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    PRKCB protein kinase C beta [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 5579, updated on 7-Apr-2024

    Summary

    Official Symbol
    PRKCBprovided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    protein kinase C betaprovided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:9395
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000166501 MIM:176970; AllianceGenome:HGNC:9395
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    PKCB; PRKCB1; PRKCB2; PKCI(2); PKCbeta; PKC-beta
    Summary
    Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine- and threonine-specific protein kinases that can be activated by calcium and second messenger diacylglycerol. PKC family members phosphorylate a wide variety of protein targets and are known to be involved in diverse cellular signaling pathways. PKC family members also serve as major receptors for phorbol esters, a class of tumor promoters. Each member of the PKC family has a specific expression profile and is believed to play a distinct role in cells. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the PKC family members. This protein kinase has been reported to be involved in many different cellular functions, such as B cell activation, apoptosis induction, endothelial cell proliferation, and intestinal sugar absorption. Studies in mice also suggest that this kinase may also regulate neuronal functions and correlate fear-induced conflict behavior after stress. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
    Expression
    Biased expression in brain (RPKM 51.2), lymph node (RPKM 21.8) and 9 other tissues See more
    Orthologs
    NEW
    Try the new Gene table
    Try the new Transcript table

    Genomic context

    See PRKCB in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    16p12.2-p12.1
    Exon count:
    18
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    RS_2023_10 current GRCh38.p14 (GCF_000001405.40) 16 NC_000016.10 (23835983..24220611)
    RS_2023_10 current T2T-CHM13v2.0 (GCF_009914755.1) 16 NC_060940.1 (24111361..24497130)
    105.20220307 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 16 NC_000016.9 (23847304..24231932)

    Chromosome 16 - NC_000016.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr16:23716303-23716803 Neighboring gene H3K27ac hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr16:23740522-23741453 Neighboring gene polo like kinase 1 Neighboring gene H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr16:23766235-23766880 Neighboring gene endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 2 Neighboring gene OCT4-NANOG-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr16:23797941-23798576 Neighboring gene OCT4-NANOG-H3K27ac hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr16:23798577-23799212 Neighboring gene CRISPRi-validated cis-regulatory element chr16.1865 Neighboring gene CRISPRi-validated cis-regulatory element chr16.1866 Neighboring gene CRISPRi-validated cis-regulatory element chr16.1867 Neighboring gene calcineurin like EF-hand protein 2 Neighboring gene H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr16:23846913-23847460 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 10589 Neighboring gene H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr16:23847461-23848006 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 10590 Neighboring gene ReSE screen-validated silencer GRCh37_chr16:23858657-23858875 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 10591 Neighboring gene OCT4-NANOG hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr16:23877081-23877727 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 10592 Neighboring gene GATA motif-containing MPRA enhancer 73 Neighboring gene ReSE screen-validated silencer GRCh37_chr16:23915426-23915611 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 10593 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 10594 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 10595 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 7285 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 10596 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 10597 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 10598 Neighboring gene OCT4-NANOG-H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr16:24066265-24066934 Neighboring gene NANOG-H3K27ac hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr16:24086836-24087648 Neighboring gene NANOG-H3K27ac hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr16:24087649-24088461 Neighboring gene NANOG-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr16:24119013-24119512 Neighboring gene H3K27ac hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr16:24148009-24148544 Neighboring gene OCT4-NANOG-H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr16:24146937-24147472 Neighboring gene H3K27ac hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr16:24148545-24149080 Neighboring gene Sharpr-MPRA regulatory region 8464 Neighboring gene NANOG hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr16:24219906-24220465 Neighboring gene microRNA 1273h Neighboring gene MED14-independent group 3 enhancer GRCh37_chr16:24257631-24258830 Neighboring gene H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr16:24267404-24268131 Neighboring gene long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 2194 Neighboring gene calcium voltage-gated channel auxiliary subunit gamma 3 Neighboring gene H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr16:24327354-24327854 Neighboring gene small nucleolar RNA SNORA1

    Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

    Expression

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

    Bibliography

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

    What's a GeneRIF?

