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    PTN pleiotrophin [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 5764, updated on 22-Aug-2021

    Summary

    Official Symbol
    PTNprovided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    pleiotrophinprovided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:9630
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000105894 MIM:162095
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    HARP; HBBM; HBNF; HBGF8; NEGF1; OSF-1; HB-GAM; HBGF-8; HBNF-1
    Summary
    The protein encoded by this gene is a secreted heparin-binding growth factor. The protein has significant roles in cell growth and survival, cell migration, angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. Alternative splicing and the use of alternative promoters results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2016]
    Expression
    Broad expression in brain (RPKM 83.5), prostate (RPKM 56.7) and 17 other tissues See more
    Orthologs
    NEW
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    Try the new Transcript table

    Genomic context

    See PTN in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    7q33
    Exon count:
    6
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    109.20210514 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 7 NC_000007.14 (137227341..137343733, complement)
    105.20201022 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 7 NC_000007.13 (136912088..137028479, complement)

    Chromosome 7 - NC_000007.14Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC349160 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105375525 Neighboring gene ribosomal protein L18 pseudogene 5 Neighboring gene HERV.E-PTN promoter Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105375527 Neighboring gene pleiotrophin promoter Neighboring gene diacylglycerol kinase iota Neighboring gene ribosomal protein L6 pseudogene 19 Neighboring gene cAMP responsive element binding protein 3 like 2 Neighboring gene CREB3L2 antisense RNA 1

    Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

    Expression

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

    Bibliography

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

    What's a GeneRIF?

    Phenotypes

    Associated conditions

    Description Tests
    Biological insights from 108 schizophrenia-associated genetic loci.
    GeneReviews: Not available

    Pathways from PubChem

    Interactions

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    General gene information

    Markers

    Homology

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    enables chondroitin sulfate binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    enables growth factor activity IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables growth factor activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables heparan sulfate binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    enables heparin binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables integrin binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables protein kinase binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables protein phosphatase inhibitor activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables syndecan binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    enables vascular endothelial growth factor binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    involved_in bone mineralization IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in cellular response to UV IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in cellular response to hypoxia IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in cellular response to platelet-derived growth factor stimulus IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in cellular response to vitamin D IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in cerebellum development IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in decidualization ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in dendrite arborization ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in dendrite regeneration ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in endothelial cell differentiation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in estrous cycle ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in heart development IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in integrin-mediated signaling pathway IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in learning ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in leukocyte chemotaxis involved in inflammatory response ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in liver development IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in long-term synaptic potentiation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in lung development IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in memory ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in negative regulation of angiogenesis IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in negative regulation of catalytic activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in negative regulation of cell migration IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in negative regulation of epithelial cell proliferation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in negative regulation of glial cell proliferation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in negative regulation of long-term synaptic potentiation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in negative regulation of membrane potential IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in negative regulation of mesenchymal cell proliferation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in negative regulation of neuroblast proliferation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in negative regulation of neuromuscular junction development IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in nervous system development TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in oogenesis ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in ossification involved in bone remodeling IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of apoptotic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of axon regeneration ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of bone mineralization ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of cell division IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of cell population proliferation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of cell-substrate adhesion IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of dendrite development ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of hepatocyte proliferation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of leukocyte chemotaxis ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of neuron projection development ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of oligodendrocyte differentiation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of oligodendrocyte differentiation IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of ossification ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of skeletal muscle acetylcholine-gated channel clustering IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of stem cell differentiation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in receptor clustering IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in regulation of cell shape IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in regulation of endothelial cell migration ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in regulation of hemopoiesis ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in regulation of myelination ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in regulation of stem cell population maintenance ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in regulation of synaptic plasticity ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in response to activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in response to auditory stimulus ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in response to ciliary neurotrophic factor IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in response to estradiol IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in response to kainic acid IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in response to nerve growth factor IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in response to progesterone IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in response to xenobiotic stimulus IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in retinal rod cell differentiation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in rod bipolar cell differentiation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in spinal cord development IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in thalamus development IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in tissue regeneration ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    located_in basement membrane IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    located_in cell surface IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    located_in endoplasmic reticulum IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
     
    is_active_in extracellular region IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in extracellular space IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in neuromuscular junction IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    located_in perinuclear region of cytoplasm IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    located_in plasma membrane IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    located_in postsynapse IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    located_in presynapse IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    part_of protein-containing complex IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 

    General protein information

    Preferred Names
    pleiotrophin
    Names
    heparin affin regulatory protein
    heparin-binding brain mitogen
    heparin-binding growth factor 8
    heparin-binding growth-associated molecule
    heparin-binding neurite outgrowth promoting factor
    heparin-binding neurite outgrowth-promoting factor 1
    osteoblast-specific factor 1
    pleiotrophin (heparin binding growth factor 8, neurite growth-promoting factor 1)

    NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

    NEW Try the new Transcript table

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_001321386.2NP_001308315.1  pleiotrophin isoform 1 precursor

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 5' UTR and represents use of an alternate promoter, compared to variant 1. Both variants 1 and 2 encode the same protein. This variant represents use of an upstream long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter and exon sequence, and results in placenta-specific expression. (PMID: 8962128)
      Source sequence(s)
      AC018728, AU138017, AW020400, BC005916
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS5844.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P21246
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A0A024R778
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cl02505
      Location:47131
      PTN_MK_N; PTN/MK heparin-binding protein family, N-terminal domain
    2. NM_001321387.3NP_001308316.1  pleiotrophin isoform 2 precursor

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (3) uses an alternate in-frame splice site in the 3' coding region, compared to variant 1. This results in a shorter protein (isoform 2), compared to isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AW020400, BC005916, BX420480
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P21246
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cl02505
      Location:47131
      PTN_MK_N; PTN/MK heparin-binding protein family, N-terminal domain
    3. NM_002825.7NP_002816.1  pleiotrophin isoform 1 precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_002816.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longest transcript and encodes the longer isoform. Variants 1 and 2 encode the same protein.
      Source sequence(s)
      AW020400, BC005916, M57399
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS5844.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P21246
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A0A024R778
      Related
      ENSP00000341170.2, ENST00000348225.7
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cl02505
      Location:47131
      PTN_MK_N; PTN/MK heparin-binding protein family, N-terminal domain

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.20210514

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000007.14 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

      Range
      137227341..137343733 complement
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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