurati-Engelmann disease. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2016]
    Expression
    Broad expression in spleen (RPKM 38.0), bone marrow (RPKM 32.1) and 23 other tissues See more
    Orthologs
    NEW
    Try the new Gene table
    Try the new Transcript table

    Genomic context

    See TGFB1 in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    19q13.2
    Exon count:
    7
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    RS_2023_10 current GRCh38.p14 (GCF_000001405.40) 19 NC_000019.10 (41330323..41353922, complement)
    RS_2023_10 current T2T-CHM13v2.0 (GCF_009914755.1) 19 NC_060943.1 (44151181..44174790, complement)
    105.20220307 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 19 NC_000019.9 (41836228..41859827, complement)

    Chromosome 19 - NC_000019.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U like 1 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105372401 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 14673 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 14674 Neighboring gene H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr19:41825837-41826574 Neighboring gene coiled-coil domain containing 97 Neighboring gene Sharpr-MPRA regulatory regions 2264 and 10656 Neighboring gene ReSE screen-validated silencer GRCh37_chr19:41828472-41828958 Neighboring gene H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr19:41829057-41829826 Neighboring gene H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr19:41830597-41831366 Neighboring gene H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr19:41831367-41832136 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 14675 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 10658 Neighboring gene H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr19:41833547-41834068 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 14676 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 14677 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 10660 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 10661 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 10662 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 10663 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 10664 Neighboring gene H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr19:41860203-41860704 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 14679 Neighboring gene B9 domain containing 2 Neighboring gene transmembrane protein 91 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 10665 Neighboring gene ReSE screen-validated silencer GRCh37_chr19:41885758-41885931 Neighboring gene H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr19:41889835-41890334 Neighboring gene ReSE screen-validated silencer GRCh37_chr19:41892254-41892432 Neighboring gene H3K27ac hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr19:41903234-41903906 Neighboring gene exosome component 5

    Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

    Expression

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

    Bibliography

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

    What's a GeneRIF?

    Phenotypes

    EBI GWAS Catalog

    Description
    Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies new susceptibility loci for migraine.
    EBI GWAS Catalog
    Large-scale genetic study in East Asians identifies six new loci associated with colorectal cancer risk.
    EBI GWAS Catalog

    HIV-1 interactions

    Replication interactions

    Interaction Pubs
    HIV-1 replication is restricted by TGFB1 and SMAD2 in Langerhans cells PubMed

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env Recombinant HIV-1 Env (gp120) induces high levels of TGFB1 mRNA expression in CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120-induced downregulation of CD80 and upregulation of FCRL4 involve the TGF-beta1 signaling pathway in human B cells PubMed
    env Inactivated HIV or gp120 increases HCV replication and enhances HCV-regulated transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 expression PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120-induced apoptosis in human proximal renal tubular cells is significantly enhanced by p300, and Smad7 and an anti-TGF-beta antibody inhibit this effect of p300 PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120 and p300 synergistically increase TGF-beta, ATF-2 and activating protein-1 (AP-1) expression leading to tubular cell apoptosis; in addition, HIV-1 gp120 treatment causes phosphorylation of Smad2 and downregulation of c-Jun PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120-mediated suppression of CD34+ cell growth is entirely due to an upregulation of endogenous TGF-beta 1 PubMed
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160, precursor env HIV-1 gp160 induces TGF-beta production in human PBMC PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp160 and serum-free macrophage supernatant (MSP) enhance synthesis of type IV collagen by mesangial cells; anti-TGF-beta antibodies attenuate this gp160/MSP-induced collagen synthesis PubMed
    Tat tat Primary human Muller glia cells treated with both HIV-1 clade B and clade C Tat upregulate the expression of anti-inflammatory proteins IL-10 and TGF-beta PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat protein permits the survival and replication of a non-pathogenic trypanosomatid in macrophages through TGF-beta1 production PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat binds to GLI2 and GLI2 binds to the human TGFB1 promoter, suggesting a potential mechanism for TGFB1 induction in HIV-1 infection PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat and TGF-beta secretion enhance parasite entry in human macrophages by upregulating surface expression of CD91/LRP-1 PubMed
    tat TGF-beta inhibits/down-modulates HIV-1 Tat-induced IL-8 production PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat upregulation of TGF-beta 1 is likely involved in the regulation of MCP-1 transcription by Tat and the interactions of Tat with Smad-3 and Smad-4, two transcription factors whose activities are induced by the TGF-beta 1 pathway PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat upregulates TGF-beta 1 expression in a manner involving IL-6, an effect mediated by Tat amino acids 1-48 and potentially associated with immunosuppression, nephropathy, hematopoietic suppression and glomerulosclerosis PubMed
    Vpr vpr HIV-1 Vpr impairs NK cell function through cytokine dysregulation, including diminshed expression of CD107a, reduced production of IFN-gamma, differential regulation of IL-12 and TGF-beta, and activation of the Smad3 signalling pathway PubMed
    Vpu vpu Antibodies against TGF-beta or a TGF-beta receptor inhibitor SB431452 reverse Vpu-mediated profibrogenic activation of LX2 cells, suggesting that TGF-beta mediates these effects PubMed
    vpu HIV-1 Vpu-expressing U937 monocytes coculture with LX2 stellate cells to activate release of transforming growth factor beta to culture supernatant, which correlates with increased activity of the AP-1 transcription factor PubMed
    capsid gag Treatment of monocyte-derived dendritic cells with TGF-beta1 significantly enhances their ability to capture HIV-1 particles measured by p24 levels in cells PubMed
    gag Transforming growth factor-beta1 is involved in the enhanced expression of HIV-1 by nicotine, as measured by p24 antigen levels in culture supernatants PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

