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    SLC2A4 solute carrier family 2 member 4 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 6517, updated on 18-Jun-2019

    Summary

    Official Symbol
    SLC2A4provided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    solute carrier family 2 member 4provided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:11009
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000181856 MIM:138190
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    GLUT4
    Summary
    This gene is a member of the solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter) family and encodes a protein that functions as an insulin-regulated facilitative glucose transporter. In the absence of insulin, this integral membrane protein is sequestered within the cells of muscle and adipose tissue. Within minutes of insulin stimulation, the protein moves to the cell surface and begins to transport glucose across the cell membrane. Mutations in this gene have been associated with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
    Expression
    Biased expression in heart (RPKM 32.2), fat (RPKM 24.5) and 6 other tissues See more
    Orthologs

    Genomic context

    See SLC2A4 in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    17p13.1
    Exon count:
    11
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    109.20190607 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 17 NC_000017.11 (7281718..7288257)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 17 NC_000017.10 (7184986..7191367)

    Chromosome 17 - NC_000017.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene CTD nuclear envelope phosphatase 1 Neighboring gene elongator acetyltransferase complex subunit 5 Neighboring gene claudin 7 Neighboring gene Y-box binding protein 2 Neighboring gene eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A Neighboring gene G protein pathway suppressor 2

    Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

    Expression

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

    Bibliography

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    Phenotypes

    NHGRI GWAS Catalog

    Description
    Genome-wide association study identifies multiple loci influencing human serum metabolite levels.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    New loci associated with birth weight identify genetic links between intrauterine growth and adult height and metabolism.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog

    HIV-1 interactions

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Nef nef HIV-1 Nef inhibits GLUT4 fusion with plasma membrane in insulin-stimulated adipocytes, which leads to inhibition of glucose uptake PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