    Phenotypes

    EBI GWAS Catalog

    Description
    Host-microbe interactions have shaped the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease.
    EBI GWAS Catalog
    Meta-analysis identifies nine new loci associated with rheumatoid arthritis in the Japanese population.
    EBI GWAS Catalog

    HIV-1 interactions

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env HIV-1 gp120 activates forward trafficking and surface clustering of NMDA receptors in membrane micro domains by a PKA-dependent phosphorylation of the NR1 C-terminal Ser897, followed by a PKC-dependent phosphorylation of Ser896 PubMed
    env Pre-treatment of endothelial cells with fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) protects cells from HIV-1 gp120 angiotoxicity; this protection is regulated by crosstalk among the ERK, PI3K-AKT and PKC signaling pathways PubMed
    env PKC-dependent pathway, particularly PKCalpha and PKCbeta1, requires HIV-1 gp120-mediated Rac-1 activation and membrane fusion PubMed
    env c-FLIPL inhibits Bax activation via modulating PKC expression at the transcriptional level involving AP-2 during gp120 treatment PubMed
    env A specific interaction between CD4 and HIV-1 gp120 is required for phosphorylation of CD4, which could involve protein kinase C PubMed
    env IL-16 induces rapid translocation of PKC from the cytosol to the membrane in CD4+ cells; PKC inhibitors completely block IL-16-induced lymphocyte migration as well as the motile response induced by HIV-1 gp120 and anti-CD4 antibody binding to CD4 PubMed
    env Down modulation of the interaction between HIV-1 gp120 and CD4 by TPA is blocked by protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors, suggesting PKC may play an important role in HIV-1 infection PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120 increases the levels of calcium-dependent and -independent PKC isozymes; the most striking change is observed in PKC-zeta isozyme levels PubMed
    env Induction of apoptosis in cell cultures through binding of HIV-1 gp120 or gp160 to CXCR4 involves protein kinase C, basic fibroblast growth factor, caspase-3, and the pro-apoptotic molecule Bax PubMed
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160, precursor env HIV-1 gp160-induced Ca(2+) influx reduction is antagonized by an inhibitor acting especially on PKC alpha and PKC beta I; Western blotting analyses show that the cellular distribution of PKC alpha and -beta I are significantly modified by gp160 PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp160-induced AP-1 complex formation is dependent upon protein tyrosine phosphorylation and is abolished by inhibitors of protein kinase C, but it is unaffected by calcium channel blockers or cyclosporine A PubMed
    Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 env A synthetic peptide corresponding to cytoplasmic domain residues 828-848 of HIV-1 gp41 inhibits pKC-catalysed phosphorylation of a protein substrate PubMed
    env A synthetic peptide containing residues 581-597 from HIV-1 gp41 inhibits protein kinase C (pkC)-mediated phosphorylation of the CD3 gamma-chain in intact cells and directly inhibits partially purified pkC PubMed
    Nef nef HIV-1 Nef selectively downregulates beta II and epsilon PKC isoforms in human astrocytoma cells PubMed
    Tat tat HIV-1 Tat protein activates RELA (p65), MAP kinases ERK1/2 and p38, and PKC-bII in a TLR4-dependent manner in human monocytes PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat activates protein kinase C, resulting in the induction of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 expression and the secretion of MCP-1 PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat-mediated stimulation of IL-10 production through the activation of PKC beta(II), but not TNF-alpha, requires p38 MAP kinase in human macrophages PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat-mediated stimulation of IL-10 and TNF-alpha production through the activation of PKC beta(II) requires ERK1/2 MAP kinase and NF-kappaB transcription factor in human macrophages PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat activates the activity of PKC beta(II), which is essential for the activation of TNF-alpha production in human macrophages PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat activates the activity of PKC beta(II), which is essential for the activation of IL-10 production in human monocytes and macrophages PubMed
    tat Phospholipase C/protein kinase C signaling pathway-dependent phosphorylation of p44/42 and JNK MAP kinases participates partially in IL-1beta induction by TAT PubMed
    tat Protein kinase C is required for HIV-1 Tat-mediated transactivation of the viral LTR promoter, indicating protein kinase C regulates the process of HIV-1 transactivation and may play a role in the transition of HIV from latency to productive growth PubMed
    tat Protein kinase C phosphorylates HIV-1 Tat on serine residue 46 PubMed
    matrix gag Protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylates HIV-1 Matrix on serine residue 111 resulting in a shift in localization of Matrix from the cytosol to the cellular membrane, suggesting a myristoyl-protein switch regulated by PKC phosphorylation PubMed
    retropepsin gag-pol Phosphorylation of human recombinant vimentin by PKC inhibits the proteolytic processing of the vimentin head domain by HIV-1 protease PubMed
    reverse transcriptase gag-pol HIV-1 RT heterodimer expressed in bacteria can be phosphorylated in vitro by several purified mammalian protein kinases including auto-activated protein kinase (PK), CKII, cytosolic protamine kinase (CPK), myelin basic protein kinase 1 (MBPK1), and PRKC PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