    Pathways from PubChem

    Interactions

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    General gene information

    Markers

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    enables antigen binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables cytokine activity IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    enables cytokine activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables cytokine activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables deubiquitinase activator activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables enzyme binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables growth factor activity IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables identical protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables protein serine/threonine kinase activator activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    enables protein-containing complex binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    enables type I transforming growth factor beta receptor binding IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables type I transforming growth factor beta receptor binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables type II transforming growth factor beta receptor binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables type II transforming growth factor beta receptor binding IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables type II transforming growth factor beta receptor binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables type III transforming growth factor beta receptor binding IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables type III transforming growth factor beta receptor binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    involved_in ATP biosynthetic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in Langerhans cell differentiation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in Notch signaling pathway IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in T cell homeostasis IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in T cell proliferation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in adaptive immune response based on somatic recombination of immune receptors built from immunoglobulin superfamily domains IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in aortic valve morphogenesis IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in branch elongation involved in mammary gland duct branching IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in bronchiole development IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in canonical Wnt signaling pathway IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in cell morphogenesis IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in cell-cell junction organization IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in cellular response to dexamethasone stimulus IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in cellular response to glucose stimulus IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in cellular response to hypoxia IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in cellular response to insulin-like growth factor stimulus IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in cellular response to ionizing radiation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in cellular response to low-density lipoprotein particle stimulus IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in cellular response to mechanical stimulus IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in cellular response to transforming growth factor beta stimulus IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in cellular response to transforming growth factor beta stimulus IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in cellular response to virus IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in chondrocyte differentiation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in columnar/cuboidal epithelial cell maturation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in connective tissue replacement involved in inflammatory response wound healing TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in defense response to fungus IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in digestive tract development IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in embryonic liver development ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in endoderm development IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in epithelial cell proliferation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    acts_upstream_of epithelial to mesenchymal transition IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of_or_within epithelial to mesenchymal transition IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in epithelial to mesenchymal transition IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in extracellular matrix assembly IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in face morphogenesis IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in female pregnancy IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in frontal suture morphogenesis IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in gene expression IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in germ cell migration IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in heart development ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in heart valve morphogenesis ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in hyaluronan catabolic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in inner ear development IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in intracellular calcium ion homeostasis IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in lens fiber cell differentiation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in liver regeneration IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in lung alveolus development IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in lymph node development ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in macrophage derived foam cell differentiation IC
    Inferred by Curator
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in mammary gland branching involved in thelarche IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in membrane protein intracellular domain proteolysis IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in muscle cell cellular homeostasis IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in myelination IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in myofibroblast differentiation NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of DNA-templated transcription IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of T cell proliferation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in negative regulation of biomineral tissue development IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of cell cycle IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of cell differentiation IEP
    Inferred from Expression Pattern
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of cell growth IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of cell population proliferation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of cell population proliferation IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of cell-cell adhesion IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of epithelial cell proliferation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of epithelial cell proliferation IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of extracellular matrix disassembly TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of fat cell differentiation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of_or_within negative regulation of gene expression IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of gene expression IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of negative regulation of gene expression IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of gene expression IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of gene expression ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in negative regulation of hyaluronan biosynthetic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of interleukin-17 production IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in negative regulation of macrophage cytokine production IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of miRNA transcription IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of myoblast differentiation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity directed against tumor cell target IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of neuroblast proliferation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in negative regulation of ossification IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in negative regulation of phagocytosis IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in negative regulation of protein localization to plasma membrane IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of protein phosphorylation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in negative regulation of skeletal muscle tissue development IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in neural tube closure ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in neural tube development ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in neuron apoptotic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in odontoblast differentiation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in odontogenesis of dentin-containing tooth IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in oligodendrocyte development IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in osteoclast differentiation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in phosphate-containing compound metabolic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in phospholipid homeostasis IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of DNA-templated transcription IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of DNA-templated transcription ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of MAPK cascade IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of SMAD protein signal transduction IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of SMAD protein signal transduction IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of SMAD protein signal transduction IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of canonical NF-kappaB signal transduction IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of positive regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of cardiac muscle cell differentiation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of cell division IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of cell migration IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of cell migration IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of cell population proliferation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of cell population proliferation IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of chemotaxis IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of collagen biosynthetic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of collagen biosynthetic process IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of collagen biosynthetic process IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of endothelial cell apoptotic process IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of positive regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of exit from mitosis IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    acts_upstream_of positive regulation of extracellular matrix assembly ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of extracellular matrix assembly NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of extracellular matrix assembly TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of fibroblast migration IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of fibroblast proliferation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of gene expression IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of gene expression IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of gene expression IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of gene expression ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of inflammatory response IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of interleukin-17 production IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of positive regulation of interleukin-6 production IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of interleukin-6 production IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of_or_within positive regulation of isotype switching to IgA isotypes IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of mesenchymal stem cell proliferation IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of miRNA transcription IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of microglia differentiation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of mononuclear cell migration IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of odontogenesis IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B signal transduction IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of primary miRNA processing IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of protein dephosphorylation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of protein import into nucleus IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of protein localization to nucleus IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of protein metabolic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of protein secretion IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of protein-containing complex assembly IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of receptor signaling pathway via STAT IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of regulatory T cell differentiation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of smooth muscle cell differentiation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of superoxide anion generation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor production IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor production TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of vascular permeability IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of vasculature development IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in protein export from nucleus IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in receptor catabolic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in regulation of actin cytoskeleton organization IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in regulation of blood vessel remodeling NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in regulation of blood vessel remodeling TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in regulation of branching involved in mammary gland duct morphogenesis IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in regulation of cartilage development IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in regulation of cell migration TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in regulation of cell population proliferation IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    involved_in regulation of enamel mineralization IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    NOT involved_in regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition involved in endocardial cushion formation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in regulation of interleukin-23 production IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    NOT involved_in regulation of miRNA transcription IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in regulation of protein import into nucleus ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in regulation of sodium ion transport IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in regulation of striated muscle tissue development ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in regulatory T cell differentiation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in response to cholesterol IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in response to estradiol IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in response to immobilization stress IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in response to laminar fluid shear stress IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in response to progesterone IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in response to salt IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in response to vitamin D IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in response to wounding IEP
    Inferred from Expression Pattern
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in response to xenobiotic stimulus IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in retina vasculature development in camera-type eye IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in salivary gland morphogenesis IEP
    Inferred from Expression Pattern
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of sprouting angiogenesis IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in stem cell proliferation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in surfactant homeostasis IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in tolerance induction to self antigen IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    involved_in transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in ureteric bud development IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in vasculogenesis ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in ventricular cardiac muscle tissue morphogenesis ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    located_in Golgi lumen TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    located_in axon IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    located_in blood microparticle HDA PubMed 
    located_in cell surface IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in collagen-containing extracellular matrix HDA PubMed 
    located_in cytoplasm IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in extracellular matrix ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    located_in extracellular region TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    is_active_in extracellular space IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    is_active_in extracellular space IC
    Inferred by Curator
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in extracellular space IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    colocalizes_with microvillus IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in neuronal cell body IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    located_in nucleus IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in plasma membrane TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    located_in platelet alpha granule lumen TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     