    Pathways from BioSystems

    • AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Signaling, organism-specific biosystemAMPK signaling pathway, a fuel sensor and regulator, promotes ATP-producing and inhibits ATP-consuming pathways in various tissues. AMPK is a heterotrimer composed of alpha-catalytic and beta and gam...
    • AMPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      AMPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemAMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine threonine kinase that is highly conserved through evolution. AMPK system acts as a sensor of cellular energy status. It is activated by increases in th...
    • AMPK signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      AMPK signaling pathway, conserved biosystemAMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine threonine kinase that is highly conserved through evolution. AMPK system acts as a sensor of cellular energy status. It is activated by increases in th...
    • Adipocytokine signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Adipocytokine signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemIncreased adipocyte volume and number are positively correlated with leptin production, and negatively correlated with production of adiponectin. Leptin is an important regulator of energy intake and...
    • Adipocytokine signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Adipocytokine signaling pathway, conserved biosystemIncreased adipocyte volume and number are positively correlated with leptin production, and negatively correlated with production of adiponectin. Leptin is an important regulator of energy intake and...
    • Adipogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Adipogenesis, organism-specific biosystemThe different classess of factors involved in adipogenesis are shown. Adipogenesis is the process by which fat cells differentiate from predadipocytes to adipocytes (fat cells). Adipose tissue, compo...
    • Angiopoietin Like Protein 8 Regulatory Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Angiopoietin Like Protein 8 Regulatory Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe hepatic ANGPTL8 (Angiopoietin Like Protein 8) regulatory pathway represents an up-to-date curated interactive pathway for all of the interactions from the known regulators of ANGPTL8 and updated ...
    • Arf6 trafficking events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Arf6 trafficking events, organism-specific biosystem
      Arf6 trafficking events
    • Class I PI3K signaling events mediated by Akt, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Class I PI3K signaling events mediated by Akt, organism-specific biosystem
      Class I PI3K signaling events mediated by Akt
    • Cori Cycle, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Cori Cycle, organism-specific biosystem
      Cori Cycle
    • Developmental Biology, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Developmental Biology, organism-specific biosystemAs a first step towards capturing the array of processes by which a fertilized egg gives rise to the diverse tissues of the body, examples of three kinds of processes have been annotated. These are a...
    • Facilitative Na+-independent glucose transporters, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Facilitative Na+-independent glucose transporters, organism-specific biosystemTwo gene families are responsible for glucose transport in humans. SLC2 (encoding GLUTs) and SLC5 (encoding SGLTs) families mediate glucose absorption in the small intestine, glucose reabsorption in ...
    • FoxO signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      FoxO signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe forkhead box O (FOXO) family of transcription factors regulates the expression of genes in cellular physiological events including apoptosis, cell-cycle control, glucose metabolism, oxidative str...
    • Glucose transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Glucose transport, organism-specific biosystemCells take up glucose by facilitated diffusion, via glucose transporters (GLUTs) associated with the plasma membrane, a reversible reaction (Joost and Thorens 2001). Four tissue-specific GLUT isoform...
    • Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis, organism-specific biosystemGlycolysis is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO? + H+. The free energy released in this process is used to form the ATP and NADH. Gluconeogenesis is a metab...
    • Hexose transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Hexose transport, organism-specific biosystemHexoses, notably fructose, glucose, and galactose, generated in the lumen of the small intestine by breakdown of dietary carbohydrate are taken up by enterocytes lining the microvilli of the small in...
    • Insulin Signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Insulin Signaling, organism-specific biosystemInsulin signaling influences energy metabolism as well as growth. The presence of insulin signals the fed state, and this signal is passed via the AKT branch, which leads to the uptake of glucose fro...
    • Insulin resistance, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Insulin resistance, organism-specific biosystemInsulin resistance is a condition where cells become resistant to the effects of insulin. It is often found in people with health disorders, including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic...
    • Insulin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Insulin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemInsulin binding to its receptor results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRS) by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (INSR). This allows association of IRSs with the r...
    • Insulin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Insulin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemInsulin binding to its receptor results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRS) by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (INSR). This allows association of IRSs with the r...
    • Insulin signalling in human adipocytes (diabetic condition), organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Insulin signalling in human adipocytes (diabetic condition), organism-specific biosystemThe paper describes insulin signalling in human adipocytes under normal and diabetic states using mathematical models based on experimental data. This model corresponds to insulin signalling under di...
    • Insulin signalling in human adipocytes (normal condition), organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Insulin signalling in human adipocytes (normal condition), organism-specific biosystemThe paper describes insulin signalling in human adipocytes under normal and diabetic states using mathematical models based on experimental data. This model corresponds to insulin signalling under no...
    • Insulin-mediated glucose transport, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Insulin-mediated glucose transport, organism-specific biosystem
      Insulin-mediated glucose transport
    • Membrane Trafficking, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Membrane Trafficking, organism-specific biosystemThe secretory membrane system allows a cell to regulate delivery of newly synthesized proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids to the cell surface, a necessity for growth and homeostasis. The system is ma...
    • Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMetabolic processes in human cells generate energy through the oxidation of molecules consumed in the diet and mediate the synthesis of diverse essential molecules not taken in the diet as well as th...
    • Metabolism of carbohydrates, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Metabolism of carbohydrates, organism-specific biosystemThese pathways together are responsible for: 1) the extraction of energy and carbon skeletons for biosyntheses from dietary sugars and related molecules; 2) the short-term storage of glucose in the b...
    • NRF2 pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      NRF2 pathway, organism-specific biosystemNRF2 is part of a group of transcription factors called nuclear receptors. It is activated under oxidative stress conditions and subsequently activates several antioxidative genes and proteins.
    • SLC-mediated transmembrane transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      SLC-mediated transmembrane transport, organism-specific biosystemProteins with transporting functions can be roughly classified into 3 categories: ATP-powered pumps, ion channels, and transporters. Pumps utilize the energy released by ATP hydrolysis to power the m...
    • Transcription factor regulation in adipogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Transcription factor regulation in adipogenesis, organism-specific biosystemThe transcription factors involved in adipogenesis are shown in the current pathway. Adipogensis is the biological proces of cell differentation in which preadipocytes are converted into adipocytes.
    • Transcriptional regulation of white adipocyte differentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Transcriptional regulation of white adipocyte differentiation, organism-specific biosystemAdipogenesis is the process of cell differentiation by which preadipocytes become adipocytes. During this process the preadipocytes cease to proliferate, begin to accumulate lipid droplets and develo...
    • Translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystemIn adipocytes and myocytes insulin signaling causes intracellular vesicles carrying the GLUT4 (SLC2A4) glucose transporter to translocate to the plasma membrane, allowing the cells to take up glucose...
    • Transmembrane transport of small molecules, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Transmembrane transport of small molecules, organism-specific biosystem
      Transmembrane transport of small molecules
    • Transport of glucose and other sugars, bile salts and organic acids, metal ions and amine compounds, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Transport of glucose and other sugars, bile salts and organic acids, metal ions and amine compounds, organism-specific biosystemHexoses like glucose, galactose and fructose serve as basic fuel molecules for eukaryotic cells. Indeed, glucose is the main energy source for mammalian cells. These sugars are unable to diffuse acro...
    • Type II diabetes mellitus, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Type II diabetes mellitus, organism-specific biosystemInsulin resistance is strongly associated with type II diabetes. "Diabetogenic" factors including FFA, TNFalpha and cellular stress induce insulin resistance through inhibition of IRS1 functions. Ser...
    • Type II diabetes mellitus, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Type II diabetes mellitus, conserved biosystemInsulin resistance is strongly associated with type II diabetes. "Diabetogenic" factors including FFA, TNFalpha and cellular stress induce insulin resistance through inhibition of IRS1 functions. Ser...
    • Type II diabetes mellitus, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Type II diabetes mellitus, organism-specific biosystemInsulin resistance is strongly associated with type II diabetes. "Diabetogenic" factors including FFA, TNFalpha and cellular stress induce insulin resistance through inhibition of IRS1 functions. Ser...
    • Vesicle-mediated transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Vesicle-mediated transport, organism-specific biosystemThe transit of proteins and other cargo through the cell requires a cellular transport process in which transported substances are moved in membrane-bounded vesicles. Transported substances are enclo...