    Pathways from PubChem

    Interactions

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    General gene information

    Markers

    Clone Names

    • MGC41878

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    involved_in B cell activation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in B cell receptor signaling pathway ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in adaptive immune response IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in apoptotic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in calcium ion transport IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in cellular response to carbohydrate stimulus IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in chromatin remodeling IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in dibenzo-p-dioxin metabolic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in intracellular calcium ion homeostasis IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in intracellular signal transduction IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    involved_in lipoprotein transport TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in mitotic nuclear membrane disassembly TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    involved_in negative regulation of glucose transmembrane transport ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in negative regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathway ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in peptidyl-serine phosphorylation IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    involved_in phospholipase C-activating G protein-coupled acetylcholine receptor signaling pathway IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of B cell receptor signaling pathway ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of DNA-templated transcription IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of angiogenesis ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of canonical NF-kappaB signal transduction ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of insulin secretion IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of odontogenesis of dentin-containing tooth IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in post-translational protein modification IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in presynaptic modulation of chemical synaptic transmission IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in protein phosphorylation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in regulation of dopamine secretion IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in regulation of glucose transmembrane transport IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in regulation of growth IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in response to ethanol IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in response to glucose IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in response to vitamin D IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in response to xenobiotic stimulus IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in signal transduction NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    located_in brush border membrane IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    located_in calyx of Held IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    located_in centrosome IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    located_in cytoplasm IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in cytosol IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
     
    located_in cytosol TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    located_in extracellular exosome HDA PubMed 
    located_in nucleoplasm IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
     
    located_in nucleoplasm TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    located_in nucleus IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in plasma membrane IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in plasma membrane TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    located_in presynaptic cytosol IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    part_of spectrin IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     

    General protein information

    Preferred Names
    protein kinase C beta type
    Names
    PKC-B
    protein kinase C, beta 1 polypeptide
    NP_002729.2
    NP_997700.1
    XP_047290321.1
    XP_054169447.1

    NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

    NEW Try the new Transcript table

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_029003.2 RefSeqGene

      Range
      5005..389633
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_002738.7NP_002729.2  protein kinase C beta type isoform 2

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_002729.2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (2) represents the longer transcript and encodes the longer isoform (2).
      Source sequence(s)
      AC130448, BC036472, DB456157
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS10619.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P05771
      Related
      ENSP00000496129.1, ENST00000643927.1
      Conserved Domains (4) summary
      cd04026
      Location:159289
      C2_PKC_alpha_gamma; C2 domain in Protein Kinase C (PKC) alpha and gamma
      cd05616
      Location:341663
      STKc_cPKC_beta; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, Classical Protein Kinase C beta
      cd20833
      Location:3592
      C1_cPKC_rpt1; first protein kinase C conserved region 1 (C1 domain) found in the classical (or conventional) protein kinase C (cPKC) family
      cd20836
      Location:102155
      C1_cPKC_rpt2; second protein kinase C conserved region 1 (C1 domain) found in the classical (or conventional) protein kinase C (cPKC) family
    2. NM_212535.3NP_997700.1  protein kinase C beta type isoform 1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_997700.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (1) uses an alternate splice junction at the 5' end of the last exon compared to variant 2. The resulting isoform (1) has a distinct and shorter C-terminus compared to isoform 2.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC130448, BC036472, DB456157, X06318
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS10618.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      C5IFJ8, D3DWF5, O43744, P05127, P05771, Q15138, Q93060, Q9UE49, Q9UE50, Q9UEH8, Q9UJ30, Q9UJ33
      Related
      ENSP00000318315.7, ENST00000321728.12
      Conserved Domains (4) summary
      cd04026
      Location:159289
      C2_PKC_alpha_gamma; C2 domain in Protein Kinase C (PKC) alpha and gamma
      cd05616
      Location:341664
      STKc_cPKC_beta; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, Classical Protein Kinase C beta
      cd20833
      Location:3592
      C1_cPKC_rpt1; first protein kinase C conserved region 1 (C1 domain) found in the classical (or conventional) protein kinase C (cPKC) family
      cd20836
      Location:102155
      C1_cPKC_rpt2; second protein kinase C conserved region 1 (C1 domain) found in the classical (or conventional) protein kinase C (cPKC) family

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: GCF_000001405.40-RS_2023_10

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000016.10 Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

      Range
      23835983..24220611
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. XM_047434365.1XP_047290321.1  protein kinase C beta type isoform X1

    Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

    Genomic

    1. NC_060940.1 Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

      Range
      24111361..24497130
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. XM_054313472.1XP_054169447.1  protein kinase C beta type isoform X1