    General protein information

    Preferred Names
    transforming growth factor beta-1 proprotein
    Names
    TGF-beta-1
    latency-associated peptide
    prepro-transforming growth factor beta-1
    transforming growth factor beta1

    NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

    NEW Try the new Transcript table

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_013364.1 RefSeqGene

      Range
      5005..28604
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_000660.7NP_000651.3  transforming growth factor beta-1 proprotein preproprotein

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_000651.3

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AC011462, BC000125, BM692012, X02812
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS33031.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      A8K792, P01137, Q9UCG4
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A0A499FJK2
      Related
      ENSP00000221930.4, ENST00000221930.6
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      cd19384
      Location:292390
      TGF_beta_TGFB1; transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) like domain found in transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta-1) and similar proteins
      pfam00688
      Location:30261
      TGFb_propeptide; TGF-beta propeptide

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: GCF_000001405.40-RS_2023_10

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000019.10 Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

      Range
      41330323..41353922 complement
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. XM_011527242.3XP_011525544.1  transforming growth factor beta-1 proprotein isoform X1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011525544.1

      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      cd19384
      Location:293391
      TGF_beta_TGFB1; transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) like domain found in transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta-1) and similar proteins
      pfam00688
      Location:30262
      TGFb_propeptide; TGF-beta propeptide

    Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

    Genomic

    1. NC_060943.1 Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

      Range
      44151181..44174790 complement
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. XM_054321897.1XP_054177872.1  transforming growth factor beta-1 proprotein isoform X1