    Interactions

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    General gene information

    Markers

    Homology

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    D-glucose transmembrane transporter activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    glucose transmembrane transporter activity ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    amylopectin biosynthetic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    brown fat cell differentiation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    carbohydrate metabolic process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to hypoxia IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cellular response to insulin stimulus IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to insulin stimulus IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to osmotic stress IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cellular response to tumor necrosis factor IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    glucose homeostasis IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    glucose import NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    glucose import in response to insulin stimulus ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    glucose transmembrane transport ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    glucose transmembrane transport TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of synaptic vesicle budding from presynaptic endocytic zone membrane IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to ethanol IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    T-tubule IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    clathrin-coated pit IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    clathrin-coated vesicle IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytoplasmic vesicle membrane ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    cytosol IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    endomembrane system ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    external side of plasma membrane IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    extracellular exosome IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    insulin-responsive compartment IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    insulin-responsive compartment ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    integral component of plasma membrane IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    membrane TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    membrane raft IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    multivesicular body IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    perinuclear region of cytoplasm IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    plasma membrane IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    plasma membrane TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    presynapse IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    sarcoplasmic reticulum IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    trans-Golgi network transport vesicle IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    vesicle membrane IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 

    General protein information

    Preferred Names
    solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 4
    Names
    GLUT-4
    glucose transporter type 4, insulin-responsive
    insulin-responsive glucose transporter type 4
    solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 4

    NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_012127.1 RefSeqGene

      Range
      5001..11314
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_001042.3NP_001033.1  solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 4

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001033.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AC003688, AL521328, BC034387, BQ775137, CF594356, M20747
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS11097.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P14672
      Related
      ENSP00000320935.8, ENST00000317370.12
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      pfam00083
      Location:27483
      Sugar_tr; Sugar (and other) transporter

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000017.11 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

      Range
      7281718..7288257
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    Reference GRCh38.p13 PATCHES

    Genomic

    1. NW_021160020.1 Reference GRCh38.p13 PATCHES

      Range
      37046..43585
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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